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HOSPITAL WORLD 



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Vol. X (XXI) Toronto, July, 1916 No. 1 

CONTENTS 

EDITORIAI.S. SEIiECTi:!} ARTICIiES. 

Page Page 

TUc, F'r.nri Tnhnvntnrx- 1 Cases Treated by Radium in the 

I wl.^ \ Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. By 

leam vvoik ........... ^ Dawson Turner, M.D., F.R.C.P., 

Hospital and Health Centres 5 2^^^., M.R.C.P., Londl, F.R.S.e! 16 

OBIGINAI. CONTRIBUTIONS. SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS. 

A Plea for the Training of Men as The Ontario Medical Health Officers' 

Nurses. By Prank H. Holt, Association Meeting 25 

M.D Superintenrlent of the ^j^^^ HOSPITALS. 
Michael Reese Hospital, Chi- 
cago, formerly Assistant Super- Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell's Experi- 

intendent of the Boston City ences in the Trenches 28 

Hospital, Boston 8 Letter from Dr. Harley Smith .... 29 






■If.^^t- 



Fellows^ Compound Syrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 



For 50 Year^ The Standard 



ophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 



and Inefficient Substitutes 
[rations "Just as Good" 




«• If. < m m' m _ ^'W>my¥r>ta ^ wsavi-ti'a 



'S^^Z^>^S^~- 



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canad a, in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelve, 
by the Publishers at the Department of Agriculture. All rights reserved. 



LISTERINE 

A safe, non- poisonous, unirritating antiseptic solution 

LISTERINE embodies a two-fold antiseptic effect, in that after the evaporation of its 
volatile constituents — thyme, eucalyptus, mentha, gaultheria and ethyl alco- 
hol — a film of boracic and benzoic acids remains upon the surface to which 
Listerine has been applied, affording more prolonged antiseptic protection. 

LISTERINE is a trustworthy surgical dressing ; it has no injurious effect upon the tissues in 
which the healing process is going on. 

LISTERINE in proper dilution is useful in the treatment of abnormal conditions of the 
mucosa and forms a suitable wash, gargle or douche in catarrhal conditions of 
the nose and threat. 

LISTERINE in teaspoonful doses will often afford relief in fermentative dyspepsia and is 
largely prescribed, with excellent results, in the various forms of diarrhoea 
occurring in infants and adults. 

LISTERINE literature, including special pamphlets upon Disorders of Digestion and 
Respirator}) Diseases, may be had, by physicians, upon application to 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 

Church and Gerrard Sts. Toronto, Canada. 



THE "TARBOX" DRY-DUSTING MOPS 

Chemically Treated — No Oil to Soil- 
Destroy Nothing Except the Drudgery of the 

DAILY DUSTING 

The chemical action causes the Mop to absorb just sufficient 
dampness from the Atmosphere to collect and hold the dust 
while working— Do not flit the dust — Do not smear or dissolve 
the floor wax as oils do. 

" Tarbox " Dry-Dusting Mops are not Dry Mops. 
Note the distinction. 

The whole room may be dusted 
without fear of smearirg or soil- 
ing anything — Paper, Bases or 
Mats. 

Every dusting adds that desired 
sheen to waxed floors. 

The essential chemical used is 
a germicide. 

Made in Canada 
Sold in Foreigrn Countries 

Manufactured by TARBOX BROS., TORONTO, CANADA 

Sole Factors for the United Kingdoms : J. & A. McFarlane, Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland 




July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 



This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 

A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPERIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J. F. HARTZ CO., LTD. 

Physicians* and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 



When writing- advertiserts, please mention The Hospital World. 



u 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



Hospital Superintendents 

should instruct their Nurses and Domestics to use 

GILLETT'S LYE 

for disinfecting sinks, closets and drains. It is also ideal for the 
cleansing of urinals and bed pans — in fact any vessel that requires 
disinfecting. Gillett's Lye should always be used for scrubbing 
hospital bath tubs and operating room floors. 

For cleansing and disinfecting.dissolve one teaspoonful of Gillett's 
Lye in two gallons of water. 




(^^TT's 




BEWARE OF IMITATIONS 



E. W. Gillett Co. Ltd. 

TORONTO, ONT. 




^U'^TTs 



Winnipeg 



Montreal 





DESCRIPTION OF DOLL.— Over 5 feet tall, made of finely woven 
stockinet. Is durable, waterproof and sanitary. Has copper Reservoir 
which has three tubes leading: into it, correspcn-Jine in location and 
<!ize to the urethra, vaeinal and recta! passages. 



The Chase Hospital Doll 

For Use in Training Schools 

Adult size, also infant models, 2, 4 
and 12 months, and 4-year-oId sizes. 

Chase dolls are well made of cloth, 
jointed, and painted with waterproof 
paint, with internal reservoirs. 

The Value 

of this substitute of a living model is 
found in the many practical lessons 
which can be taught in the class room, 
such as handling of patients, admin- 
istering enema, douching, probing in 
the ear and nose cavities — in short, 
the complete care of the patient. 



We make dolls vvith- 
outreservoirifdesired. 
Send for illustrated 
booklet giving full 
particulars. 



M. J. CHASE 

22 Park Place, Pawtucket, R.I. 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



m 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMS 

AND EQUIPMENT FOR 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Design and Fit at Reasonable Pricesj 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

44-46 YORK STREET - - TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Uniform Contractors to the Dominion and Imperial Governments. 

When Enquiring be sure to Specify what you are Particularly Interested in. 





DOCTOR — Why waste money on new tires ? 
Let us have two of your old cases and 
we will by our special process deliver 
you at small cost a double tire that will give 
you from 1000 miles up and save you buying an- 
other spare cover. Let us do the post mortem 
for you and the old carcass will come to life. 

TORONTO TIRE STITCHING CO. 

137 Church Street, near Queen, Toronto 

PHONE MAIN 7752 

When writing- advertisers, please 



Junket 

^^ MADE WITH MILK 

The history, ori,2;in .ind making of Junket, the 

reasons for its unusuallv high nutritive value and thcvarious 
ways in which it may be prescribed or used, are briefly set 

forth in an interesting treatise, 



I JONKCT I 
yn DIETtTtCsf 




" Junket in Dietetics," pre- 
pared especially for the pro- 
fession. 

Send For This 
Helpful Booklet 

— even if you are familiar with 
Junket. A discussion of Ren- 
net Ferment by those em- 
ployed in producing it for over 
half a century, will prove in- 
teresting and helpful. Sent 
free with samples cf Junket, 
upon request. 
Sold by druggists or grocers or directly by us 
to the profession at 75c. per 100 tablets. 

Chr. Hansen's Laboratory- 
Helen St.. LITTLE FALLS, N.Y 

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



mention The Hospital 'World. 



IV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



THE KIDDIE -KOOP 



IS A BASSINET, PLAY 
PEN AND SAFETY CRIB 




The Hospital Model, especially designed for Hospital use. 



Saves time, worry, 
footsteps for the 
nurse. Means for 
baby health, happi- 
ness and safety. 
Folds instantly. 

Weighs 35 lbs. com- 
plete. 

Wheels anywhere 
on swivel forks. 

Highly finished in 
white enamel. Sil- 
vered wire screen- 
ing. 

Superintendents should 
write for our special 
I hospital offer. 

LEA-TRIMBLE 
MFG. COMPANY 

TORONTO 



"NO BETTER ATMOSPHERE IN THE WORLD FOR A 
CONSUMPTIVE THAN THAT OF YOUR OWN MUSKOKA." 

Sir Wm. Osier, distinguished Canadian, now Regius Professor of Oxford University formerly of Baltimore, Md. 



Regular Rates 

$12 to $15 

per week 



Rates 



Special 

For Bed 
Patients in 
Separate 
Accom- 
modation 




iMLmL e>a:, 



^M4iW®» 




^■.j 



AmM^ 






MUSKOKA COTTAGE SANATORIUM 

Gravenhurst - - - Ontario, Canada 

For booklet apply to W. B. KENDALL, M.D.. CM., L.R.C.S.. L.R.CP., Physician-in-Chief. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 




Where Sanatogen is Made 

As Sanatogen is now so widely prescribed in Canada, 
physicians will be interested to know that the whole 
supplies for Great Britain and the Colonies are 
manufactured at our British factory. This factory 
was established in 1908 at Penzance, where the 
Cornish pasture-lands lie open to the Atlantic 
breezes, and a view of it is given above. Only British 
labour is employed there, and all the ingredients 
are obtained in Great Britain. 



In the words of Sir Charles A. 
Cameron, C.B., M.D., President of 
the Royal Institute of Public Health, 
London: "Sanatogen is an excellent 
nerve food, of the highest nutritive 
value, containing a large amount of 
organic phosphorus, which is offered 
to the tissues in exactly the form in 
which it can be easily absorbed." 

The value of Sanatogen has been 
thoroughly established by fifteen 
years' clinical use, and it was the 



only preparation among tonics and 
nutrients which received the Grand 
Prix — the highest possible reward — at 
the International Medical Congress, 
London, 1913. 

The efficiency of Sanatogen depends 
entirely on unique processes of manu- 
facture, which are known only to 
the Sanatogen Company ; and no 
other preparation has the same com- 
position or effects. 



The Sanatogen Co., London (England), Sydney, 
Cape Town, and Shanghai 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital "World. 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Julv, 1916 




ROLLING 

RECLINING 

AND CARRYING 





write for 
Grade:"C"Catalocue 
containing 

FULL LINE. 



GENDRONMFG.CO. Cana^i 

LIMITE.D- 



COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are 
maintained. 



THE COWAN CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



Made in Canada 

SEED X-RAY PLATES 

Absolute uniformity of emulsions ; remark- 
able gradation and detail (which is more 
essential than mere contrast), accuracy and 
extreme speed, are some of the qualities that 
make Seed X-Ray Plates ideal in diagnostic 
work. 

For Sale hy all Supply Houses 
Leaflet by mail on request 

CANADIAN KODAK CO., Limited 

TORONTO, CANADA 



When writing aUvertisei s. please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



July; 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Vll 



Attention of Canadian Hospitals 



We are 
manufactur- 
ers of Metal 
Hospital 
Furniture 
of all kinds. 

Wheel 
Apparatuses 

Cabinets 
Screens, etc. 




No matter 
how small 
your re- 
quirements, 
let us have a 
chance to 
g^ive you a 
price. 



CANADA FIRST 



THE METAL CRAFT CO, 

GRIMSBY, ONTARIO, CANADA 



npHE impurity and scarcity 
■*■ of drinking water, so 
general in Europe, means suf- 
fering for our soldiers, which 
can be greatly relieved by 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

Tutti Frutti is refreshing, keeps 
the mouth moist, and its five 
mellow flavors give the variety 
which soldiers crave. This is 
good to remember and to 
suggest to your friends. 



When writins advertisers, please mentiim Tlie Hospital World. 



VIll 



THE HOSPITAL AVORLD 



July, 1916 



"RITE"NURSER 



( Copyright applied for) 



Note the 

Up, 

holds the 

Nipple. 



Full 
Capacity. 



Graceful 
Lines. 



No Sharp 
Corners 




Why buy 

the old 3 

Star 

Nurser 

when you 

canbuythe 

RITE 

bottle at 
the righi 

price ? 
Packed 1 
Qross to 

a case. 
Order Now 



The Richards Glass Co., Limited 

TORONTO Phone Adel. 576 CANADA 

"The Home of the Rigo Line" 



NURSES' AGENCY 

Physicians should note that I am prepared 
to supply Graduate, Undergraduate and 
District Nurses, at any hour, night 
or day. I use the greatest of care to supply 
only women of unquestioned reputation and 
ability. — A trial call solicited. 

9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 
Telephone Main 1507 

Nights, Sundays and Holidays, 
Telephone Park. 5320 

H. S. DAVEY 

163 '2 Church St. Toronto 



Members of 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

desirous of getting rid of the worry of book- 
keeping and who have not had the time to give 
the attention necessar}- for the successful collec- 
tion of their accounts, should call upon 

H. R. Heyes & Company 

59 YONGE ST., TORONTO 

Messrs. Heyes &: Co. are prepared to attend to all such 
details, not only the actual collection of the accounts ; but, 
through a special system of their own, attend to aU book-keeping 
and records, mailing of monthly statements, etc., etc. 

The firm will be very glad to hear from physicians, and, on 
receipt of a post card or phone message, will call upon the Doctor 
at his office at any convenient hour. 

The Telephone No. is "M. 4962" 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



IX 



A Reliable Disinfectant 

Piatt s dilorides kas a record or 
over tnirty-six years, and nas tne 
endorsement oi tne medical pro- 
fession. 

A. po-^verrul disinfectant and de- 
odorant Mvnicn destroys germs and 
bad odors. 

Is absolutely Odorless and does 
not cover one odor ■with another. 

" Piatt's 
C hlorides 

JDisizirGc-tanti 

Two Sizes — 25c. and 50c. 

Sold everywhere. 

AVrite for booklet to the manufacturer 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 



A Practical Prescription 




f^LUTO^ 

'^oncentratep 







Samples, clinical data and 
literature sent on request. 



PLUTO 

Bottled by the FRENCH LICK SPRINGS 
HOTEL CO., French Lick, Indiana 



In order to build up a patient s strength after ill- 
ness, from -whatever cause, increase the haemoglobin 
m the red blood corpuscles by prescribing] 

O'Keefe's Old Stock Ale 
D Pilsener Lager 

OR 

Extra Mild Stout 

These malt preparations will increase appetite, help 
the patient to sleep and rapidly bring him back to 
normal health. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



X 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 




HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT ^he^New G^«„'^/^ral^Hos^P;tal^«^ Montreal, and scores 



' Alaska " Beds and 



itals, are equipped with 



OSTERMOOR MATTRESSES 

They last a lifetime, and are absolutely satisfactory. More sanitary than hair — for less money. 



THE ALASKA FEATHER AND DOWN CO., Limited 



Montreal and Winnipeg 



GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use, the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions (no weighing, measuring 
or waste). 

For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 
For cleansing w^ounds (bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 
For disinfecting surface lesions. 

For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not affect nickel 
or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital. 
Our word and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample with descriplive literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS (^ CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot — 118 St. Paul Street W., Montreal, Quebec. 



T\'hen writing- advertiseis, please mention Tlie Hospital 'V\^orIcl. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XI 




(n Seal 
'^ Brand 

Coffee 



Recognized in all 
professions and 
walks of life, as 
the leading coffee 
in the best grocery 
stores of Canada* 



In yi, 1 and 2 pound cans. 
Whole — ground — pulverized — 
also Fine Ground for Percolators. 



CHASE & SANBORN, MONTREAL. 

162 



The Soap 
for health 



Better to be 

safe than 

sorry — 

wash with 

LIFEBUOY 
SOAP 

ITS choice oils 
give a smooth 
velvety lather 
that soothes while 
it cleanses the skin 
—Its mild carbolic 
solution means no 
germs. The odor 
does not cling, but 
vanishes a few 
seconds after use. 

Grocers sell Lifebuoy 
Healthy Soap 



lbl4 



> 



^i?^a 



^y 



'l-Y 5 Ct^ 



^ 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hot^pital world. 



Xll 



THE HOSPITAL AVORLD 



July, 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfully 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of " Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to L)"sol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydai Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 



POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS CO. 

Toronto, Ont. 



OF CANADA 



12 Rats Caught in One Day. 



Catcher Resets Itself. 



Rats and Mice Eat the Meat out of Oats and Corn and Horses 

get the Husk. 

Caught 51 Rats One Week 



JinintliiiinillliiiiiiiilliliniiiiiniiiliniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiitiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiMiiiiiinniiiJiii 



iiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiitiiiiiniiiiiriiiiiiiiiMiiiMH 




Trap resets itself. 22 inches high. Will 
last for years. Can't get out of order. 
Weighs 7 pounds. 12 rats caught one day. 
Cheese is used, doing away with poisons. 
This trap does its work, never fails and 
is always ready for the next rat. When 
rats and mice pass device they die. Rats 
are disease carriers, also cause fires. 
These catchers should be in every hospital 
and school building. Rat catcher sent pre- 
paid on receipt of $3. Mouse catcher, 10 
ins. high, $1. Money back if not sacistied. 



lllltllllMIMIllll 



iiniiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiniiiMiiitiiNiiiin 



H. D. SWARTS Ma'nuTcturet Box 566, Scranton,Pa. 

Universal Rat and Mouse Traps 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE. HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xlll 



The Largest Hospitals 



Made 
in' 
Canada 



have proved 



fULLNETWEIOHT 

FLOOR 

WAX. 

f.^'.""">"»'u«aai»iD>jo»«i««'*^ 




r 



Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
w^ood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. . 

Manufactured by 

COOKE & BOULTOM, '=|o",i"o^,|'o ^ 



DOCTOR 

IN CASES OF 

Dela3^ed Convalescence or 
for Patients in Need of an 
Invigorating Tonic 

PRESCRIBE 

Puritan Invalids' 
Port Wine 

It is made from Canadian 
Grapes and medicated with 
Cinchona Bark. Procur- 
able from any druggist. 

Price One Dollar a Quart Bottle 

PURITAN WINE CO., TORONTO 

Telephone Park. 5454 



La Deesse 
Corsets 

Excel in Style 

Comfort 

Satisfaction 




Try them and be 
convinced. 



GASTROGEl 

TABLETS 

Correct 




^ m 



Sample On Request 

Bristol' Myers Co. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



TABLETS 



I 




When writing- advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



XIV 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



July, 1916 



T^OCTOR : — In this age the critical and progressive 



LJ 



Doctor has a keen appreciation for that which is 



giving quick results. 

JAMUN COMPOUND IN DIABETES 

IS SPECIFIC I IM ACTION 

A modern product, strictly ethical. Literature will 
be sent to members of the Medical Profession upon 
application. 

The National Drug and Chemical Company are 
the wholesale distributing agents for Canada. 

THE JAMUN COMPANY 
343-344 Loeb Arcade, - - Minneapolis, Minn. 



SANITARY WASHING APPLIANCES 

Manufactured by 

CANADA WIRE AND IRON GOODS CO., HAMILTON 




Illustrating our HOLDER AND BASKETS for Sterilizing Glasses and Silverware 

This type of equiument is in use at the Guelph Agricultural College. IXQUIRIES SOLICITED 

We Manufacture METAL LOCKERS and HOSPITAL TABLES 




Invalid Chairs and Tricycles 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

This has been our study for thirty-five years. We build chairs 
that suit the requirements of any case. If your dealer cannot 
supply you, write us direct for catalogue No. 80, and prices. 

GENDRON WHEEL CO., - -TOLEDO, O., U.S.A. 

When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XV 



Ingram 

& 

Bell 

L I iVI I T E D 

TORONTO 

I 

OurSundryCatalog 
awaitsyour request 


Hospital Supplies 




Sole Agents for 

BRAMHALL DEANE 

HIGH PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

WAPPLER TRANSFORMERS 

and 

HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS 






Our Specialties : 






Manufacturers of 

HYPODERMIC TABLETS 

COMPRESSED TABLETS 

ELIXIRS, OINTMENTS, Etc. 

FULL LINE OF DRUGS 






A postal requesting quotations will receive 
immadiate attention. 





Physicians know that 

Hardwood Floors are 
Sanitary 

When consulted on the sub- 
ject, medical men will be acting 
in their own interests and those 
of their patients in stating that 
the best and the cheapest hard- 
wood floors in Toronto are laid 
by 

THEO. S. WAYDO 

19 Goodwood Avenue, Toronto 

Phone Junction 4828 

Flooring provided either plain or orna- 
mental, tongued and grooved, end 
matched and blind nailed. Prices 
complete, waxed and polished, 17 
cents per square foot up. 

Remember the Name— WAYDO 



For Hospital Sun Rooms 



A.FSMALLS 

IMPROVED 



^|c^ AQUARIA 




Li" 



I4 0'HARA AVE. TORONTO 



SAL HEPATICA 

The Ideal 
Saline 

Eliniiiiiaiiit 

In 

Rheumatic 

Conditions 



Bristol' Myers Co. 
New York 




XVI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



WHEN ORDERING 



Hospital Sheeting 
Hot Water Bottles 
Rubber Tubing 
Surgeon's 

Bandages 
Umbilical Belts 



Ice Bags 
Atomizers 
Breast Pumps 
Invalid Cushions 
Operating 

Cushions 
Vaginal Douches 



Ice Caps 
Syringes 
Catheters 
Colon 

Tubes 
Pessaries 
Urinals 



M 



SPECIFY OUR BRANDS 

We are the 'only Makers of these Goods in Canada 

CANADIANI CONSOLIDATED RUBBER CO. 

IStmiO ii^ LIMITED 



^jjMMga 



MONTREAL 



P.O. 



28 " Service " Branches Throughout Canada 




OUR HYPODERMIC TABLETS ARE ABSOLUTELY 
ACCURATE AS TO DOSAGE, AND FREELY SOLUBLE, 
AND ARE IN USE IN THE LARGER HOSPITALS OF 
CANADA TO-DAY. 

WILL YOU NOT LET US QUOTE YOU FOR YOUR 
SUPPLIES ? 



Frank W. Horner, Limited 

Manufacturing Chemists 

142 St. Urbain Street -:- Montreal 



When writing: advertisei's, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



(Incorporating The Journal of Preventive Medicine and Sociology) 

©ornnto, QIattaba 

A Journal published in the interests of Hospitals, Sanatoria. Asylums, and 
Public Charitable Institutions throughout the British Empire. 



iEbitorfi : 



•' ?^0flpttal JflattttPttanrf anb 
3Finau« " 

C J. CO. HASTINGS, Medical Health 
Officer, City of Toronto: HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY, B.A., M.D., Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals, Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES, late Secy.. Royal Free 
Hospital. London, England. 

" S^oaptlal icquiprntnt attb 
ApplianrpH " 

N. A. POWELI,, M.D.. CM., Senior 
Assistant Surgeon in cKarge Shields Emerg- 
ency Hospital. Professor Medical Jurisprudence, 
Medical Department. University of Toronto. 

" iJ^uapitals aitit ^ttwentitte 
fflpfitrittp " 

J. W. S. McCULLOUGH, M.D., Chief 

Officer oi Health for the Province of Ontario. 

J. H. ELLIOTT. M.p., Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine, L^niv. of Toronto. 

P. H. BRYCE, M.D., Chief Medical Officer. 
Dept. of The Interior, Otta^va. 



" Sfuratitg Sppartmfttt " 



MISS MARGARET CONROY, Boston. 

Mass. 

" iJ^oBpital (EoitHtrurttatt " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES, M.D., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH. 
M.D., M.VO.. Medical Superintendent. 
Western Infirmary. GlasgO"w. 

" Mehital (©rganizatimt " 

HERBERT A. BRUCE. M.D, F.R.SC. 

Surgeon, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE, M.D., Kingston, Ont. : H. 
E. WEBSTER. Esq., Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG, M.D., L.R.C.P., London. 
Consultant, Toronto Hospital for Incurables. 
Toronto. 

" 9artalagt| " 

J. T. GILMOUR, M.D.. Warden. Central 
Prison, Guelph Ont. 

" QIubprruloBtB S-anatorta " 

GEORGE D. PORTER. M.D., Toronto ; 
J. H. HOLBROOK, M.B., Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton, Ont. 



All Communications, Correspondence, and Matter regarding Subscriptions and 

Advertisements TO BE ADDRESSED TO "THE HOSPITAL 
WORLD," 145 COLLEGE ST., TORONTO, ONT. 

Reprints, including Half-tones, etc.. Supplied Authors at Net Cost. 



Vol X. 



TORONTO, JULY, 1916 



No. 1 



Editorials 



THE FOOD LABORATORY 



The word metabolism is at present much to the fore 
in medicine. Simply interpreted, it designates the 
science of food in its values and effects on tlie body 



2 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

tissues. This science, througii recent specialization 
and keen laboratory research, is making valuable con- 
tribution to the treatment of certain diseases. 

Varieties of diet for infants, consumptives, pa- 
tients suffering from liver and kidney diseases have 
been recognized and prescribed long enough to make 
a general knowledge of the same a common public 
possession. But this new realization of the absolute- 
Iv definite and instant action of food constituents 
upon diseased organs is opening up a fresh avenue 
in therapeutics, and one giving far-reaching vistas. 

The dietitian is lifted from the position at first 
assigned as head of a nurses' kitchenette for supply- 
ing and teaching the prei^aration of dainty and in- 
valid foods. The office must now be filled by a sci- 
entifically trained investigator with a laboratory 
staff upon whose results the physician will depend to 
an extent and in detail unknown in the past. 

A few hospital laboratories are making remark- 
able findings along this line of work, and as all our 
institutions are in close touch and quick to recognize 
progress, other hospitals will doubtless soon fall into 
rank. 

The article by Miss McCullough on this subject 
in the May issue of the Journal of the Canadian 
Medical Association is a revelation of what one hos- 
pital is accomplishing in this direction. It indicates 
not only the high value of results achieved in furth- 
ering treatment of disease; but also incidentally 
shows how large a determining factor metabolism is 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 3 

becpming in the science of medicine, and how im- 
portant the laboratory devoted to its study must be- 
come in the hospital. 

An even more valuable point made in the paper 
referred to was that of after care of metabolic cases 
who are leaving the hospital. The Peter Bent Brig- 
ham Hospital is planning to teach such patients smi- 
ple methods by which they may test their condition, 
know when to fast, and what foods to drop for a time. 
The outdoor clinic in some of the large hospitals is 
carrying education still further in these directions by 
holding weekly diabetic clinics at which all discharg- 
ed diabetics and other patients suffering from meta- 
bolic disorders are urged to attend for further in- 
struction and treatment. 



TEAM WORK 



It is rather remarkable that, in this day of Capital 
combine, of unions, of teamwork in so many depart- 
ments of service, the medical fraternity has remain- 
ed so individualistic in its methods, and that there is 
yet so much of personal competition. Men of other 
professions — lawyers, architects and engineers — 
group in firms, each several member having his 
special phase of work. 

But in medicine, while the general practitioner 
and the specialist both exist, each is but formally con- 
nected for professional purposes. Each ''goes it 
alone" to an extent that keeps the unfortunate pa- 



4 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

tient in the condition of the hospital inmate who had 
a broken leg. Later j^hlebitis developed in the re- 
maining member. "Other leg swollen, you say," 
said the attending surgeon, as he manipulated the 
splints. "No, I won't look at it. That's not my leg. 
It belongs to Dr. Smith." And he adhered to his 
resolution. 

This long prevailing custom of individualism in 
medicine seemed good and sufficient when all physi- 
cians, or nearly all, were what is termed all-round 
practitioners. But with the rapid advance of speci- 
alization its weaknesses have vearly become more evi- 
dent, until to-day some degree of medical combine, 
union, group ser^dce — call it what we will — has be- 
come inevitable ; and a new departure in this matter 
is already begun. 

The Mayo Clinic at Rochester is perhaps the first 
and most excellent instance of medical team work. 
At this clinic every patient has the benefit of the com- 
bined diagnosis of a band of specialists at a charge 
based upon the income of the patient. 

The Clinical Club of St. Luke's Hospital, San 
Francisco, organized about three years ago, is an- 
other noteworthy effort to establish medicai team 
work on a satisfactory basis. This club of ten men 
examine the patient, make w^ritten report of their 
findings, and meet daily to discuss the case. If the 
results are not clear the patient who is in the hospital 
under observation is re-examined daily until some 
definite conclusion is reached. The physician who 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 5 

first referred the case has then given to hini — or mail- 
ed to him — the findings and recommendations of 
these specialists. 

The fee collected, says one of the team, is not suf- 
ficient to pay for the time of the various clinicians, 
but the educational returns for each member in the 
dail}^ discussion with his colleagues amply repays 
them. 

The results of this or of some similar scheme of - 
grouping is obvious even to the lay mind. It brings 
to both patient and physician all the advantages of 
specialism, without its clearly seen disadvantages. 
The patient has placed at his service, at a price with- 
in his means, the observations and conclusions of a 
group of specialists trained along many lines. The 
family physician has a strong reinforcing aid in his 
treatment of the case, while the specialist gains broad- 
er and contributing points of view. 

Team work in medicine is fast arriving — and it 
comes to stav. 



HOSPITAL AND HEALTH CENTRES 



It is estimated that about ten per cent, of sick folk 
go to hospitals. Of the remaining ninety per cent, 
but a small proportion have specially skilled medical 
attendance or trained nursing. Fortunately, the av- 
erage case of pneumonia, typhoid, influenza, scarlet 
fever will recover if the medical attendant but ob- 



6 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

serves the first rule of therapeutics^non nocere. Let 
us say that three-quarters of the general practition- 
er's clientele consists of these uncomplicated cases 
which go on to recovery if no harmful medicaments 
are prescribed. There yet remains one-quarter of the 
cases which are more or less baffling. The patients 
in this class suffer from diseases that are not proper- 
ly diagnosed; and the physician, too often, gives a 
shotgun prescription, with the hope that by chance 
it will afford relief. Of course, occasionally the rem- 
edy relieves the disorder. When it fails to do so the 
patient leaves the original doctor and goes first to 
one and then another, until the medical gypsy habit 
is well established, after which he is ready to try some 
patent medicine, spiritual healing, faith cure, or 
Christian Science. 

Such patients, perhaps neurasthenic, possibly 
rheumatic or syphilitic, enrich the manufacturer of 
the proprietary nostrums, and by their conduct throw 
much stigma upon the medical profession. 

To meet this breakdown in medical practice cer- 
tain improvements are necessary. Among these are' 
the abolition of the proprietary medical school; the 
better training of medical students at college, and a 
course of three years in resident hospital practise. . 

But the best provision may be found in v^ery re- 
cent formation of hospital or health centres where 
the acute or chronic conditions of obscure disorders 
may be studied thoroughly. 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 7 

These cases demand examination from the labor- 
atory standpoint — chemical and bactei'iological ; 
careful and repeated physical examinations by tlie 
internist; probably a study by an ophthalmologist, 
oto-laryngologist, a neurologist, or ps^vchiatrist. The 
health or hospital centre should liaA'e attached to it 
at least one of each of such specialists. 

And the medical profession should be the van- 
guard in- the establishment of such centres. 



THE HOSPITAL \YORLD July, 1916 



Original Contributions 



A PLEA FOR THE TRAINING OF MEN AS NURSES 



BY FRANK H. HOLT, M.D., 

Superintendent of the Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Formerly Assist- 
ant Superintendent of the Boston City Hospital, Boston. 



I BELIEVE the time has come for Superintendents of General Hos- 
pitals and Superintendents of Training Schools to give their 
attention and serious consideration to the training of men as 
nurses. I am aware that here and there it has been tried and in 
some cases been discontinued. 

Hospitals for the care of mental and insane patients have 
trained men on equal terms, in their schools, in the same classes 
with women, and their success can be gauged by a glance at their 
alumni roll, which shows the names of many men as graduates 
who afterwards attained distinction in the medical and allied 
professions, as well as in business. Why should not men, as well 
as women, care for the sick and injured, if the}' so desire, and 
why should they not be trained? 

There is no question but what there has been a demand for 
this training the last few years. 

For certain purposes the services of men are needed in every 
hospital — to transport patients, assist in handling helpless and 
delirious ones, give baths, do dressings and wait on the male 
patients. 

In hospitals too small to employ men for ward work alone, 
such of the above duties as cannot be done by the female nurses 
are thrust upon the general utility man ; in the larger ones, not 
only are they all performed by the men, but more — as the taking 
of temperatures, giving of medicines, and, in fact, everything 
that is done by the female nurses, but without the training or 
recognition given the latter. 

For several years, while Assistant Superintendent of one of 
the largest general hospitals in the East. I had charge of seventy- 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 9 

five men engaged in ward, accident and operating fioor work, and 
the experience gained proved both interesting and instructive. 

The training school for men was started in 1911 ; previous to 
that time the only training given was that transmitted by an 
older to a younger man on the ward and covered onlj- such infor- 
mation as was actually necessary for the discharge of his daily 
work. 

The men employed were required to fill out a blank form, 
composed of questions giving information about their past life, 
work, etc. Oftentimes some of the applicants were so ignorant 
as to be unable to fill it out in full correctly. 

The class of men represented ranged from the trained gradu- 
ate of an insane hospital training school or green country boy 
coming to the city to make his way, or to acquire an education, 
taking this position as a means of paying his way or as a step to 
something better — to the broken-down, unsuccessful graduate of 
medicine and ''down and outer" from other lines of work, who 
had spent the previous night on a park bench and who wanted 
a "job." 

Some of these men were drug or alcohol addicts, or were 
rolling stones of hospital life, and in spite of the most careful 
scrutiny v/ould be accepted only to have their failing discovered 
afterwards. 

At times it was impossible to get sufficient men to carry on 
the work properly — due to their restless and roving dispositions. 
To emphasize this and show the immense amount of work neces- 
sary to maintain the standard number, i.e., the 75 required, the 
following figures may be of interest. They represent the figures 
for eleven consecutive years. 

Number of applications received 3,225 

Number of applicants accepted 1,167 

Number who came after acceptance 768 

Number of graduates, i.e.. those who remained the required 

two years and received a certificate or diploma 168 

It is from such a class of men that general hospitals have had 
to draw for their male ward help. These men were known as 
orderlies, ward masters, ward tenders, etc. — any training being 
grudgingly given them, even if they were worthy to receive it. 



10 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

When conditions became such that something had to be done 
a slight increase of wages was made — this in the hojje of getting 
not only more, but a better class of men. At times these men 
were sufficiently interested to ask for some instructions in order 
to better their condition, but too often they were only looking for 
a bed, three meals and their weekly pay. It can be seen that but 
few of the better class of men would stay in the ■\4'ork, and the 
result was most discouraging for those in charge of them and no 
incentive to interest themselves in giving instruction. 

The class of men who apply for hospital work can be broadly 
divided into four groups: 

1. The graduate of an insane or other hospital who desires 
additional training in medical, surgical or contagious 
work. 

2. The boy from the country coming to the city for work or 
an education, and taking this as a means of supporting 
himself until established, or as a stepping stone to some- 
thing better later. 

3. Men whose temperament is such that they prefer inside 
to outside work. 

4. By far the greatest in number, men who for one reason or 
another have given up other lines of work and take this 
simply for a home and a little change each week. 

The scarcity of men, particularly good ones; the numerous 
complaints from patients and others, and the constant friction 
between them and the female nurses, caused the writer to study 
the question of their training. It would seem that their posi- 
tion at the present time is much the same as that of the female 
nurse before the advent of training schools. 

I can see no reason why men should not be admitted to estab- 
lished training schools on the same basis as women, as many of 
them have the required amount of preliminary education, being 
found to be graduates of high schools — some have even a higher 
educational standard — provided they can pass the necessary re- 
quirements. If admitted, their handicap in relation to the female 
nurse would be about in the same proportion as the female to the 
male medical student. If not admitted on equal terms, then as 
an alternative I would suggest the method tried by me, which 



July. 191 fi THE HOSPITAL WORLD 11 

was t'o educate them along the same lines as the female nurses, 
as far as possible, up to a point set by law, namely, the ability to 
pass the State Board of Registration examinations and thus 
qualify for private work on the same basis as women. 

The classes were all given in hosj^ital time — no absences were 
permitted on class days — the same text-books were used — all 
lectures by the visiting and house .staffs attended, notes taken to 
be written out in full later, corrected as to composition, spelling, 
punctuation, etc. — marked on a rating of A, excellent; B. good: 
C, fair ; and D, poor and returned — and any who felt they could 
not keep up with their studies were allowed to seek other work, 
and when a position was obtained were then allowed to withdraw 
honorably ; all otliers were dismissed at once ; fortunately there 
were a number who had requested training, who were above the 
average in intelligence and education, and these served as an 
example and a stimulus to the others. They were distinctly told 
in the beginning that they were being trained as nurses and not 
as medical students, and that at no time were they to consider 
themselves such. To this end, the study of anatomy, physiology, 
materia medica, urinalysis, etc., was based on the application of 
these subjects to their ward work, as the anatomical structures 
involved in a Colles ' fracture, a fracture of both bones of the leg, 
or any abdominal operation ; the physiological processes con- 
nected with dietaries served to the different groups of patients; 
a description of the drug or chemical in a medicine given, the 
ingredients or preparations, their dosage and action, and in urin- 
alysis, beside the simple tests, the reasons for carefully collecting 
not only a first specimen but also a twenty-four hour amount, 
noting the general appearance, color, odor, etc., and greater 
attention was paid to stools, thereby causing the men to answer 
questions of the visiting and house staffs more intelligently — at 
once making them more valuable. to them on their daily ward 
visits. 

It was found by this system that they became interested in 
these subjects to a far greater extent than if compelled to study 
in the usual routine way. 

Special lectures in genito-urinary and venereal diseases were 
given in far greater detail than the other subjects, as this class 
of cases would naturally come to them later to care for. 



12 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

There was no difficulty in interesting . the various members 
of the visiting and house staffs to give lectures on special sub- 
jects. Everyone invited to lecture was asked to give such lecture 
in the simplest manner and words — to make it as elementary as 
possible, which I believe is a very important point. Too often 
does the lecture given to student nurses go far above their heads, 
because the lecturer fails to remember that he is talking to nurses 
and not medical students, and many points are lost because they 
do not understand and do not feel at liberty to ask questions or 
are ashamed to for fear of being misunderstood. 

Beginners were instructed on the wards by graduate head 
nurses in medical and surgical nursing, as bed making, charting 
and recording, measuring medicines, preparation for operation, 
post-operative care, preparation of dressings, etc., and this 
proved very valuable as an introduction to their hospital ward 
work. 

Practical talks and demonstrations were given on the care in 
handling patients, ambulance, accident and operating floor work. 
They were instructed in the setting up of the operating room, 
selection of kits of instruments, of splints, dressings, etc. 

Nor was dietetics neglected; a course of lectures by the 
dietitian, with practical work in the kitchen, was given, and this 
was followed later by an advanced course. 

A course on ethics by the Superintendent of Nurses was also 
included. 

The care and feeding of infants was taken up because of 
state board requirements, and this included simple facts concern- 
ing obstetrics and gynecology. 

Too often it is said that it is not worth while to educate men 
as nurses, as they are deficient in preliminary education and be- 
cause they will not study or apply themselves, but this I have not 
found to be true; on the other hand, they were eager to avail 
themselves of every opportunity to better themselves. 

So long as we have the previously mentioned mixed class of 
untrained men so long shall we have poor service. How can we 
expect intelligent service of men who are at the beck and call of 
the female nurses, little better than servants, asked to do Avork 
that female nurses will not do. as the care of the toilets, polish- 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 13 

ing o£ brasses, etc., called by their first or last names without 
prefix, and ordered about at will. 

No longer should it be allowed to be said ' ' that men are em- 
ployed in the care of the sick chiefly as servants of women 
nurses. ' ' 

What is the incentive for men to study and train as nurses, 
rather than continue as untrained orderlies ? 

It is: (a) the accomplishment of something, the result of 
which may be tangibly shown as the acquirement of a diploma 
or certificate — something that represents the time they have spent 
in hospital work. 

(b) The' acquisition of a state board certificate which en- 
ables them to register on the sa.me basis as female nurses, and 
the results showed that with even this experimental training the 
number of successful ones was over 50 per cent. — the percentage 
of the individual ones being fully equal to that of the average 
female nurses. 

(c) Much better wages if they remain in hospital service; 
still better if in private work. 

Before systematic training, the only thing a man could show 
for the time spent in a hospital was a certificate that he "had 
served satisfactorily" — now he receives at the end of a definite 
time a diploma equal to that of the female nnrses. 

Every step taken in the training which helped to increase 
self-respect resulted in an increase in efficiency. The name 
"orderly" was changed to "male nurse" on the records and 
diploma, and the word "orderly" on the coat sleeve was done 
away with and a chevron was devised to show the grade of the 
wearer, whether a first or second year class man or graduate. 

Was this experimental training worth while and did it show 
results ? Unquestionably yes. Not only was the hospital relieved 
of handling a large number of more or less irresponsible men, 
causing many complaints and many annoyances, but it was far- 
ther reaching in that the men so trained developed as better men 
as well as nurses and therefore were more interested in giving 
better service. Complaints from patients formerly heard ceased, 
much better work was obtained, in times of shortage men worked 
unceasingly without complaint. So well did they do that they 
were frequently commended by the Superintendent of Nurses. 



M THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

and we were fortunate in this instance of having the co-operation 
of one broad enough to assist in this work. To obtain the best 
results male nurses should work under male supervision as far 
as possible. 

Is there a demand for trained men ? Yes, for by the increase 
in number and in the development of hospitals there is unques- 
tionably a need for trained men. not only for the personal care 
and attention of patients in the wards, but as supervisors in 
charge of divisions, as head nvirs.es in charge of male wards or 
in charge of accident, operating and instrument rooms, etc., or 
in any capacity that has to do with the care of the sick or injured. 

I have recently installed one of these graduates in charge of 
the genito-urinary department of this hospital, to the great satis- 
faction of the surgeons and patients, as well as of the female 
nurses, who are only too willing to give up this branch of nurs- 
ing work. 

In private nursing they have not only acted in the capacity 
of nurse, but as companion to their patients, assisting them in 
many ways in connection with their business and personal affairs. 

The formation of a club or registry by groups of from six to 
tAvelve men doing private nursing has been found to 1)e of dis- 
tinct advantage to them, giving them a home with means for 
recreation when off cases, and late reports show that the demand 
for trained male nurses from these exceeds the supply. 

A number of the graduates now hold responsible positions 
with large manufacturing and mining companies — in charge of 
their emergency rooms, where their services are proving invalu- 
able to the surgeons in charge — relieving them of much detail 
and responsibility. 

They are also entering the field of district and welfare nurs- 
ing, competing on eciual terms with the female nurses, and pres- 
ent indications point to their also being called to take up public 
health and other government service work. 

It is pleasing to note that this systematic education has 
brought about a marked change in the attitude of the female 
nurses and their nursing associations towards the men, and I 
have been informed recently that they are now eligible to mem- 
bership in the Massachusetts State Nurses' Association, and more 
recently that a number of the organizations belonging to the 



•July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 15 

American Nurses' Association had male nurses among their 
members and that they were represented at their last annual 
meeting in San Francisco, California. 

In conclusion, I would add that men have the right to ask 
for recognition and receive training in nursing work, and that 
such request should be granted by the various training schools, 
on equal terms, or in the way heretofore mentioned if it is not 
practical to do the former at once, and I do not think the result 
will be disappointing. 

The exchange of various kinds of work between -the sexes 
makes it more opportune to train men' now than formerly, and by 
this training we would do away with the present large untrained 
class W'hich has brought male nursing into disrepute. 

One graduate, who is particularly well qualified, is now doing 
most excellent service for his fellows by giving talks before pub- 
lic welfare and improvement societies to invite confidence and 
educate the public to offset past odium. 

I believe the male nurse has come to stay and only needs the 
opportunity and encouragement that are .iustly due him to he- 
come as efficient and useful as the female. We owe him the 
chance — ^he must, and I think will, do the rest. 

29th Street and Elis Avenue. 



16 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

Selected Articles 



CASES TREATED BY RADIUM IN THE ROYAL 
INFIRMARY, EDINBURGH 



BY DAWSON TURNER, M.D., F.R.C.P. EDIN., M.R.C.P. LOND., F.R.S.E. 
In charge of Radium Treatment at .the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. 



Forty-one patients have attended for radium treatment during 
the past year. Twelve of these suflEered from malignant disease, 
eleven from rodent ulcers, eleven from nevi, one from leucoplakia, 
one from lymphadenoma, one from spring catarrh, one from 
tuberculous glands, one from a tuberculous ulcer of the dorsum 
of the hand, one from a papilloma, and one from hypertrichosis 

Many of these patients received prolonged treatment or 
attended a considerahle number of times; thus, in some of the 
malignant cases, whenever indeed it was possible, a tube of ra- 
dium was inserted into the growth and maintained there for 
periods up to twelve days, while at the same time external treat- 
ment was employe.d so as to subject the growth to a cross fire of 
rays. 

The treatment of port wine stains must also be very pro- 
longed ; as a cosmetic effect is desired, very small doses have to 
be given, and the result carefully observed, lest an atrophic con- 
dition of the skin be produced. 

Radium treatment, as a rule, is conducted in the following 
manner: A dose large enough in the experience of the expert to 
produce the desired effect is administered, and the patient is sent 
away and told to report himself in two or three weeks, for the full 
effect of any dose is not manifested for three or more weeks. 
Another dose, if necessary, is then given, and the patient again 
sent away for a fortnight. I have not time here to refer to the 
question of dosage or of screens. 

NEVUS. 

The cases which have been most benefited during the year 
have been those of nevus and rodent ulcer. Of eleven nevi — 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 17 

of which two were port wine stains — seven were cured, three are 
under treatment, and one (port wine stain) did not return. 

RODENT ULCER, 

Rodent ulcers, if not affecting mucous membranes, cartilage, 
or bone, are also extraordinarily amena'ble to radium. The rea- 
sons why radium is so superior to carbonic snow or zinc ionization 
or excision are, first, because the rays penetrate deeply — in fact, 
right through the body (the gamma rays will penetrate 10 in. of 
lead), so that the very roots of the rodent are attacked; secondly, 
because the treatment is absolutely painless ; and thirdly, because 
the cosmetic result leaves nothing to be desired. Of eleven rodent 
ulcers six were cured, one is under treatment, three did not re- 
turn, and one was unsuitable for radium treatment. Of the cases 
that were cured, one affected the upper lip, and was on the point 
of penetrating' it. Three were in the furrow between the nose 
and cheek ; they had received unavailingly prolonged treatment 
■with x-rays. One, a case of Professor Caird's, was on the ala 
nasi; it measured f in. by ^ in., and was on. the point of pene- 
trating ; one dose of 65 milligram-hours sufficed to cause complete 
healing with a beautiful cosmetic result and no contraction. The 
disease has, however, recurred in this case a little distance off on 
the tip of the nose. An application of radium has accordingly 
been made to it, and I have no doubt of a successful issue. The 
sixth was above the right eye. In another case of Mr. Caird's — 
a male aged 61 — the disease began many years ago as a pimple 
on the right side of the nose ; eight years ago this was removed ; 
on its return it affected the internal canthus, and Mr. Caird 
operated twice, in 1909 and 1912 ; on the latter occasion, recog- 
nizing that he had not removed all the growth, he recommended 
him to me for radium treatment. I placed two tubes of radium 
into the cavity, which was nearly 2' in. deep, and kept them there 
for thirty hours ; no screen but a -thin tube of aluminium was 
employed. This was on May 4th, 1912. In July the cavity had 
almost filled up, but for precaution's sake I gave a dose of 47 
mg. of radium for thirty minutes. In December, 1912, he called, 
quite cured. 

Two of the cases of rodent ulcer were treated by the insuffla- 
tion of the radio-thorium emanation. One of these was a male, 



18 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

aged 49, recommended by Professor Caird ; six years previously 
enucleation of the left eye had been performed by Dr. G. Mac- 
kay. The disease had recurred, and now formed a sloughy ulcer, 
about the size of half a crown, below the left orbital cavity, lead- 
ing to extensive excavations beneath the cheek. As the disease 
wag too extensive and too difficult of access for the limited amount 
of radium at my disposal, the idea occurred to me to treat it by 
blowing into it the radio-thorium emanation, which would be 
carried into the remotest corners of the excavations, and would 
coat the walls with a highly radio-active deposit. I did this some 
twenty times in the course of a few hours, and the immediate 
effect seemed to be to diminish the fetor; unfortunately the pa- 
tient did not return for further treatment. The second case 
treated by the radio-thorium emanation was a male, aged 60, 
recommended by Mr. Wallace. The duration of the disease was 
fifteen years; he had been treated by x-rays, and Mr. Wallace 
had performed enucleation of the left eye three years ago. A 
later operation had also been performed by Mr. Wallace. At the 
time the radium treatment was begun there was an ulcer with 
everted edges occupying the left superior border of the nose, and 
extending deeply into the orbital cavity. As he was an in-patient 
I instructed the nurse to insufflate the cavity with the emanation 
every half-hour during the day for one minute at a time. This 
was done for ten days, when it was thought advisable to supple- 
ment the emanation by the application of solid radium. After 
four days of the combined treatment he was sent home. He had 
had 176 insufflations of the emanation and 235 milligram-hours 
application of solid radium. A fortnight later he returned very 
much improved; the nasal ulcer was practically healed. When 
another fortnight had elapsed he was readmitted and treated 
again by the combined method for three days. On his reporting 
himself a month latej (January 8th, 1913) there was further 
improvement. The total dose was 208 insufflations of the radio- 
thorium emanation and 675 milligram-hours of solid radium. He 
has not reported himself since. 

MALIGNANT DISEASE. 

Twelve cases of malignant disease attended the department 
during the year. With one exception they were all inoperable 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 19 

cases ; -with two exceptions they were either recurrences or secon- 
dary deposits. Of these twelve cases one was healed with a sound 
scar, as well as a recurrence in the neighbourhood; three were 
improved ; one exhibited temporary improvement ; one, a carci- 
noma of the pharynx, was unrelieved and died ; of the remaining 
six, two are still under treatment, one did not return for treat- 
ment, one refused treatment, in one a prophylactic dose of 
radium was given after an operation for removal of a sarcomatous 
growth in the groin, and in one the growth was so extensive as 
to render a resort to treatment with a limited amount of radium 
hopeless. 

With the exception of the sarcoma referred to above all the 
cases were of a carcinomatous nature ; and in live of them, the 
upper or lower jaw was the seat of the disease. Brief details of 
the cases are as follows : 

1. A female, aged 49, with a recurrent epithelioma of the 
right ala nasi, recommended by Mr. Wallace. The patient had 
long suffered from an ulcer on the ala nasi ; prolonged treatment 
with x-rays and weak radium preparations, followed by excision. 
Condition on admission on June 25th, 191'2 : There is an ulcer- 
ating crack on the external surface of the right ala nasi. A 
single dose of 95 mg.-hours of radium bromide screened by glass 
and aluminium was administered. On July 9th there was a good 
reaction ; the scab did not come away until the middle of Sep- 
tember, when the ulcer was found to be completely healed over. 
On January 28th, 1913, the scar was still in a perfectly sound 
condition, but a small ulcer 'had appeared just within the 
nostril on the septum nasi. This was given a dose of 40 mg.- 
hours of radium bromide, screened as before by glass and thin 
aluminium, with a completely successful result. 

2. A female, aged 70, recommended by Dr. Sym. Epithelioma 
of one year's duration affecting the. upper lid and canthi of the 
left eye. Had twenty-four full doses of x-rays. Condition on 
admission : There is an irregular ulcer eating away the lower 
margin of the upper lid and involving the canthi ; the body of 
the lid is hard and swollen. Treatment commenced on January 
20th, 1912, and continued at intervals to May, 1912. Cireat 
improvement followed. The ulcer healed and the swelling dis- 
appeared. On May 22nd, 1912, Dr. Sym examined her, and 



20 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

wrote: "There is very great improvement,. very great indeed, but 
whether the cancer is all gone or not I can't be sure." On June 
20th the patient returned with a hard lump external to the exter- 
nal canthus ; this was given one good dose of radium and the 
patient sent home. On October 29th, 1912, she returned much 
worse, with the bone affected. Mr. Hodsdon excised the growth 
by an operation which opened into the frontal sinus. A prophy- 
lactic dose of 210 mg.-hours of radium was then administered. 

3. A male, aged 44-, recommeiided by Professor Caird. A 
rapidly-growing recurrent epithelioma of the right upper jaw, 
operated on twice within five months by Professor Caird. There 
is a large ulcer extending backwards on the mucous membrane 
of the buccal cavity on the right side ; the skin outside is red and 
angry looking. On November 7th, 1911, external and internal 
applications of radium were commenced; the external applica- 
tions were shielded by a sheet of silver half a millimetre in thick- 
ness, the internal by a thin sheet of aluminium. On December 
4th, 1911, he was sent home after a total dose of 1,011 mg.-hours. 
The disease had ceased to extend and considerable improvement 
was manifest. On January 9th, 1912, he returned in a worse 
condition ; there was a large external swelling, and Professor 
Caird thought that further treatment would 'be useless. 

4. A female, aged 42, recommended by Mr. Hodsdon. An 
epithelioma following lupus; duration thirty years. The disease 
has been treated by both medical and surgical means; it has had 
courses of x-rays extending over years; it has been scraped, cau- 
terized, and partially excised. Present condition : Below the left 
nostril there is an irregular ulcer eating into the lip ; it is 2 in. 
broad by 1 in. long, and it has raised margins, except where it is 
spreading on to the mucous membrane of the lip ; there is a per- 
foration below the left nostril. Treatment was begun on Novem- 
ber 28th, 1912; 25 mg. of radium bromide (International stand- 
ard), screened only by glass and aluminium, were applied to suc- 
cessive areas of the ulcer for a few hours daily during a week ; the 
dose amounted to 1,620 mg.-hours. This was followed in three 
weeks' time by a strong reaction, and afterwards considerable 
improvement was manifest, healing was going on above, granu- 
lation tissue was present, and malignant characters were absent. 
The patient is to return for more treatment. 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 21 

5. -A male, aged 72, recommended by Dr. Elder. Malignant 
disease of the fauces and pharynx. Duration more than a year ; 
difficulty in swallowing and speaking. An irregular swelling 
can be observed, involving the soft palate and uvula and causing 
great deformity. Left cervical glands enlarged. Both Pro- 
fessors Alexis Thomson and Caird considered the case quite in- 
operable. With the hope of relieving his symptoms, radium treat- 
.ment was commenced. On September 19th, 1912, a capsule, con- 
taining 40 mg. of radium bromide, was attached to an aluminium 
rod and held by the patient against the affected part for one hour 
two or three times a week ; only an aluminium screen was used. 
By November 28th, 1912, the patient had received a dose of 388 
mg. hours. The applications appeared to relieve his pressing 
symptoms, but he gradually sank and died on December 14th, 
1912. 

6. A male, aged 35, recommended by Professor Alexis Thom- 
son. Diagnosis: Round-celled sarcoma situated in the groin. 
Duration twelve months; was admitted to the Royal Infirmary 
on January 11th, 1913, complaining of a lump the size of one and 
a half fists in the groin and of increasing weakness ; the left leg 
was edematous. On January 17th, 1913, Professor Thomson re- 
moved the growth, which proved' to be a round-celled sarcoma. 
On January 30th, 1913, a tube of glass in an aluminium cover, 
containing 10 mg. (International standard) of radium bromide, 
was inserted into the wound and kept there for twenty-four 
hours. This was intended to act as a prophylactic measure. 

' 7. A female, aged 54, recommended by Mr. Miles. History : 
In September, 1911, the patient had been admitted to Chalmers 
Hospital, complaining of a hard, painful lump in the left axilla. 
Mr. Stiles removed the mass and the breast ; both were found to 
be the seat of a medullar}^ carcinoma. Readmitted May 28th, 
1912, with a rapidly growing recurrence in the scar; this .was 
excised on May 31st, 1912. Returned at the beginning of 1913 
with a secondary growth affecting the sternum. The patient 
recommended to the Royal Infirmary; was admitted by Mr. Miles. 
Projecting from the sternum was a hemispherical growth, in area 
about the size of a teacup saucer and raised nearly an inch above 
the general surface. The skin over it was reddened. The patient 
complained of spasms of severe lancinating pain. Treatment : 



22 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

Two tubes of radium, each containing 5 rag. (International stan- 
dard), were introduced by Mr. Miles into the growth, screened 
only by glass and aluminium, and were kept in for seven and for 
twelve days respectively, being moved occasionally so as to ex- 
pose a fresh area to the radiation. At the same time applications 
of 25 mg. (International standard) screened by silver were made 
externally. The total internal dose was 2,400 mg.-houi^; the 
total external dose was 800 mg.-hours. Lender this treatment the 
tumor rapidly flattened down, and in six weeks' time had dis- 
appeared. Some pus was discharged from the incisions, and a 
good deal of reaction was manifest on the skin. The lancinating 
pain disappeared shorth' after the applications. The patient 
expressed herself as very grateful. She is still under observation. 
Of the remaining 5 eases 1 did not return for treatment, 2 are 
still under treatment, 1 refused treatment, and in 1 treatment 
was refused on account of the extensive nature of the growth. 

LEUCOPLAKIA. 

A male, aged 52, recommended by Professor Alexis Thomson, 
has attended since October. 1911, for radium treatment. He 
has a specific history. Th-e duration of the disease was one year. 
On the surface and side of the left half of the tongue there were 
several whitish, hard patches somewhat raised above the surface. 
Ten mg. of radium bromide (International standard) were en- 
closed in an aluminium box and applied for an hour at a time 
twice a week to the patches. The effect of the treatment is to 
improve and check the development of the disease, because if it 
be intermitted, as in the holidays, the condition rapidly becomes 
worse. The patient refuses operation and he has had prolonged 
courses of internal treatment, also an injection of salvarsan. 
Stronger and more prolonged doses of radium would, I think, 
produce more decided benefit. 

LYMPHADENOMA. 

A male, aged 18, was recommended by Dr. Byrom Bramwell 
for radium treatment in November, 1911. There were growths 
round the neck and in the groin and axilla. The circumference 
of the neck measured 17^ in. The neck was treated by external 
applications screened by silver. Xo improvement resulted, and 



July, 19i6 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 23 

after a total dose of 1,933 mg.-hours given in one week treatment 
was suspended. 

SPRING CATARRH. 

A male, aged 9, recommended by Dr. George Maekay, was an 
old ease, whose right eye had already been cured by radium treat- 
ment, but whose left eye had not had sufficient treatment. He 
was given a dose of 5 mg.-hours by the application of a 10-mg. 
capsule to the eyelid for half an horr. This patient had first 
attended in March, 1910. Both upper lids were covered on their 
internal surface mth the typical granulations and pavement-like 
blocks. The lids were much swollen. The right lid only was first 
treated, and in three months was practically well after a dose of 
32.5 mg.-hours. Treatment of the left eye was then begun. 

TUBERCLE. 

Tuberculous Glands. — 'Only one patient, recommended by Dr. 
J. Burnet, suffering from enlarged cervical glands, attended the 
department, and he did not return. 

Tuberculous Ulcer. — A boy, aged 3^ years, recommended by 
Dr. Railston Richardson, attended for radium treatment of tuber- 
culous ulcer on the dorsum of the right hand. It had existed for 
two years and had been treated with iodine, caustics, etc. There 
were two patches close together, measuring nearly half an inch in 
diameter, dark red, and slightly elevated. Treatment was begun 
on, December 3rd, 1912, and continued for a fortnight, by which 
time the dose amounted to 20 mg.-hours. Only a screen of 
aluminium was employed. In a month the patches were covered 
by a good scab, which fell off at the end of January. The patches 
had almost disappeared, but to aid in the cure a further dose of 
13 mg.-hours has been administered. The patient is still under 
observation. 

PAPILLOMA. 

A female, aged 5*1, recommended by Dr. Davidson of Kelso, 
was admitted on October 8th, 1912, with a papilloma on the left 
side of the nose. It was half an inch wide and raised a quarter 
of an inch above the surface, and it was composed principally of 
hornv material. The duration had been about five vears. but 



24 THE HOSPITAL WOELD July, 1916 

latterly it had been growing more rapidly. The patient had had 
a previous growth removed some years ago from a position a 
little higher up. A dose of 35 mg.-hours, screened by aluminium, 
was administered by a single application. In a fortnight the , 
growth fell off; in seven weeks there was perfect healing, the 
site of the growth being covered by a beautiful supple skin. 

HYPERTRICHOSIS. 

A female, aged 25, recommended by Dr. Fleming, attended 
for a week during September, 1912, for the radium treatment 
of this condition. The patient had a thick, hairy growth round 
the lower border of the chin. After the patient had been made 
aware of the difficulties of the method of treatment, applications 
screened by aluminium of 5 mg.-hours Avere made over successive 
areas. These proved to be insufficient to produce epilation. The 
patient proposes to return later on. — British Medical Journal. 



NEW LADY SUPERINTENDENT AT GUELPH 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 



Miss Annie Forgie has been offered and has accepted the posi- 
tion of Lady Superintendent of the Guelph General Hospital. 
Miss Forgie comes originally from Claremont, in Ontario County. 
She is a graduate of 'the Rochester General Hospital, and has had 
a wide experience in other large hospitals. Her last appointment 
Avas as Superintendent and Business Manager of the Gait Hos- 
pital, at Lethbridge. Miss Reekie, the retiring Superintendent 
at Guelph, leaves for Regina, where she will become Superin- 
tendent of the General Hospital in that city. 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 25 

Society Proceedings 



THE ONTARIO MEDICAL HEALTH OFFICERS' 
ASSOCIATION MEETING 



Medical Health Officers to the number of nearly two hundred 
and fifty from various parts of the Province attended the Fifth 
Annual Conference of the Ontario Health Officers' Association, 
which convened on May 29th in C'onvocation Hall. Dr. A. J. 
Macauley of Peterborough, the acting President, presided in the 
absence of Capt. A. W. McPherson of Peterborough, the Presi- 
dent, who is in Flanders. By a unanimous vote Dr. McPherson 
was re-elected. President. A number of members were in khaki. 
"Modern Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment of Diph- 
theria" was the title of an extremely educational paper delivered 
by Dr. W. H. Park, Director of Laborator.y, Public Health De- 
partment, New York City. Dr. Park stated that his Department 
was specializing in the matter of reducing th'3 amount of diph- 
theria among children. In this connection Dr. Park pointed out 
that in order to carry out the practical work the Department had 
divided certain sections of the city into Medical Districts and 
grouped the children for the purpose of making tests and, at 
the same time, obtaining more thorough information as to the 
causes for the spreading of the disease. 

. Dr. Park said that the scheme had been productive of won- 
derful results, and he urged the establishment of similar work 
in all large cities. In dealing with the question of antitoxine, 
Dr. Park said : 

"It seems strange that, after twenty-one years of experiment- 
ing, the jMedical Fraternity are still undecided as to the amount 
to give and the way to give it. From practical experience I fee' 
satisfied that the full amount of antitoxine required should be 
given in the first injection. I think a lot of harm is done if ths 
full amount is not given in the first injection.'' 

With the assistance of several charts Dr. Park described its 
uses in various stages and the results obtained, both in the cases 
of childreii and adults at ages ranging from two to twenty -one 



26 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

years, and upon animals. He stated that fully seventy per cent, 
of horses were diphtheria carriers. 

At the Morning Session there was a spirited debate follow- 
ing a paper, "Should the Bread-Winner Be Quarantined?" 
which was given by Dr. Y. A. Hart of Vespra. It was pointed 
out that under the law the whole matter of quarantining an indi- 
vidual rests with the discretion of the Medical Health Officer, 
except in the case of smallpox. The general opinion was that the 
Officers do not make exemptions in cases where the bread-winner 
does not exercise particular care in his home. 

In a discourse on "Suggestions for Improvement of Asso- 
ciation Meetings," Dr. F. A. Dales of Stouffville suggested that 
the Association should carefully consider whether or not the 
public should pay the wages of the bread-mnner while under 
quarantine. In this connection he pointed out that the isolation 
of the individual prevented the spreading of the disease. Con- 
sequently the public is safeguarded and, therefore, should make 
some remuneration to the man who has to remain idle. 

Dr. Dales also expressed the opinion that the Association 
should be divided into two sections, one for cities and towns, and 
the other for smaller towns and villages and rural municipali- 
ties. He believed that if this was done and the Provincial Health 
Department placed one or two expert officials at the head of each 
county it would do much to minimize the spread of disease, and 
that in a few years hence a cleaner and more healthy nation 
would arise. 

Dr. G. R. Cruickshank of Windsor, who has been specializing 
in the matter of reducing the large volume of tonsilitis and ade- 
noids diseases which prevail throughout the Province, especially 
among school children, stated that he had obtained some very 
good results from tests made in the schools. He believed that if 
the tonsils were in a healthy condition in a child at the age of 
ten they should be removed. He had no doubt but that they 
were responsible for a great many diseases which develop. He 
had traced diseases which undoubtedly had their origin from 
that source. 

As a means of reducing the amount of tonsilitis Dr. Cruick- 
shank offered the following suggestions: The abolishing of the 
use of babv's comforts, which convey a lot of unnecessary dirt 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 27 

into the mouth ; the proper ventilation of sleeping apartments 
and schoolrooms and the proper care of the teeth. 

The following papers, all of which were of a most instructive 
character, were given: "The Quarantine Period for Measles," 
Dr. M. B. Whyte, Isolation Hospital, Toronto; "Measles." Dr. 
A. D. Smith, Mitchell; "Some Observations of Tj^Dhoid Fever in 
Toronto," Dr. Fred Adams, Epidermiologist, Department of 
" Health, Toronto ; ' ' Epidemic Cerebro-Spiual Meningitis, " ' Dr. 
J. G. Fitzgerald, University of Toroiito; "Deductions of a New 
Ontario Medical Officer of Health," Dr. Edgar Brandon, North 
Bay. 

In the evening two interesting papers dealing with the hos- 
pital accommodation and the system of sanitary arrangements 
at the Front, illustrated with limelight views, were given by 
Major W. D. Sharpe, R.A.M.C, Brampton, and Capt. Ruggles 
George, Toronto, both of whom recently returned from the scene 
of hostilities. 

In dealing with "Sanitation in Serbia," Major Sharpe said 
the Americans claimed to have improved conditions in this re- 
spect in Serbia. Wliile this was true to a certain extent, the 
British had had more to do with the introduction of modern 
sanitary conveniences in the Par East than any other nation. 

"The Serbs have many peculiar ideas of sanitary conven- 
iences," asserted the Major. "They have been downtrodden by 
Eastern civilization, but in recent years the better classes in 
Serbia, especially in Belgrade, have risen in their might and 
adopted the most modern sanitary and ventilating conven- 
iences. ' ' 

Capt. Ruggles George showed a number of attractive war 
scenes, embracing the Canadians mobilizing at Valcartier and 
in training at Salisbury Plains. He also showed some interest- 
ing pictures of the hospital arrangements at the Front. 



28 THE HOSPITAL AVORLD July, 1916 

War Hospitals 

DR. WILFRED T. GRENFELL'S EXPERIENCES IN 

THE TRENCHES 



Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell honored Toronto with a visit on AEay 
19th last and addressed a very large audience in the Convocation 
Hall of the University' of Toronto. on the evening of that day. 
Dr. Grenfell was ever a man of war. and the conflict in France 
and Flanders, from which he has just returned, he has found to 
be only relativel.y different from that which he is about to resume 
in Labrador. The Doctor spoke in behalf of the Red Cross 
Society, and told of what he saw of the everyday life on the 
battlefront, and during his hour's talk one could have heaj'd a 
pin drop on the floor, so great was the silence. 

''War and peace are not so dissimilar as one might suppose," 
said the Doctor in opening his story. "Doing one's bit at the 
front is very much the same as doing one's bit at home in ordin- 
ary life. It takes just as much courage to face everyday prob- 
lems cheerfully as it does to face a foe in war. I have seen men 
under pitiable conditions in the trenches who were more cheerful 
than men in luxuriou^iomes. I have looked in the faces of a 
good many dying men in these last months, to whom I could 
offer no other help than to take their hand and say, "Thank God 
you did your bit when you had your chance." 

Speaking of the attitude of the troops to religion. Dr. Gren- 
fell said he could not be sure that they were all nominal Chris- 
tians, but there was an atmosphere of unselfishness pervading 
the life at the front. "Men were so unselfish that they regarded 
it as a privilege to be permitted to crawl over a parapet to fetch 
in a wounded comrade. It is an atmosphere in w^hich Christ 
himself might walk. Though we are losing men at the war, for 
every man that falls two new men are made. However many 
men Canada may lose, ten thousand times as many would have 
been lost if Canadians at such a time as this should have stood 
aside and said, 'We are neutral on this question.' I feel a great 
reverence in the face of a Canadian audience when I think of 
' ivhat I saw at Ypres. ■ 



Jiily, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 29 

"I have met people in the United States who are so undecided 
upon the war that one would almost think that Belgium made 
war upon Germany to extend her territory ! Belgium went to 
war as Christ went to Calvary : because she believed it was right 
to do so. I do not know how any man, when it comes to piracy 
and sins of that kind, can at the end of his life stand before the 
Almighty and say : '''I have fought a good fight and I have kept 
the faith, and henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of 
rigliteousness. ' 

"I am not going to tell you a lot of horrible stories about 
German atrocities, but I can tell you one which I believe to be 
true." The Doctor then told of the shooting of a Belgian boy of 
twelve years who had shouted ' ' Vive la France ! " as the German 
soldiers passed by, mistaking them for French soldiers. 



LETTER FROM DR. HARLEY SMITH 



May 13, 1916. 

Dear Dr. Young. — Thauk you cordially for your kind and 
interesting letter of 14th ult. Our hearts are still in the dear 
home town. There is not a man of our unit who has not been 
longing to see his precious loved ones. We trust the time will 
not be long before we shall be again united with the valued 
friends of many years. 

We have at Orpington an institution that reflects great credit 
upon the Province of Ontario. One could not find a better 
equipped hospital anywhere. The wards are arranged on the 
slope of one of the low Kent hills in such a way as to allow them 
to be flooded with sun and light. The green and dark brown 
coloring of the walls produces a soothing effect to the eye. The 
two thousand windows enable the patients to be constantly in 
the open. The operating theatre would cheer the heart of even 
the most fastidious Toronto surgeon. Equipped with sterilizing, 
anesthetic and instrument rooms; capacious enough for four 
tables; furnished with perfect natural and artificial lighting, it 
leaves nothing to be desired. The kitchen is commodious enough 
for a brigade. The bread is baked in tiers of forty-four ovens, 
heated by steam. We find here a butcher's shop, grocery and 



:j(i THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

provision stores and the electric light plant. In our mess reading 
room there is the nucleus of a very good medical library. The 
members of the staff, having the best of provision made for their 
comfort, are anxious to do a high grade of work for the brave 
British soldiers — without distinction of color, creed or birthplace 
— who are entrusted to their care ; and thus, not onlj' to have the 
consciousness of duty well done, but also to reflect glory on the 
generous Government of Ontario, that has so fittingly made this 
magnanimous gift to the Empire's needs. Our chiefs of staff, 
Col. Chambers and Col. Cameron, enjoy our respect and love, and 
will be loyally supported by their junior officers. At present, 
owing to the preponderance of medical cases, we internists are 
able to lord it over the surgeons. Our Commanding Officer. Col. 
D. W. McPherson, is the right man in the right place. He has 
a big job on his hands, in organizing a hospital of 1,040 beds. 
But his unfailing good nature and courtesy towards officers and 
men, and his long experience in France and England (as well 
as in Canada), are standing him in good stead, and the work 
of organization is progressing rapidly and surely. 

Our mess is fortunate in having the gracious Col. Graham 
Chambers as President. It has decided to be a "dry" mess, 
influenced doubtless by the fact that our hospital represents a 
Government and people that have taken up a strong position on 
the question of the use of alcoholic liquors. 

We have already had the good fortune to see some of our old 
Canadian friends — Col. Ross. Col. Rudolf, Col. Adami, Col. Wal- 
lace Scott. McGregor Young and Mr. Robert Moud (brother of 
Sir Alfred Moud), a bacteriologist who does not believe in the 
sterilization or pasteurization of milk. A few days ago, while 
visiting the old Woolwich Hospital, built about the time of the 
Crimean War, I met Dr. Carruthers, who was at Moorfields with 
Colin Campbell. The men on our staff are a fine lot, but de- 
cidedly unmusical. However, after a hard struggle, we have 
induced some of them to cultivate their voices — towards mid- 
night. Your heart would rejoice to hear ]\Iac Crawford, Victor 
Graham. Duncan Campbell, Major MacKay (our dwarf pianist) 
and John Kane united in a series of college songs. Judging by 
their rapid progress, Caruso will soon have to look to his laurels. 
Major Norman AYilson, looking hale and hearty again, has just 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL AVORLD 31 

joined our staff. There was general and heartfelt grief over the 
sad news of the deaths of Dr. Yellowlees, Dr. Burritt and Dr. 
B. E. Mackenzie. 

With kindest regards to Mrs. Young and yourself, 

Faithfully yours, 

Harley Smith. 



Book Reviews 



studies in Ethics for Nurses. By Charlotte A. An^Exs, for- 
merly Superintendent of Columbia Hospital, Pittsburg, and 
Director of Sibley Memorial Hospital. Washington, D.C. ■ W. 
B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London. 1916. 

Miss Aikens has again written a wonderful and unique book. 
This is one in which everybody can read with interest things con- 
cerning himself, his parents, or his sister. It is a book which 
should be purchased in large numbers by the superintendent of 
every training school to send to young women contemplating the 
study of nursing, because this is their Book of Life. In this they 
will find all their difficulties truthfully stated, and a way to con- 
quer enunciated. Hitherto books on ethics have been rather dry 
sermons of an abstract nature, but Miss Aikens' pages are tilled 
with concrete words that pulsate with live, practical wisdom. 
Miss Aikens has recognized, evidently from close daily contact 
with her pupils, that the hard part in nursing is not in having a 
great number of heavy, laborious treatments to give, but in miss- 
ing some much-needed cuff buttons when all ready to go to class, 
or a raincoat, or some money left in a drawer that must be 
unlocked — not in pursuing new, strange technical studies, but in 
having to do much more than one's just share because some other 
nurse may be philandering — or, again, not in running up and 
down flights of stairs in an unfamiliar house when on private 
iluty, but in discreetly handling all the vagaries of an anxious, 
distressed family. The examples given are like a chart of an 
unknown sea to the novice nurse. Each reef is distinctly marked 
with a bell or a buoy, so that she may steer lier course clear of 
it into a safe haven. 



32 THE HOSPITAL WORLD July. 1916 

The book is clearly typed, of good appearance and volume, 
320 pages, with an excellent index. It should make a strong bid 
for instantaneous adoption. 



A Beference Hand-Booh of Obstetric Nursing. By W. Reynolds 
Wilson, M.D., Former Visiting Physician to the Philadel- 
phia Lying-in Charity. Illustrated. Third edition, thor- 
oughly revised. Philadelphia and London : W. B. Saunders 
Company. 1916. Toronto: J. F. Hartz Co., Limited. 

The third edition of Dr. AV. Reynolds "Wilson's Hand-Book 
has been considerably improved. It contains some new material 
on scopolamin — morphine anesthetic and the uses of nitrous- 
oxid-oxA-gen gas. It also devotes some space to the caloric estima- 
tion of food values for the infant. The text as a whole has been 
largely rewritten. We heartily commend the book to nurses 
about t(i take their instruction in obstetrics. 



First Year Xursing. A Text-Book for Pupils during their First 
Year of Hospital Work. By ]\Iixxie Goodnow, R.X., for- 
merly Superintendent of the Woman's Hospital, Denver, and 
Directress of Nurses at Milwaukee County Hospital, etc. 
W. B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia and London. 

From Miss Goodnow's facile pen comes a new edition of her 
valuable book for pupils. Miss Goodnow has the happy knack of 
hitting the bull's-eye every time by mentioning with emphasis 
just the points on which a novice might seriously err. This book 
has just been entirely gone over, added to, and modernized, with 
extra illustrations, all of which are very clear. There are many 
given which are not to be found in the standardized text-books 
for nurses. The only point to be made in criticism is that a nurse 
who is in her first year is not usually permitted to do such ad- 
vanced work as is referred to in the later chapters. Nevertheless 
she may take this information on with her into her second year. 
The binding, type and paper of this edition are of the best 
quality. 



July, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD xvii 

D lNi jTlR j 

is appreciated by discerning people because — 

Only the best materials are used, 

Of our exclusive process of fermentation, 

Of the exactness of manufacturing methods, assuring bread and buns of uniform 
excellence. 

The greatest cleanliness is observed in the manufacture and distribution. 

S Wf II FE 

MADE AND WRA.PPED BY MACHINERY 




GRAND PRIZE GRAND PRIZE 

Panama-Pacific Exposition Panama-California Exposition 

San Francisco. 1915 San Diego, 1915 



BAKER'S COCOA 

IS as aelicious in flavor as it is nigh 
in quality ana aDsolute in purity. 

All or our goods sola m 
Canaaa are made in Canada 



„ . ^ Booklet oi Choice Recipes 

Registered r ^ 

Trade-Mark sent tree on request. 



WALTER BAKER ^ CO. LIMITED 

ESTABLISHED 1780 

MONTREAL, CAN. : DORCHESTER, MASS. 



Wh-en writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xviii THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

The Art of Anesthesia. By Paluel J. Flagg, M.D., Lecturer in 
Anesthesia, Fordham University Medical School; Anesthet- 
ist to Eoosevelt Hospital ; Instructor in Anesthesia to Belle- 
vue and Allied Hospitals, Fordham Division ; Consulting An- 
esthetist to St. Joseph's Hospital, Yonkers, N.Y. ; Formerly 
Anesthetist to the Woman's Hospital, New York City. 136 
illustrations. Price $3.50. Philadelphia and London : J. B. 
Lippincott Company. 

It has been a matter of surprise and some comment that more 
literature has not of recent years been devoted to the subject of 
anesthetics. It must be admitted that medical practitioners in 
general practice have far too limited a knowledge of the proper 
administration of an anesthetic. This should not be, especially 
in rural practice, where men are so often called upon to anes- 
thetise a patient without any assistance other than that of a 
friendly neighbor. The administration of an anesthetic is far 
more than a mere mechanical performance. It is, as the author 
states, an art. and after looking through Dr. P. J. Flagg 's book 
we are satisfied that, if read as it deserves to be read, fewer mis- 
takes will be made and fewer lives sacrificed. Buy it. It is well 
worth the price. 



Text-Book of Anatomy and Physiology. For Training Schools 
and other Educational Institutions. By Elizabeth R. Bundy, 
M.D., Member of the ^Medical Staff of the Woman's Hospital 
of Philadelphia ; Gynecologist, New Jersey Training School, 
Vineland; formerly Adjunct Professor of Anatomy, and 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Woman's Medical College 
of Pennsj-lvania ; formerly Superintendent of the Connecticut 
Training School for Nurses, New Haven ; etc. Fourth edition, 
revised and enlarged, with a glossary and 243 illustrations, 46 
of which are printed in colors. Philadelphia: P. Blakistons 
Son & Co., 1012 Walnut Street. 

We have felt for a long time that the teaching of nurses is 
often badly adapted to their requirements and more suited to the 
medical student than the nurse. This work, written by a medical 
graduate who has had a large experience in the training of 
nurses, is as simple and practical as one could wish. The num- 
erous illustrations, taken from the best authors, will prove very 
helpful. In every way we think the work well suited for the 
class for whom it is intended. w. j. w. 



Wanted 

Position as Lady Superintendent in General Hospital, Canadian 
North-west preferred. Post Graduate of Grace Hospital, Detroit. 
— Address Box P., The Hospital World, Toronto. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XIX 



r 



Therapeutic 

Thoroughness 



is possible only when the remedies used 
by the Patient, are exactly what the 
Doctor prescribed. _____ 

More than 20 years' experience, among* 
physicians in all parts of the world, snow 
that there is no successful substitute for 



^•"), r.Nl.BR THE F'loU ANl^ t ■ | 
S,'£^E3ij, iiKlfl. SERIAL No- ^'u^-'-'fy 




i ^E DENVER CHEMICAL MFC- ^f? 

'.^^^^ "eVK yPRK CITY. U.S. »■ » -*^ { ( 



2 ■• >. e' a Y " aXX'^o B " " 
PRICE, 50 CENTS 

■' iinniimiiiiilMlin'' 



Directions: — Always heat 
in the original container by 
placing in hot water. 
Needless exposure to the 
air, impairs its osmotic 
properties — on which its 
therapeutic action largely 
depends. 




There are many uses for An- 
tiphlogistine, during the warm 
season — slight yet annoying 
ailments, such as occur during 
out-door activities — Bruises — 



Sprains — 'Base Ball fingers'* 
— Stings — Bites of insects and 
reptiles — Sun' urn — Poison 
Ivy — Inflamed wounds from 
Fireworks or Firearms, etc., etc. 



By ordering: Antiphlogistine in full and original packages: 

Small, Medium, Large, or Hospital Size, "a perfect 

poultice" is assured. 



Physicians should WRITE ' ' Antiphlogisiine" to AVOID "substitutes. " 



"There's Only One Antiphlogistine" 



THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. COMPANY - MONTREAL 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 

A NEW HOSPITAL FOR SHOCK CASES 



The Provincial Secretary's Department decided recently to 
establish at Cobourg, Ont., a Hospital for the Treatment of 
Mental and Shock Cases among Returned Soldiers. This is the 
result -of negotiations concluded between the Dominion Hospitals 
Commission and the Ontario G'oyernment. 

The present institution at Cobourg will be immediately eon- 
verted into a Military Hospital by the transfer of some 180 
female patients to the new Hospital for Mental Diseases at 
Whitby. It is expected by the first week of July the Cobourg 
Hospital will be ready to receive over 50 patients, which cases 
will be increased from time to time as necessity arises. The 
Medical Staff and Nurses, with the necessary facilities and or- 
ganization for this Hospital, will be provided by the Pro\dncial 
Secretary's Department, and preparation is being made to 
increase the accommodation by the erection of additional build- 
ings, should it be found that this is needed. 

The Ontario Government are to be congratulated upon their 
most recent step in aid of returned soldiers. The Grovernment 
is following the best practice as it exists to-day in England, 
where they liave already one or two such institutions. 

It is hoped that in about two months' time one section of 
the Hospital will be entirely completed, which will permit the 
handling of any number of cases as is contemplated under the 
new arrangement, up to perhaps 500. 

The need for special facilities for the treatment of mental 
and shock cases arising out of the War is imposing an unforeseen 
burden on the Medical branch of the military organization of 
Canada. The Dominion Government will pay to the province a 
maintenance charge of so much per day per patient, and the 
entire resources of the department will be made available for 
the purpose of securing for those who are sent to Cobourg 
Hospital the best treatment known to science. The equipment 
will include hydrotherapeutic and electrotherapeutic baths, with 
special wards to deal with the different ela.sses of patients. 



GRADUATING EXERCISES AT THE HOSPITAL 
FOR MENTAL DISEASES 



The Graduating Exercises of the Toronto Hospital for Mental 
Diseases, held at 999 Queen Street West, on June 15th, gave 
evidence of an excellent year 's work, and of war work, too, done 
through the hospital's offshoot in the Psychopathic Department 
of the Ontario Government's Military Hospital at Orpington. The 
proceedings were presided over by Mr. S. A. Armstrong, Assist- 
ant Provincial Secretary. Dr. Helen MacMurchy addressed the 
graduates and the diplomas were presented by Mrs. J. M. Porster 
and Mrs. Forbes Godfrey. The Hospital for Mental Diseases is 
affiliated with the Western Hospital, Toronto, in a post-graduate 
course. The prize for highest marks was carried oft' bv :\Iiss 
Wylie. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXI 



A Boon to Institution 
Laundries 

In these days when there is considerable 
trouble in reference to " help " in large 
Institutions, any effective labor saving 
device is more than welcome. One such 
device, which will make laundry work in 
a Hospital easy, is 

TORO TABLETS 

Their use will be found a boon, rendering 
the work of washing far more effective 
and easy. The TORO TABLET is dis- 
infectant in character, so that no matter 
how mixed the articles of clothing may 
be, or how soiled, they come out spotlessly 

white. TORO TABLETS will not 

injure the finest fabric and no scrubbing is 
necessary. One tablet of TORO and 
half-a-pound of soap and the work is done. 
Hospitals supplied in large quantities at 
low prices. 

THE TORO TABLET CO. 

BIRMINGHAM ■ ENGLAND 

Canadian Office — 
113 RONCESVALLES AVENUE, TORONTO 



q rajHj"Bj-BrBjajHj^rg-rHr5jg. n 



PATIENTS 

■will do their part in oral prophylaxis 
if they are instructed to use 




Its value in allaying soft, bleeding, 
spongy gvm^ and in removing de- 
posits on the teeth is so apparent to 
the user that the practitioner'swork 
is sustained by the patients" con- 
tinuous and'willing co-operation, an 
essential in preventingor in treating 

PYORRHEA 

^A^hen used as a dentifrice, regularly 
every day, PYORRHOCIDE will 
go far toward maintaining the 
teeth, gums nd mouth in a state of 
normal vitality and health. 

ThE OENTIKOL & PYORRKOCiDE CO. Inc. 

110-112 West 40th Street - New York 



dzTSISSBTB rBr3SBT3S3IBrBIl' 



i!ll!llllllllllllllllllllll!lllll!>llllilllll!ll!lllli;i!!llli^lll>lllll!l:>!!lllllllllllll!l!llll!!l!iillli^ 



LOSING WEIGHT 



Occasionally breast-fed babies 
without apparent reason show 
a steady loss in weight and 
strength. Intelligent investiga- 
tion usually lays the blame to 

faulty diet. 



^^ 



ot<^ 



r3 Cryc^^C'^'v 




Condensed 

MILK 



THE ORIGINAL 







on account of its wholesomeness, palatability, 
uniformity of composition, as well as ease of 
assimiLition and simplicity of preparation, will be founil 
by clinical trial to be of sjreat value in these cases of 
iinpaired nutrition. 

Send for Samples, Analysis, Feeding Charts in any language and 
our 52-page book, "Babe's Welfare. " Mailed upon request. 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - Montreal 

"LEADERS OF QUALITY" 
Branch Office : 2 Arcade Bldg., Vancouver, B.C. 



When writing^ advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXll 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD July, 1916 



NEW HOSPITAL APPLIANCES, PHARMACEUTI- 
CAL PREPARATIONS, ETC. 

A Letter 

Doctor, — When consulted by patients on tlie important question 
of the laundry, won't you bear in mind the following facts 
regarding Taber Laundry Works, 444 and 446 Bathurst Street, 
Toronto: Our laundry is one of the most up-to-date and best- 
equipped institutions' of the kind in Canada. Every depart- 
ment is conducted along the strictest sanitary lines. Each and 
every piece entrusted to us is not only washed but sterilized, 
and dried with super-heated air, rendering impossible the trans- 
mission or existence of germ life. Taber Laundry Works exer- 
cise also the greatest care in not taking work from houses or 
places where there exists contagious disease. Our patrons are 
protected in this way from danger. It has been our rule for 
years that each and every customer receives personal attention. 
Telephone College 8333 and 5143 for our van service. Note. — In 
the past few years laundry chemists and engineers have devel- 
oped the modern power laundry so that it now ranks high in 
the public service. Sanitation has been the mainspring of their 
efforts. We invite professional men and visitors to call on us. 
For the above reasons, we ask the endorsement of physicians. 



The Keith Ventilating Fan 

Sheldon's Limited, makers of the Keith fan for ventilating and 
other purposes, are very busy. They have been running night 
and day for the past fifteen months. This firm has recently 
secured the contract for ventilating equij)ment for St. Joseph's 
Hospital, Hamilton, which consists of three special Keith fans 
with direct connected motors. While the Canadian trade in 
ventilating- equipment has been rather quiet since the war began, 
owing to there being so few large buildings erected, still this 
firm is getting their share of the business, and in the past few 
months have received orders for quite a number of fans for 
export. 



Borden's Eagle Brand Condensed Milk 

Eagle Brand Milk is an ideal milk, obtained under perfect 
sanitary conditions from healthy cows. The milk is condensed 
where cleanliness reigns supreme, by Gail Borden's original 
process, invented in.the early fifties, a process that has not as yet 
been improved upon. Eagle Brand Milk offers the greatest 
measure of safety, convenience and economy. It can be obtained 
almost am^vhere through the civilized world, is always uni- 
form in quality and composition and, when properly diluted and 
administered, is surpassed only by mother's milk. 



Julv, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



xxm 




PHOTOS OF FUNERAL CHAPEL AND MOTOR HEARSE WITH 

HANDSOMELY EQUIPPED LIMOUSINES FOR PRIVATE 

AND PUBLIC FUNERALS 

Charge Not Exceeding that of horse drawn vehicles. 
Private Motor Ambulance 

MOTORS DIRECT TO FOREST LAWN MAUSOLEUM 




A. W. MILES 

Funeral Director - 396 College St. 



Phone C. 1752 



Phone C. 2757 



Toronto, Canada 



When writing- advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

^^ WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Low-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 
than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 different 
operations as our higher grades — sells lor 
less because made from short staple cotton 
which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 
Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Maplewood Mills 




Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 




THE PARTICULAR ATTENTION OF 
PHYSICIANS, NURSES AND HOSPITALS IS 
[CALLED TO 

The Allen Germ -Proof Water 
Purifier and Cooler 

In these days, when the water supplied in many 
of our cities is not what it ought to be, the Profession 
and, through it, the Public will welcome such a device. 

The ALLEN WATER COOLER SERVICE, through 
its system of filtration, guarantees a water that is practically 
absolutely pure. Dr. A. A. Thibaudeau of the Laboratory of 
Pathology, University of Buffalo, states that "The Allen 
Filter can maintain an efficiency of 100 per cent." adding 
that the filter was allowed to operate continuously for three 
da.ys a.nd that no bacterial growth was found in the samples after 
48 hours' exposure on plates. 

Medical men can rest assured that, in recommending the use of 
the Allen Water Cooler Service to their patients, they are 
materially hastening their convalescence 

THE DOMINION SALES CO., LIMITED 



Suite J, Yonge Si. Arcade, Toronto 



Telephone Main 3797 



When writing adverti.?ers. please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXV 



FOR THE SICK ROOM 

Physicians will find 

SAFETY FIRST AMMONIA 

the most effective disinfectant on the market. 
It is absolutely bactericidal in action and 
cleanses, better than anything else, pantry 
sinks, urinals and pus basins, leaving thern 
clean, sweet and aseptic. SAFETY FIRST 
AMMONIA is 58% strong. A little in a 
saucer, moistened with water and placed in 
the Hospital Ward, will quickly render the 
air pleasing to the patients. 
SAFETY FIRST CHLORIDE OF LIME is also 
a most satisfactory deodorizer, and is ideal 
for use in, say, a Hospital basement or 
household cellar where there is the slightest 
suspicion of defective drains. 

Special prices, in quantities, to Hospitals, 
Asylums, etc. 

These products, once tried, will be used 
to the exclusion of all other competing 
preparations. We supply the Department of 
Public Works Dominion Government with 
SAFETY FIRST. 

onir'b? The T. J. QUINN CO. 

288 Queen Street West, Toronto 
Tel. Ad. 1509 



CENTRIFUGES 

of the 

INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, Mass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 



ELECTRIC 
INTERNATIONAL 




PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 



ti 



i'yf 




F.LAT 
WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE 



-DUSTPROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

ElEStiCE '^^^ Perfect Floor Finish 
^^^^^; Send for Sample Paper 



TORONTO 




' ONTARIO 



Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Kjeldahl 
Stills 



Bottle 
Shakers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Paraffin 
Microtomes 



Modern General Diagnostic Outfit 

This Outfit now weighs but 4/2 pounds, and measures 
5% X 7 X 15 inches, malting it very convenient to carry. The 
instruments are equipped with tungsten lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tungsten lamps with which they are now equipped, 
have greatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 

Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryngeal Specula 

Holmes Nasopharyng'oscopes 

Tuttle and Lynch Procto-Sigmoidoscopes 

Braasch Cystoscopes 

Koch, Swinburne and Young UrethroscopeS| etc. 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELECTRO SURGICAL INSTRUMENT CO., Rochester, N.Y. 



When writing Advertisers, please mention The Hospital Workl. 



SXVl 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




ERHARD HEINTZMAN 



GRAND 

SELF-PLAYER ] PIANOS 

UPRIGHT J 



* 



Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on an}^ instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City HaU) 



41 West Queen St., Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tiie Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXVll 




Walk-Over Shoes 

Correct hoot Troubles in a 
Natural, Comfortable }\ay 

HE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP makes a specialty 

of fitting shoes to deformed or abnormal feet. A wide range 

of over twenty lasts and at least 112 sizes in each last 

makes it possible for us to fit almost any foot, even though 

badly deformed, with a stylish and comfortable shoe. 

The doctor in charge of our Orthopedic Depart- 
ment is expert in the fitting of arch supports, 
made-to-order shoes, etc., and gladly gives free 
consultation and advice. 

Self-measuring FOOTOGRAPH charts will be 
mailed to out-of-town customers who do not find it 
convenient to visit the store. Full directions with 
each chart. 

WALK-OVER 
BOOT SHOP 



290 YONGE STREET - 

Also at 521 St. Catherine St. 



TORONTO 

Montreal 




Prominent physicians and 
gynecologists everywhere 
recommend the MARVEL 
Syringe in cases of Leu- 
corrhea.Vaginitis and other 
Vaginal diseases. It al- 
ways gives satisfaction. 

All Druggists and Dealers 
in Surgical Instruments sell 
it. For literature, address 

MARVEL COMPANY 

44 E. 23rd Street, NEW YORK 



The Peculiar Advantag^e 



of the 



Marvel "Whirling 
Spray'' Syringe 

is that The Marvel, by its 
Centrifugal action, dilates 
and flushes the vaginal passage 
with a volume of whirling 
fluid, which smooths out the 
folds and permits the injec- 
tion to come in contact with 

its entire sur- 
face. 

The Marvel Company 
was awarded the Gold 
Medal, Diploma and 
Certificate of Appro- 
bation by the Societe 
D'Hygiene de France, 
atParis, Oct. 9, 1902. 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXVlll 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



The James Robertson Co, 

LIMITED 

Originators, Designers and Manufacturers 
of High-grade Sanitary Fixtures :: ii :: 




WE SOLICIT YOUR ENQUIRIES 



Offices and Works ; 

MONTREAL 
TORONTO 
WINNIPEG 
ST. JOHN 



Sanitary Exhibition Rooms ; 

MONTREAL 

TORONTO 

WINNIPEG 



When writing- advertisers, please mention Ti:e Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXIX 



A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and find 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble like that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt delivery is an ab- 
solute rule with us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



Pnysicians should always remember 
that by the use of 

THE DELANEY DUSTLESS AND 
FIREPROOF SIFTER 

all further trouble from dust in the house- 
hold is eliminated, no more Bronchial 
Coughs from dust in the sleeping rooms as 
the atmosphere of the house is sweet and 
clean. The publishers of this Journal re- 
commend the adoption of The Delaney 
Dustless Sifter as a sanitary measure. 

W. H. DELANEY 
89 West Marion St. 

Phone Park 4992. 



Toronto 




Physician's Scale. 

Designed especially for use in Hospitals, 
in offices of physicians. Something that is 
essential in connection with every private 
bathroom. 

Scale is ordinarily finished black, with bronze 
ornamentation, but is also furnished in light colors, 
elaborately ornamented, with nickel-plated beam 
Scale is furnished with or without measuring rod 
as desired. Write for prices. 

GURNEY SCALE CO. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 

When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXX 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



"AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS 
WORTH A POUND OF CURE" 

but with every care 

Accidents and Sickness 

will occur. 

Doctor, why take chances of loss of income by reason of 
accident and sickness, when you ^can be amply protected? 

A Good Prescription 

is 

An Insurance Policy 

in 

THE GENERAL ACCIDENT ASSURANCE COMPANY 

Head Office — Continental Life Building, Toronto 
Peleg Howland, Esq., President Jno. J. Durance, Manager 



The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 



PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



"When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



July, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



XXXI 



THE BRANSTON VIOLET RAY HIGH 

FREQUENCY GENERATOR Made in Canada 




Mode 6. Operate s on the Electric 
Lighting Current. 



' A Portable High Frequency Outfit 
Extremely Compact and of High Efficiency 

Our Model 6 Generator is particularlv well designed 
for the physician desiring a portable High Frequency 
Coil giving a range of High Frequency suitable for 
all forms of treatment. 

The coils and condenser are wound to give a current 
of exceedingly high voltage and oscillation and at 
the same time generate sufficient heat. It gives 
about two million oscillations or vibrations per 
second. The connecting cords and insulated handle 
are sparkless. It can be regulated to give any strength 
of current desi-ed and is built to last for years. The 
coils are impregnated by a special vacuum process 
which makes a burnout practically impossible. 

ft is mounted in a leather covered velvet lined case 
8 X 12 X 6 inches. Ample space is provided for ten 
electrodes, handle, conducting cords, etc. 

Full descriptive catalogue and prices showing our 
complete line of machines and electrodes. 

Manufactured by 

CHAS. A. BRANSTON CO. 

Offices and Factory : 359 Yonge Street 
Phone Main 1212 

Canadian Representatives for the Celebrated 
White Cross Vibrators and E'ectric Specialties 



INVALID STOUT 

For Weak Folks 



S 



0iDB0gxRENGTHENING and 

nourishing qualities, com- 

i bined with a really 

HQHHH acceptable flavor, make 

Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 

the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co., 



LIMITED 



TORONTO 




When writing advei ti.seis, plea.se mention The Ho.siiital World. 



XXXll 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



July, 1916 



GLYCO-THYMOLINE 



IS INDICATED IN 

Catarrhal 
Conditions 

of mucous me m- 
branes in all parts of 
the body — ^ maintains 
Asepsis without irri- 
tation — reduces con- 
gestion and by stimu- 
lating the capillaries 
to increased activity 
restores normality. 












Perfect Mouth Wash 



For "Daily Use 

Keeps the mouth Alkaline as 
nature intended it should be. 
Stops the formation of lactic acid 
and prevents dental decay. 

LITERATURE ON REQUEST 

KRESS & OWEN CO. 

361-363 Pearl St. '.• New York 



W^hen writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital "World. 



Naoie 




<n»wM|§ 



X-RAY ^^'^ HIGH FREQUENCY 





APPARATUS 



'sician 
Hospital 



Interrupterless 
X«Ray Transformer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 1915 




Model "E" 
Portable X-Ray 
and Hig-h Fre- 
quency Coil 



Highest Award to X-Ra^ and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass. 

Sales Agencies — Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 

Heating and Ventilating cannot be 
made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "Keith Fan"\s used. 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
economical on account of its service 
and durability. 

See OUT new Catalogue No. 55. 

Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont. 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 
AGENTS : 
Messrs. Ross & Greig, 412 St. James St., Montreal, Que. 
Messrs. Walkers Ltd., 261 Stanley St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Messrs. Gorman, Glancey & Grindley Ltd., Calgary and Edmonton, Alta. 
Messrs. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancouver B.C., (Bank of Ottawa Bldg.) 




ECONOMY IN YOUR- 



X-RAY WORK 



EVERY good hospital manager is interested in improving the standing of the 
X-Ray Department, and thereby the standing of the hospital, through the 
better diagnosis possible on important cases. Our new MILLIAMPERE 
SECOND TECHNIQUE is the greatest advance in Radiography in years. 
Thoroughly tested by well-known men for months, it eliminates guesswork entirely. 
INSURES ECONOMY. Novice or expert can make every plate a valuable 
diagnostic one. NO DUPLICATES NECESSARY. 
This means money saved to your institution. 

Being based on known laws of the chemical effect of X-Rays, one milliampere 
second exposure producing a definite chemical change in a Paragon X-Ray plate, 
proper exposures can be determined in advance, and the highest grade of radi- 
ography produced with any type of apparatus. 

No excuse for failures or poor work now, if PARAGON TECHNIQUE 
is used. 

Now ready for free distribution to all radiographers. 

Send your radiographer's name for a 
free copy, and see that it is followed. 
Why not have the best work ? 

Make the other fellow try to produce 
work equal to that done at your hospital. 

Geo. W. Brady & Co. 

773 S. Western Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Stock carried by INGRAM & BELL, Limited, Toronto 



PHILLIPS' MILK OF MAGNESIA 



" The Perfect Antacid " 

icid Conditions — Local or Systemic. V 
Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 

Of Advantage in Neutralizing the Acid of Cows' Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



For Correcting Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylates, 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

N on- Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

With Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To he relied upon where 
a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS, H, PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO. 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Representatives : The Wingate Chemical Co., Ltd., 545 Notre Dame W., 
Montreal, who will be pleased to send samples upon request. 



SIi^ (©ffirial ©rgau of (Ei^t (fiaua&tan Ifnspttal AsHDriation 



THE 



■ i ij i .,j "BESSBBB^^— ^^W ^^1 



..-/^. 



^ 


mha; 


-'■*^-^J 50.C- 


R 


L 


f.. PER,-: 



Vol. X (XXI) Toronto, August, 1916 No. 2 

CONTENTS 

EI>ITOKIAI.S. WAR HOSFITAI.S. 

Page Page 

A Xew Hospital Unit 33 rpj^g Canadian Army .Medical Service 4S 

New Hospital Associations 35 Epsom Hospital is Unique 53 

Reflections of a Medical Teacher... 35 rphe King's Canadian Hospital, 

The American Medical Association. 3.S Bushey Park 5G 

The Trend of the Public Health... 39 Another Hospital VoV Canadians'. !! .' 5b 

OBI6INAI. CONTRIBUTIONS. „.„. 

CANADIAN HOSFITAI.S. 

Hospital Efficiency from the Stand- 
point of the Efficient Expert. By ^ew Ontario Ho-ptal for the Insane 
Frank B. Gilbreth, Providence. R.I. 4 2 at Whitby 57 



JK; ▼*^^. 



Fellows^ Compound Syrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 

For 50 Years The Standard 

It Syr. Hypophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 

p . ^^ Cheap and Inefficient Substitutes 

^% Preparations "Just as Good" 






Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelve, 
by the Publishers at the Department of Agriculture. All rights reserved. 



LISTERINE 

A safe, non- poisonous, unirritating antiseptic solution 

LISTERINE embodies a two-fold antiseptic effect, in that after the evaporation of its 
volatile constituents — thyme, eucalyptus, mentha, gaultheria and ethyl alco- 
hol — a film of boracic and benzoic acids remains upon the surface to which 
Listerine has been applied, affording more prolonged antiseptic protection. 

LISTERINE is a trustworthy surgical dressing ; it has no injurious effect upon the tissues in 
which the healing process is going on. 

LISTERINE in proper dilution is useful in the treatment of abnormal conditions of the 
mucosa and forms a suitable wash, gargle or douche in catarrhal conditions of 
the nose and throat. 

LISTERINE in teaspoonful doses will often afford relief in fermentative dyspepsia and is 
largely prescribed, with excellent results, in the various forms of diarrhoea 
occurring in infants and adults. 

LISTERINE literature, including special pamphlets upon Disorders of Digestion and 
Respiratory Diseases, may be had, by physicians, upon application to 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

St. Louis. Mo., U.S.A. 

Church and Gerrard Sts. Toronto, Canada. 



Is 3'our estate properly 
protected? 

No matter how little or how much you own, these 
possessions make up your estate, and should be pro- 
tected by efficient and economical management. 
This can best be done by an Executor or Trustee. 
This Company, by acting in this capacity, will give 
your estate the benefit of experience gained In the 
management of many estates, of large and of only 
moderate size, and will scrupulously guard the in- 
terests of your heirs. 

No charge for drawing up your will when the Sterling 
Trusts Cori)oration is appointed your executor and 
trustee. 

Our officers will give you further information on 
request. 

Sterling Trusts 

coRPORAnriaN 

W. S OINNICK HERBERT WAODINGTON 

80 KING ST. EAST ''Vi^TlT'' TORONTO; 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 

This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 



A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPERIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be-shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J, F. HARTZ CO., LTD. 

Physicians' and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 



When writiiiii advciUseis, please mention The Hospital World. 



11 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Aug. 



1916 



:' I iiiiiiiiiii 11 tiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiuiiiiiiliiniiiiit unit 111111111(111 iiiiiiiiiiitiiriiii II ttiiiiiit limit I mil t< 




No. 106. I 

Strong, substantial, heavily silver- f 
plated, highly polished. i 

iniiiiiiijiMMiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii(itiiiiiiiuiiitiiiiiitiiiitFiiiniiiitiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii,= 



PHYSICIANS KNOW 



that the days of the common Drinkine Cup are passed 
and gone. One of the marked advances in Sanitation 
during the past year or two is the introduction of the 
Single Service Sanitary Drinking Cup as a guarantee 
against infection from many types of Communicable 
Disease. Not only Members of tne Profession, but 
all Public Institutions, including Hospitals, should 
acquaint themselves with the merits of 

The Vortex System 

which dispenses entirely with the washing and steriliz- 
ing of Glasses and Chinaware, The VORTEX SYSTEM 
is unquestionably the most Sanitary in exis'ence and has 
already the endorsement of a large number of Health 
Authorities. It may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that it meets the requirements of all Sanitary Laws 
in reference to the PREVENTION of THE SPREAD 
OF DISEASE. 

The cups are made of pure white rice paper, paraf- 
fined, and the initial cost is trifling. Once installed in 
an institution, the System will never be substituted. 
The cups are made for either hot or cold drinks and 
once used are immediately discarded. 

You are asked to write for particulars. 

Canadian 
Wm. A. Rogers Limited 

570 King Street West - - Toronto 




ftoc'k'ifeVT°/ °M DOLL.-Over 5 feet tail, made of finely woven 
stockinet. Is durable, waterproof and sanitary. Has copper Reservoir 

.le'to^reu'r^rb'"'" 'J^^-i.-^i^'o i^- corresponding inTocftion and 
Mze to the urethra, vaginal and rectal passages. 



The Chase Hospital Doll 

For Use in Training Schools 

Adult size, also infant models, 2, 4 
and 12 months, and 4-year-old sizes. 

Chase dolls are well made of cloth, 
jointed, and painted with waterproof 
paint, with internal reservoirs. 

The Value 

of this substitute of a living model is 
found in the many practical lessons 
which can be taught in the class room, 
such as handling of patients, admin- 
istering enema, douching, probing in 
the ear and nose cavities— in short, 
the complete care of the patient. 



We make dolls with- 
out reservoir i f desired . 
Send for illusti-ated 
booklet giving ful 
particulars. 



M. J. CHASE 

22 Park Place, PawtucketR.I., 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



111 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMS 

AND EQUIPMENT FOR 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Design and Fit at Reasonable Prices 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

44-46 YORK STREET - - TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Uniform Contractors to the Dominion and Imperial Governments. 

When Enquiring be sure to Specify what you are Particularly Interested in. 



MEDICAL COUNCIL 
OF CANADA 

« 

October Examinations, 1916 

The Fall examinations of the 
Aiedical Council of Canada 
will be held at Montreal and 
Halifax on October 10th. 1916. 

Forms of certificate may be 
obtained from the Registrar 
at any time. 

Registration for the October 
Examination will close promptly 
at the Registrar's Office in 
Ottawa, on September 12th, 
1916. 

R.W. POWELL,M.D.,Registrar 

180 Cooper St., Ottawa 




TIk' 
rcaso 
wnvs 



Junket 

^^^ MADE WITH MILK 

history, orifiin ami makin<; ot . i: kct, the 

ns for its unusually high nutrilive value i.no thcvarious 
which it inav be prescribed or used, are briefly set 
forth in an intercstinE treatise. 
" Junket in Dietetics," pre- 
pared especially for the pro- 
fession. 

Send For This 
Helpful Booklet 

— even if you are familiar with 
Junket. A discussion of Ren- 
net Ferment by those em- 
ployed in producine il for over 
h '.If a century, will prove in- 
tcrcstinir and helpful. Sent 
froe with samples of Junket, 
up in request. 
Sold by druKeisls or srocers or directly by us 
t'^ <he profession at 75c. per IQO tablets. 

Chr. Hansen's Laboratory 
Helen St.. LITTLE FALLS. N.Y, 

lllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllll!lllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII^ 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



IV 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Au^'., 1916 



THE "TARBOX" DRY-DUSTING MOPS 

Chemically Treated — No Oil to Soil- 
Destroy Nothing Except the Drudgery of the 

DAILY DUSTING 

The chemical action causes the Mop to absorb just sufficient 
dampness from the Atmosphere to collect and hold the dust 
while working- Do not flit the dust— Do not smear or dissolve 
the floor wax as oils do. 

" Tarbox " Dry-Dusting Mops are not Dry Mops. 
Note the distinction. 

The whole room may be dusted 
without fear of smearing or soil- 
ing anything — Paper, Bases or 
Mats. 

Every dusting adds that desired 
jsheen to waxed floors. 

The essential chemical used is 
a germicide. 

Made in Canada 
Sold in Foreign Countries 

Manufactured by TARBOX BROS., TORONTO, CANADA 

Sole Factors for the United Kingdoms : J. & A. McFarlane, Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland 




"NO BETTER ATMOSPHERE IN THE WORLD FOR A 
CONSUMPTIVE THAN THAT OF YOUR OWN MUSKOKA." 

Sir Wm. Osier, distineuished Canadian, now Regius Professor of Oxford University formerly of Baltimore, Md. 



Regular Rates 

$12 to $15 

per week 




Special Rates 

For Bed 
Patients in 
Separate 
A c c o m ™ 
modation 



MUSKOKA COTTAGE SANATORIUM 

Gravenhurst - . . Ontario, Canada 

For booklet apply to W. B. KENDALL. M.D.. CM.. L.R.C.S.. L.R.C.P;. Fhysician-in-Chief. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1016 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 




n 



Where Sanatogen is Made 

AsSanatogen is now so widely prescribed in Canada, 
physicians will be interested to knowthat the whole 
supplies for Great Britain and the Colonies are 
manufactured at our British factory. This factory 
was established in 1908 at Penzance, where the 
Cornish pasture-lands lie open to the Atlantic 
breezes, and a view of it is given above. Only British 
labour is employed there, and all the ingredients 
are obtained in Great Britain. 



In the words of Sir Charles A. 
Cameron, C.B., M.D., President of 
the Royal Institute of Public Health, 
London: "Sanatogen is an excellent 
nerve food, of the highest nutritive 
value, containing a large amount of 
organic phosphorus, which is offered 
to the tissues in exactly the form in 
which it can be easily absorbed." 

The value of Sanatogen has been 
thoroughly established by fifteen 
years' clinical use, anil it was the 



only preparation among tonics and 
nutrients which received the Grand 
Prix — the highest possible reward — at 
the International Metlical Congress, 
London, 1913. 

The efficiency of Sanatogen depends 
entirely on unitjue processes of manu- 
facture, which are known only to 
the Sanatogen Company ; aTid no 
other preparation has the same com- 
position or effects. 



The Sanatogen Co., London (England), Sydney, 
Cape Town, and Shanghai 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Aug., 1916 



CATALOGUE "C" 

-^^lli write: for iT,t 
FOI^pOMESOR HOSPITALS 

I^OR CARRYING PATIENTS UPOR DOWN STAIRS, 
CAN ALSO BE USED ON THE LEVEL 
BY DETACHING CARRYING BARS, 
MAKES A FIRST CLASS 

LIBRARY VERANDAH 
ORSMOKINGROOMCHAIR 

■HE n 

SJDRON 
FGCO. 

LIMITED 




RONTQ 



COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are 
maintained. 



THE COWAN CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



Made in Canada 

SEED X-RAY PLATES 

Absolute uniformity of emulsions ; remark- 
able gradation aiid detail (which is more 
essential than mere contrast), accuracy and 
extreme speed, are some of the qualities that 
make Seed X-Ray Plates ideal in diagnostic 
work. 

For Sale b^ all Supp/y Houses 
Leaflet by mail on request 

CANADIAN KODAK CO., Limited 

TORONTO. CANADA 



When writing aclvertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug.. 1!>16 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



VI 1 



Attention of Canadian Hospitals 



We are 
manufactur- 
ers of Metal 
Hospital 
Furniture 
of all kinds. 

Wheel 
Apparatuses 

Cabinets 
Screens, etc. 




CANADA FIRST 



No matter 
how small 
your re- 
quirements, 
let us have a 
chance to 
g^ive you a 
price. 



THE METAL CRAFT CO, 

GRIMSBY, ONTARIO, CANADA 



* I 'HE impurity and scarcity 
of drinking water, so 
general in Europe, means suf- 
fering for our soldiers, which 
can be greatly relieved by 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

Tutti Frutti is refreshing, keeps 
the mouth moist, and its five 
mellow flavors give the variety 
which soldiers crave. This is 
good to remember and to 
suggest to your friends. 



When writing- advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



Till 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Aug., 1916 



"RITE"NURSER 



(Cop))righl applied for) 



Note the 

Lip. 

holds the 

Nipple. 



Full 
Capacity. 



Graceful 
Lines. 



No Sharp 
Corners 




Why buy 

the old 3 

Star 

Nurser 

when you 

canbuythe 

RITE 

bottle at 
the righl 

price ? 
Packed 1 
gross to 

a case. 
Order Now 



The Richards Glass Co., Limited 

TORONTO Phone Adel. 576 CANADA 

" The Home of the Rigo Line" 



NURSES' AGENCY 

Physicians should note that I am prepared 
to supply Graduate, Undergraduate and 
District Nurses, at any hour, night 
or day. I use the greatest of care to supply 
only women of unquestioned reputation and 
ability. — A trial call solicited. 

9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 
Telephone Main 1507 

Nights, Sundays and Holidays, 
Telephone Park. 5320 

H. S. DAVEY 

163 '4 Church St. Toronto 



Members of 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

desirous of getting rid of the worry of book- 
keeping and who have not had the time to give 
the attention necessary for the successful collec- 
tion of their accounts, should call upon 

H. R. Heyes & Company 

59 YONGE ST., TORONTO 

Messrs. Hpyes iSc Co. are prepared to attend to all such 
details, not only the actual collection of the accounts ; but, 
through a special system of their own, attend to all book-keeping 
and records, mailing of monthly statements, etc., etc. 

The firm will be very glad to hear from physicians, and, on 
receipt of a post card or phone message, will call upon the Doctor 
at his office at any convenient hour. 

The Telephone No. is "M. 4962" 



When writinET advertiser.?, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



IX 



A Reliable Disinfectant 

Piatt s Cnloriaes nas a record or 
over tnirty-six years, ana nas the 
endorsement or the medical pro- 
lession. 

A poM'ertul disinrectant ana de- 
odorant 'wnicn destroys germs and 
bad odors. 

Is absolutely Odorless and does 
not cover one odor witn anotner. 

f^ hlorides 

TIlG 0€lOI*lGSS 

IDlsinrGc-taTx-b 

T-wo Sizes — 25c. and 50c. 

Sold everywtere. 

Write for booklet to the manufacturer 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 



A Pleased Patient 

IS a sure result whenever or 
wherever PLUTO WATER 
has been recommended for con- 
stipation, obstinate gastro-intes- 
tinal disturbances and dyspepsia. 

The Evidence 

consists of thou- 
sands of patients 
who have enjoyed 
the remarkably 
beneficial results 
from a therapeutic 
regimen including the daily use 
of PLUTO WATER. 
Samples, clinical data, and in- 
teresting literature describing the 
hygienic methods employed in 

bottling PLUTO WATER 

mailed on request. 

PLUTO 

Bottled by tKe FRENCH LICK SPRINGS HOTEL CO. 

French Lick, Indiana 




In order to tuild up a patient s strengtli after ill- 
ness, from wnatever'cause, increase tne naemoglobin 
in tne red blood corpuscles by prescribing 

O'Keefe's Old Stock Ale 
Pilsener Lager 

Extra Mild Stout 

Tnese malt preparations will increase appetite, kelp 
the patient to sleep and rapidly bring him back to 
normal health. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



X 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



An Li'., IIIIG 




TTz-^QPTTT A T TrOTTIPlVrF'"\IT The New General Hospital of Montreal, and scores 
Jj^^-^i^J^J^ J^ -^^ riiyuxiTiVXi^i-^l X ^^ other Canadian Hospitals, are equipped with 

■' Alaska " Beds and 

OSTERMOOR MATTRESSES 

They last a lifetime, and are absolutely satisfactory. More sanitary than hail — for less monev. 



THE ALASKA FEATHER AND DOWN CO., Limited 



Montreal and Winnipeg 



GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use, the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions (no weighing, measuring 
or waste). 

For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 

For cleansing wounds (bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 

For disinfecting surface lesions. 

For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not af?ect nickel 
or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital. 
Our word and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample with descriptive literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS CSi. CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot— 118 St. Paul Street W., Montreal, Quebec. 



"When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aim-., 19 IG 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XI 





SEAL 
BRAND 



Coffee — 
that "will make 
your household 
happy; your 
guests grateful; 
yourself enthu- 
siastic* 



In %, 1 and 2 pound cans. 
Whole — ground — pulverized — 
also Fine Ground for Percolators. 



CHASE & SANBORN, MONTREAL. 

159 



The Soap 
for health 



Better to be 

safe than 

sorry — 

wash with 

LIFEBUOY 
SOAP 

ITS choice oils 
give a smooth 
velvety lather 
that soothes while 
it cleanses the skin 
— Its mild carbolic 
solution means no 
germs. The odor 
does not cling, but 
vanishes a few 
seconds after use. 

Grocers sell Lifebuoy 
Healthy Soap 



lbl4 



> 



*^'<iy*S 



4 



ST5^ 



When writing- advertisers, please mention 'i'l^e Hospital .vorUl. 



Xll 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Aug., 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfully 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of " Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to Lysol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydal Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 

POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS CO. OF CANADA 

Toronto, Ont. 



12 Rats Caught in One Day. 



Catcher Resets Itself. 



Rats and Mice Eat the Meat out of Oats and Corn and Horses 

get the Husk. 

Caught 51 Rats One Week 

i.MiiiiiiiiniuuiiiiiiiiniiiitiinMiiiiiiiitiiiiHniiiiiiiiiiniitniiiiniiiMiiniiiiiiiiMniiiti<iHiiiniiuiiinuiiMiMtiiMMHMriiiiHiiiiMiiMiiniiMiiiiiiiuniiiiiiiiMiii^ 

Trap resets itself. 22 inches high. Will | 

last for years. Can't get out of order. | 

Weighs 7 pounds. 12 rats caught one day. I 

Cheese is used, doing away with poi-sons. | 

This trap does its work, never fails and | 

is always ready for the next rat. When I 

rats and mice pass device they die. Kats | 

are disease carriers, al.'-o cause fires. I 

These catchers should be in every hospital 1 

and school building. Eat catcher sent pre- | 

paid on receipt of $3. Mouse catcher, 10 | 

ins. high, .$1. Money back if not satistied. I 




itiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiitiiiitiiiiiiuiiiiiiitiiniiiniiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiMiiirii.iiiir 



H. D. SWARTS Ma'nuTturer Box 566, Scranton,Pa. 

Universal Rat and Mouse Traps 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xlll 



The Largest Hospitals 



Made 

in 

Canada 



have proved 



t FLOOR 

WAX 






Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
wood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. 

Manufactured by 

COOKE & BOULTON, '°|o'5!y„|'o ^ 



DOCTOR 



IN CASES OF 



Delayed Convalescence or 
for Patients in Need of an 
Invigorating Tonic 

PRESCRIBE 

Puritan Invalids' 
Port Wine 

It is made from Canadian 
Grapes and medicated with 
Cinchona Bark. Procur- 
able from any druggist. 

Price One Dollar a Quart Bottle 

PURITAN WINE CO., TORONTO 

Telephone Park. 5454 



La Deesse 
Corsets 

Excel in Style 

Comfort 

Satisfaction 




Try them and be 
convinced. 



ROGEI 
TABLETS 

Correct 




Sample On Kequest 
Bristol' Myers Co. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 



TABLETS 



mouno M wuwKM 
iW IMtt5WW f 

tftoonyHtayt viM 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XIV 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Aug., 191G 



"PROCTOR : — In this age the critical and progressive 
^^ Doctor has a keen appreciation for that which is 
giving quick results. 

JAMUN COMPOUND IN DIABETES 

IS SPECIFIC IN ACTION 

A modern product, strictly ethical. Literature will 
be sent to members of the Medical Profession upon 
application. 

The National Drug and Chemical Company are 
the wholesale distributing agents for Canada. 

THE JAMUN COMPANY 
343-344 Loeb Arcade, - - Minneapolis, Minn. 



SANITARY WASHING APPLIANCES 

Manufactured by 

CANADA WIRE AND IRON GOODS CO., HAMILTON 




Illustrating our HOLDER AND BASKETS for Sterilizing Glasses and Silverware 

This type of cquiDinent is in use at the Guelph Agricultural Co'Ickc. ISQUIRIES SCLICITFI) 

We Manufacture METAL LOCKERS and HOSPITAL TABLES 




Invalid Chairs and Tricycles 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

This has been our study for thirty-five years. "We build chairs 
that suit the requirements of any case. If your dealer cannot 
supply you, write us direct for catalogue No. 80, and prices. 



GENDRON WHEEL CO., 



-TOLEDO, O., U.S.A. 



Wlipn writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XV 



Ingram 

& 

Bell 

LIMITED 

TORONTO 

J 

OurSundryCatalog 
awaitsyour request 


H 


ospital Supplies 




Sole A_^ents for 

BRAMHALL DEANE 

HIGH PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

WAPPLER TRANSFORMERS 

and 

HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS 






Our Specialties : 






Manufacturers of 

HYPODERMIC TABLETS 

COMPRESSED TABLETS 

ELIXIRS, OINTMENTS, Etc. 

FULL LINE OF DRUGS 






A postal requesting quotations will receive 
immediate attention. 





Physicians know that 

Hardwood Floors are 
Sanitary 

When consulted on the sub- 
ject, medical men will be acting 
in their own interests and those 
of their patients in stating that 
the best and the cheapest hard- 
wood floors in Toronto are laid 
by 

THEO. S. WAYDO 

19 Goodwood Avenue, Toronto 

Phone Junction 4828 

Flooring provided either plain or orna- 
mental, tongued and grooved, end 
matched and blind nailed. Prices 
complete, waxed and polished, 17 
cents per square foot up. 

Remember the Name-^WAYDO 



For Hospital Sun Rooms 



A.F: S M A L L"S,;^-^//l^' 

IMPROVED 'il/ ,f'^:l''-~ 



AQUARIA 




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XVI 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Aug., 1916 




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*' ?l^ofl}Jital HHaintpnanrp anb 
JFinatir* " 

C.J. CO. HASTINGS. Medical Health 
Officer. City of Toronto: HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY, B.A., M.D., Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals. Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES, late Secy., Royal Free 
Hospital. London. England. 

" i^oapttal tqut^tmcnt an& 
AppltanrfB " 

N. A. POWELL. M.D„ CM.. Senior 
Assistant Surgeon in charge Shields Emerg- 
ency Hospital, Pro feasor Medical Jurisprudence, 
Medical Department, University oi Toronto. 

fHrbirtnr " 
J. W. S. McCULLOUGH. M.D.. Chief 

Officer of Health for the Province of Ontario. 

J. H. ELLIOTT. M.p.. Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Toronto. 

p. H. BRYCE, M.D., Chief Medical Officer. 
Dept. of The Interior, Otta\va. 



" SfurBtng Ippartinpttt " 



MISS MARGARET CONROY. Boston. 

Mass. 

" l^oHjittal CUnttatrurtion " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES, M.D.. Cincin- 
nati, Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH, 
M.D., M.VO.. Medical Superintendent, 
NVestern Infirmary. Glasgo-w. 

" fflfitral ©rnatttEatinn " 
HERBERT A. BRUCE. M.D., F.R.S.C, 

Surgeon. Toronto General Hosrital, Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE, M.D.. Kingston, Ont. ; H. 
E. WEBSTER. Esq.. Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG, M.D., L.R.C.P., London. 
Consultant, Toronto Hospital for Incurables, 
Toronto, 

" g>onnIngi} " 

J. T. CILMOUR, M.D., Warden, Central 
Prison, Guelph, Ont. 

" JSubprruloHiH ^attalnna " 

GEORGE D. PORTER. M.D.. Toronto ; 
J. H. HOLBROOK. M.B., Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton, Ont. 



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Vol. X. 



TORONTO, AUGUST, 1916 



No. 2 



Editorials 



A NEW HOSPITAL UNIT 



The Government decided a few weeks ago to form a 
new Hospital Unit, to take the place of what has been 
known as the Military Hospitals Commission. The 



34 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aus., 1916 



to* J 



new command will be a duly established branch of 
the Canadian Expeditionary Force, but will confine 
its work chiefly to the care of convalescents on their 
arrival in Canada. The work of the Military Hos- 
pitals Commission has grown so of recent months 
and will doubtless be greatly increased in the future 
on account of the expected heavy casualties when the 
British make their long-delayed advance. The new 
Unit has been constituted by Capital Order-in-Coun- 
cil for the purposes of administration, discipline and 
command. It will include ten divisions, one for each 
military division in Canada. In each hospital or 
convalescent home there will be an ofiicer and sub- 
ordinates having direction of its affairs, subject of 
course to the general jurisdiction of the Central 
Commission in Ottawa. The new Unit will be under 
the command of Lt.-Col. Sharpies of Quebec, who has 
been in charge of the Depot for Returned Soldiers 
there. The unit will co-operate with the Army Medi- 
cal Service in the arrangement and discipline of the 
various institutions and for the purpose of medical 
attendance on the men. It is expected that the work 
of this new organization will have very beneficial 
results in preventing cases of hardship and distress 
among returned soldiers. 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 35 

NEW HOSPITAL ASSOCIATIONS 



This journal has repeatedly advocated the formation 
of hospital associations in various sections of the 
continent; and we are pleased to note that such as- 
sociations are being formed. 

The Catholic sisters, many cf whom are precluded 
from joining with and attending outside associations, 
are forming societies of their own. Quite recently 
State of Ohio hospital workers met in such conven- 
tion. Canada had an active association until the out- 
break of the war, when its annual meetings were 
dropped. We trust that with the close of the war the 
Canadian Association will revive and continue its 
good work. 

Philadelphia has a society which has done some 
good work, particularly in studies of hospital effi- 
ciency. Meetings of New York superintendents 
effected a marked improvement in out-patient work, 
and in dividing the 'city into ambulance districts, 
thus preventing much overlapping. 

Other states, sections, and cities will organize in 
the near future, and hospitals, both local and at 
large, will reap advantage. 



REFLECTIONS OF A MEDICAL TEACHER 



The address of Dr. W. J. Councilman, delivered be- 
fore the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Mary- 
land, and reported in the issue of the Journal 



36 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aup„ 1916 



&• 



of the American Medical Association, June 24th, 
makes very entertaining reading; and contains some 
good advice. 

During a period of many years as a teacher of 
medical students in the subject of pathology, he has 
had an abundant opportunity of studying and sizing 
up the medical student. 

The average American boy of 15 is not so well 
trained as the same aged German boy. There is a 
lack of thoroughness and evidence of too much as- 
sistance in obtaining knowledge, and a lack of inde- 
pendent initiative and self-direction. 

The average American boy has not been trained 
to observe well, and lacks in ability to express him- 
self clearly and with facility. His handwriting is 
indistinct and without character. 

On the whole, students who have taken the A.B. 
degree are better men than those who have not se- 
cured it. 

In choosing their life-work, students — to Dr. 
Councilman's regret — are not aiming at becoming 
teachers. There is great scope for teaching and 
research in medicine, and these should go tog<^}ther. 
The amount of research, as instanced by the massive 
reports issued from time to time by certain univer- 
sities and institutes is not an index of the value of 
work done. 

Speaking of the handicap many university pro- 
fessors are under who receive small stipends, the 
essayist considers that it would be better if the uni- 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 37 

versities were planted in a wilderness, where there 
would be an absence of social distractions and a re- 
moval of the temptation to any professors' wives to 
spend their hard-earned salaries on superfluities. 
Outsiders might be charged an admission fee if they 
wished to come and live in this Utopia. 

Concerning the various fields of endeavor open 
to varying types of medical students, the writer 
facetiously refers to that class " whose work will be 
exclusively in the care of that 20 per cent, of the 
public for whom illness is often a sad pleasure, prac- 
titioners who understand inherited constitutions, fat 
reduction and high finance." 

Dr. Councilman lays much stress on laboratory 
work. The lecture, of course, has its p^ace as a men- 
tal recreation and a stimulant. Some lectures have 
aspects which are not usually regarded as assets — 
those with the power of inducing gentle, refreshing, 
noiseless sleep in the audience. To one who is a 
poor sleeper there conies a great satisfaction in see- 
ing sleep descending upon an audience. The lec- 
turer experiences an exhilaration at the demonstra- 
tion of the possession of a power which makes him 
akin to the God " Who giveth His beloved sleep." 

We commend this valuable address to our 
readers. 



38 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 19 IG 

THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 



The meeting of the American Medical Association, 
held in Detroit in mid-June was a marked success. 
The registration amounted to some 4,500. The lar- 
gest meeting was held in Chicago some years since, 
with an attendance of over 6,000. 

The programmes were good in all sections. Every 
doctor is not allowed the opportunity of reading a 
paper at this big meeting — only a select few, and 
these by special invitation. Our readers who are 
interested may secure all the papers by subscribing 
for the journal of the Association, which is published 
in Chicago. 

A sprinkling of medical men from Canada ap- 
peared. There ought to have been more. From 
Toronto we noticed Dr. H. B. Anderson, President 
of the Ontario Medical Association ; Dr. R. A. Reeve, 
Ex.-Pres. of the British Medical Assn. ; Dr. W. H. B. 
Aikens, President of the Toronto Academy of Medi- 
cine, and Dr. Chas. O'Reilly, former superintendent 
of Toronto General Hospital. Dr. O'Reilly and Dr. 
Anderson were guests at a dinner given by Canadian 
medical alumnas practising in Michigan. 

A radium society was inaugurated at the meet- 
ing, with Dr. W. H. B. Aikens as first chairman. 

The hospital section, though advertised in the 
earlier prospectuses of the Association, did not have 
a meeting. It has become defunct. Last year at San 
Francisco a mere handful of medical superintendents 



Alio-., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 39 



'&•; 



were in attendance ; and the attendance at Minnea- 
polis the year before was not large. 

The hospital section of the American Medical As- 
sociation was a short-lived one — existing only some 
three or four years. It presented two or three credit- 
able programmes. 

This section appealed, of course, mainly to doc- 
tors who were hospital superintendents. Most of 
such doctors are members of the American Hospital 
Association, to which they have given fine allegiance. 
Most of them doubtless felt that one meeting a year 
was all they could find time to attend, and that meet- 
ing proved to be the meeting of the Hospital Associa- 
tion rather than the hospital section of the big medi- 
cal gathering. 



THE TREND OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH 



Recent statistics regarding the public health of in- 
habitants of Great Britain and United States afford 
interesting comparisons and give food for refiection. 

In both countries the so-called infectious, or com- 
municable diseases, are on the decrease relatively, 
and the degenerative diseases — diseases of the 
cardio-vascular renal systems are on the increase. 
Great Britain has a lower rate of mortality in these 
vascular and kidney lesions than United States. 

It is gratifying to note that the death-rate from 
tuberculosis is gradually lessening ; and there is some 
hope for considering that the prediction of one of 



40 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

to-day's well-known physicians, that tuberculosis will 
be stamped out within fifty years, may be fulfilled. 

Decrease in the death-rate from diphtheria may 
be certainly attributed to the use of antitoxin, and to 
greater care in carrying out isolation and quarantine 
measures, together with the observance of medical 
asepsis. The lowering of mortality statistics in scar- 
let fever and measles may be put under the second 
category. 

The increase in degenerative disease is due to the 
swiftness of the pace at which the modern city 
dweller lives, to the use of alcohol and tobacco ; and to 
the poison of syphilis. 

Business competition, the race for wealth, and 
ambition for higher social rank, the desire of edu- 
cating the children ; the hurry, excitement, the noise 
and bustle of modern city life, all tend to make father 
and mother old before their time. And age here 
means premature senility — a disease of arterial de- 
generation, due to nerve strain and intestinal tox- 
emia. 

The remedy for these untoward conditions is edu- 
cation. To education, we doubt not, the British owe 
their record of suffering less from degenerative 
diseases than we. The Britisher goes later to work 
than his American brother, works with more de- 
liberation, takes more time at his meals, can break 
off for a cup of five o'clock tea (an ordinary right 
in the London hospitals), goes in more for sport and 
walks. Whoever sees anyone in America on a walk- 
ing tour? This is a common sight in England. 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 41 

Our schools might do more in the way of education 
in public health. Instead of so much anatomy and 
physiology, more talks on how to live — how and what 
to eat and drink, how to sleep, exercise, bathe, attend 
to eyes, ears, teeth ; necessity of frequent hand wash- 
ing; cleaning of houses, room.s, clothing, dishes; 
avoidance of infection, and other simple procedures 
which go to promote high health and lessen disease. 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION : THEIR RELATION- 
SHIP TO ESTATES 



Iisr the multiplicity of duties devolving upon the medical pro- 
fession, one of the most delicate concerns the confidential re- 
lations towards patients who seek information in moments of 
emergency as to the appointment of executors for the care or 
disposal of their property. 

Members of the profession are only too familiar with the 
human tendency to procrastinate in the settlement of personal 
affairs, until sickness or accident make it imperative that they 
receive immediate attention — often under circumstances when 
the presence of relatives, or lawyers, cannot be secured. 

The attitude of the profession is rightly strict upon the 
subject and has been jealously guarded, but events, especially 
those arising out of conditions created by the war, have directed 
the attention of medical bodies to the diiSculty of the situation. 
. Happily in Canada a course is open, which, while meeting 
a patient's necessity, will enable the profession to place the 
matter in skilled hands and which is not in any way open to the 
suggestion of ill-advised interference. 

Trust companies, registered under the Trust and Loan Com- 
panies' Act, and approved by the Lieutenant-Governor of On- 
tario in Council, are fit and proper institutions to act as trustees 
and executors. 

Full particulars of these companies are published annually 
by the Ontario Legislature, and the names of any of them may 
safely be suggested by a medical attendant in such emergency, 
thus relieving him from an embarrassing situation without in 
any way disturbing professional etiquette. 



42 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

Original Contributions 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY FROM THE STAND 
POINT OF THE EFFICIENT EXPERT* 



BT FRANK B. GILBRETH^ PROVIDENCE, R.I. 



Your Chairman, Dr. Codman, in asking me to come here 
to-dav desires, as yon can see by the title selected for me hy 
him. that I shall tell you just exactly what an unprejudiced 
and trained observer in the field of waste elimination thinks 
of the hospital problem, and just what method of attack upon 
it he would advocate. 

It is necessary, first of all, for me to state what an efficiency 
expert does and plans to do, and, in the second place, to state 
just what hospital efficiency is from the standpoint of waste 
elimination. 

ISTow, an "efficiency expert," so-called by everyone except 
the " efficiency expert " himself, is simply an engineer who 
prefers to substitute accurate measurement for personal opinion, 
judgment, and unscientifically derived conclusions, and who 
has devised units, methods, and devices of measurement which 
enable him to measure and compare the factors of results of 
problems which have been put before him. He is not a man 
who comes to you with any ready-made conclusions which are 
the result of theory only, but is rather a man who comes to 
you with measuring means for comparing any performance with 
its plan. You, whatever your interest in the hospital problem, 
whether you are doctors, or surgeons, or superintendents, or 
trustees, or heads of nurses' training schools, or any others inter- 
ested in the problem, are primarily scientists. You are inter- 
ested in facts and the underlying laws which the facts illustrate. 
All science is based on measurement, and you, above all people, 
know what we owe to science and to measurement. The prob- 

♦Delivered before the Boston Medical Societv. 



A.ue-., 191(3 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 43 



•& 



lem, then, simply resolves itself into this: In how far has mea- 
surement been applied to hospital work in all its branches, and 
in how far have the results of measurement been taken as actual 
standards for ]-)ractiee ? How can we consider the hospital as 
a factory, and what methods of measuring efficiency in the 
manufacturing establishment are usable in a hospital ? 

In considering hospital efficiency, there are two main factors 
which must be observed, two questions which must be asked. 
The first is, " What does this factory, called a hospital, manu- 
facture, that is, what is the hospital aiming to do, and how is 
it going about to attain this aim?" The second question is, 
" Are you getting the product as cheaply, as well, as quickly, 
and in as large quantities as is possible, or as you should ? " 

Now, hospital efficiency may be stated in many sorts of 
terms, but to consider the hospital in the most general terms 
it must be considered as a "happiness factory." The hospital 
is subject to all the laws and processes of obtaining efficiency 
in the manufacturing establishment. The output of the hos- 
pital or the manufacturing product of the hospital is Happiness 
]\rinutes, and the aim of the hospital is to give the largest 
number of units of happiness to the most people, with the least 
expenditure of time, of money, and of effort; or, in other 
words, with the least expenditure of energy possible. 

We have to think of this product of happiness in a twofold 
way : ' 

1. We must think of the happiness of mankind as a 
whole, that is, of the social group, of everyone concerned. 

'2. We must think of the liappiness of the individuals 
comprising the group. 

Now, the happiness of the social group will be best gained 
by having each individual in the group happy, and by having 
all these individuals working together for the good of the 
Mdiole. In the factory this condition is called " Hearty Co- 
operation." It is one of the nine fundamental features of 
measured functional management, and is most carefully plan- 
ned for and maintained by laws scientifically derived from 
experimental psychology. 



44 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

There is nothing that corresponds to this in the present 
management of any of the scores of 'hospitals that we have 
surveyed. The problem is not one of medicine or surgery. It 
is simply a problem of management. I do not expect you to 
agree with me to-day. If you do not agree with me, I suggest 
that you write down what you think the purpose of a hospital 
is. It is not at all important that we agree among ourselves 
to-day as to what the fundamental aim is. The important thing- 
is that the aim be determined accurately by a process of 
unbiased analysis and measurement, and that we have in mind 
that we must determine as exactly as possible at the start the 
subject matter of what we are trying to accomplish. 

Let us grant for the moment that I have stated the aim 
correctly. The next question is, " Are we getting what we are 
aiming for ? " 'No matter what your statement of the aim may 
be, have you determined to what extent you are succeeding 
in doing what you want to do? Individual surgeons and hos- 
pital superintendents have said, '' Yes, we have, and we are 
perfectly satisfied." But, if you have, have you put your 
results into such form that others may use them in a definite 
process of the transference of skill, and that all interested in 
hospital activity may start in to improve upward from the 
results of the best and most successful ? Granted for a moment 
that, as a group, your hospital force with all its members and 
different lines of activity is getting what it desires to as great 
a degree as possible, how about the individuals comprising the 
group? Is each doctor, nurse, worker, and patient getting as 
much happiness out of his work as he can? Is he doing as 
efficient work as he can ? IsTow, each man is most efficient when 
he does that work which he can do best, and likes to do best, 
for the greatest per cent, of his time possible. The social group 
is doing its most efficient work when every member of an organi- 
zation has been given this type of work, and has been relieved 
of all other types of work, such work being given to those speci- 
ally fitted to do it, and delighted to do it. 

It is not my desire to offer any but constructive criticism 
in this paper ; but I feel sure that I am not going too far when 
I say that no hospital has as yet submitted its aims and its 
methods to accurate measurement, and that most hospitals have 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 45 

not put that work wliieh they have done in such form that it 
can be eflfectively used by other hospitals. 

" But," you will say, " it is easy to say that the hospital 
should determine its actions by accurate measurements. Just 
how would we go to work on the actual application ? " 

First of all, then, by applying the survey principle, by re- 
cording exactly luJiat you are doing, and hoiv, and, as far as 
possible, luhy. It is not my intent* on to attempt ihere, as I 
could, to tell you what is done in applying the principle of 
w^aste elimination, or Scientific Management, to the industrial 
establishment; to translate and to adapt this work to hospital 
practice, and to tell you what has actually been done in the 
field of hospital w^ork. It is simply my intention to show you 
in broad outline that the underlvino; methods ^if waste elimina- 
tion, obtaining of standards, teaching, and transferring of 
skill are applicable to all fields of activity. It must be stated 
here, then, that the first step in all improvement is a most 
careful, painstaking, and accurate record of present practice. 
But where is there such a record ? We have been trying fo?^ 
three years to get some surgeon to write a detailed account of 
an operation! This work of recording is not to be lightly 
regarded, for it lies at the foundation of all permanent and 
self-perpetuating improvement. It is no secret process. It is 
not work requiring a most expert knowledge of the trade, or 
«ven an expert knowledge of how to make a survey. It is 
work which requires a fundamental analysis of the problem, 
and an absolute determination to submit everything just as it is 
for an accurate, lasting record that shall be un]")rejudiced, dis- 
interested, and scientific in the highest sense of that term. A 
preliminary elementary study may well take the form of sup- 
plying answers to the simplest of questions, such as, " What 
is done?" "Who does it?" "Where is it done?" "When is 
it done?" "How is it done?" Why is it done?" Are you 
Avilling to submit everything in your hospital to this searching 
questioning, to lay the full record, as taken down, before your- 
selves and each other, and to work out the solution from there ? 
That is the great question to answer, and, if you answer, " Yes," 
to this, the entire solution of the problem is simi^ly a matter 
-of keeping at the work. 



46 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Auff., 11)16 



The next step following the recording is applying the mea- 
surement to the records. Naturally, such measurement is 
technical work. In order to do it, you must understand the 
fundamentals of management, and you must apply the various 
tests which have been worked out, and which apply to capacity 
of all sorts. It is right here that you must realize the like- 
nesses which underly all lines of activity. If this century is 
going to be great for anything, it will be because so many of the 
men of to-day have the scientific attitude of mind, are willing 
to put aside prejudices, and parallels, and platitudes, and mis- 
beliefs, and standardized blunders, and look at things as cold- 
blooded measurement shows them on the chart. It has been 
customary always to emphasize the difference between things. 
This is the day to look for the likenesses as well as the differ- 
ences. The great fundamental thing underlying all lines of 
activity is the.fact that it is human activity, and that the study 
of the human being, the way he moves, the way he thinks, the 
things that influence him, the things that he influences, and 
his decisions underly everything that he does in every field. 
Physiology, psychology, sociology — the study of man in his 
various aspects, in his various activities — these lie at the base 
of it all. ' 

You are a surgeon. You handle instruments. You operate 
on human beings. Are you willing to say that you handle tools, 
that you work in a plant, that you have a product ? You are a 
hospital superintendent. Are you willing to say that you work 
in a plant, that you route material, that you direct function- 
alized workers ? You are a hospital trustee. Is it apparent 
that you must aim for a standardized product, waste elimina- 
tion, a " paying investment " ? " Yes," but you say, " Why 
think of these things in these terms? Why bring out the com- 
parison to the industrial plant? Our work is different, is 
greater." Or, as one doctor said to me, " We don't need effi- 
ciency so much as you do in a factory, because when we need 
money we just go out and get it." " "WTiat is there to gain by 
using the industrial vocabulary ? " 

Simply this, the industrial world has been obliged, through 
economic pressure, to go into the field of waste elimination ; 
and, because it has been obliged to go, has gone ; and, because 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 47 

it lias gone, has worked out underlying laws for attaining least 
waste, underlying methods for applying these laws, most funda- 
mental of all, a realization of the importance of measurement 
and an equipment of units, methods and devices of measure- 
ment that make waste elimination possible. The results of 
our investigations show conclusively that you, with the greater 
need and the greater education and the greater field and the 
work of greater importance, can gain results from measured 
functional management, the magnitude and far-reaching effects 
of which no industry could hope to equal. 

You have but one thing to do, to see and accept accurate 
measurement. What has been done in the industries is at your 
service. You, as individuals, are, or should be, taking these 
results and going to work at your own problems, but the big 
things cannot be done until you go into this science as a group, 
ready to work each in his own line and all together for the 
increased efficiency of the hospital. Functionalization, inspec- 

' tion, standardization, the right incentive, the proper teaching, 
the least fatigue, the greatest welfare — these are the results. 
At the root of them all lies this one thing, measurement, 

. It is the solution of the problem of hospital efficiency. Time 
study, motion study, the chrono-cyclegraph, and micro-motion 
processes, all these are means of making measurements that lie 
ready to your hand. The one great preliminary question to 
be answered is, " Shall we' make the hospital a place fit for 
scientists to live and work in ? Shall we submit our work to 
measurement and act on the results ? " 



48 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

War Hospitals 

THE CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE 



"No braucli of the Canadian service has done more heroic 
and beneficial work in the present war than the Canadian Army 
Medical Service. I'nheralded and nnsimg,'the men who wore 
the sign of the Red Cross have carried out their duties, and 
thousands of men will return to Canada when, with less care 
and attention, they would be sleeping in a soldiers' grave. Under 
the expert guidance of Surgeon-General G. L. Jones, the system 
of dealing with the wounded and sick has been perfected, so 
that now from the time the brave soldier is struck down by the 
enemy he is accorded the best of attention and care until he is 
once more fitted to take his place in the world. Many stories 
of heroism could be written of the stretcher-bearers and medical 
ofl&cers who, undaunted by the battle raging about them, recover 
the wounded, render whatever aid is immediately required, and 
start them on the road to recovery. The splendid devotion of 
the Canadian nursing sisters is also a source of great pride. 

In Russia, France, Belgium and the Mediterranean, wher- 
ever the Allies are to be found fighting, tlie Canadian jNledical 
Service is represented. With the Russian forces the Dominion 
is represented by one nursing sister. Canada has supplied' 4,320 
beds and 1,264 officers, nurses and men to the Mediterranean 
Expeditionary Force. ISTo. 7 Canadian Cavalry Field Ambulance 
is serving with the Indian Cavalry Corps. The total personnel 
in the various fields is 6,935, comprising one surgeon-general, 
ten colonels, 48 lieutenant-colonels, 93 majors, 458 captains, 21 
lieutenants, 723 nursing sisters, and 5,528 non-commissioned 
officers and men. The total bed accommodation is 14,963.* 

Major D. A. Clark, of Toronto, realizing how anxious To- 
ronto people must be regarding the care of their loved ones 
at the front when they are wounded, prepared the following, 
showing how Canadian casualties are dealt with : 

*These figures were correct at date of writinp. but now may be subject to 
revision. 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 49- 

Everj soldier carries in a special pocket in his tunic an 
emergency bandage; this is applied immediately on receiving 
the wound, either by himself or a comrade. 

As soon as possible a soldier is got to an advanced dressing 
station. This is a concealed spot — a hole in the ground, an 
old cellar, or any place suitable and concealed from the enemy's 
fire. From there he is picked up by the field ambulance, which 
approaches during the night to the nearest possible point. Fur- 
ther dressing and treatment is given at the field ambulance 
station (usually two or three miles behind the firing line), and 
as soon as possible the casualty is conveyed to the casualty 
clearing station, and then by ambulance to a stationary hospital 
or one of the general hospitals at the base. The advanced 
points deal with all soldiers of the Allies regardless of nation- 
ality, race, or color, the first consideration being prompt atten- 
tion to the injuries received. 

On the arrival of a soldier at the base, or any intermediate 
points, if the injuries are trifling, and he is going to be well 
within three weeks, he is sent to a convalescent company or a 
convalescent camp, and returned from there to his fighting 
unit. Other cases are transported, at the earliest possible 
moment consistent with safety, to hospitals in Great Britain. 
There are about 1,500 active treatment hospitals, of which 
the only Canadian ones are: 

The Daughters of the Empire Hospital for Officers, 1 Hyde 
Park PL, London. 

The Duohess of Connaught Canadian Red Cross Hospital, 
Taplow, Bucks. 

Moore Barracks Hospital, Shorncliife. 

The Ontario Military Hospital, Orpington, Kent. 

Shomcliffe Military Hospital, Shorncliffe. 

Beachborough (Queen Alexandra Canadian Hospital) — 
under Imperial control, but supported by Canadian War Con- 
tingent Association. 

Soldiers are received into all these active treatment hospitals 
independently of the regiment to which they belong (nation- 
ality or color), so that a Canadian soldier may be in any one 
of the 1,500 hospitals. 



50 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

For some months after tlie begimiing of the war, in order 
that soldiers might be near their homes, transfers were allowed 
to be made from one hospital to another on the consent of the 
officers commanding the respective hospitals. It was foimd, 
however, that this necessitated a very great amount of work on 
account of the number of these transfers, that the whole service 
was being clogged, and the transporting of wounded soldiers 
from overseas into hospital was seriously interfered with by 
this internal congestion. It was, therefore, decided that these 
transfers could only be carried out imder the direction of the 
deputy director of medical service of each respective command, 
and the consent of this officer must now always be obtained 
before any transfer can be carried out. 

Canadian soldiers are again gathered back under the control 
of the Canadian service in the Canadian convalescent hospitals, 
and all 'Canadian soldiers on their discharge from active treat- 
ment hospitals must be stent to a Canadian convalescent hospital. 
These are: 

Bearwood Park, Wokingham, Berks. 

Canadian Convalescent Hospital, Bromley, with its beauti- 
ful annex of Kingswood, Dulwich, a house standing in thirty 
acres of land, originally the home of Johnston Levis (Bovril), 
a well-known Canadian, and now completely furnished and 
equipped to accommodate ninety convalescent Canadian soldiers, 
and maintained wholly at the expense of the company and its 
staff. 

Hillingdon House, LTxbridge. 

King's Canadian Bed Cross Hospital, Bushey Park. 

Convalescent Hospital (Canadian Section), Woodcote Park, 
Epsom. 

And into these all sick or wounded Canadian soldiers are 
gathered. From these they are sent forward as soon as possible 
to the Canadian Casualty Assembly Centre, Folkestone, where 
they appear before a medical board, and are disposed of in 
accordance with their physical condition. 

In addition to this system of hospitalization there are special 
Canadian hospitals for treatment of particular conditions. The 
West Cliff Canadian Eye and Ear Hospital, Folkestone, takes 
care of all cases of injury or disease of the special senses ; the 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 51 



'&'7 



G-raiivillo CaiTadian Special Hospital looks after all cases of 
bone injury, of injury to nerves and joints, cases of shell shock, 
and special cases requiring electrical treatment. The work of 
these two hospitals is among the very finest in England, and 
the results obtained are not excelled by any hospitals in the 
whole service. Colonel Courtenay of Ottawa is the officer in 
charge of West Oliif Hospital, and Colonel Ward of Winnipeg 
of the Granville Canadian Special Hospital, while Major Russel 
of Montreal is the consultant on nervous conditions (the work 
of this officer has been particularly brilliant.) There is also a 
special hospital at Buxton for the treatment of cases of rheuma- 
tism, and especially fine results are obtained there. 

On the arrival of a soldier at the Canadian Casualty Assem- 
bly Centre after leaving a convalescent hospital, he appears 
before a medical board, and is classified, as — 

Fit for duty. 

Fit for temporary light duty requiring physical exercise and 
training to become fit for duty. 

Fit for temporary base duty, or 

Fit for permanent base duty. 

Discharge from the service and invalided to Canada. 

Those soldiers requesting their discharge in England, if 
they are recommended for such, are brought before the Pensions 
and Claims Board, Bath, and their case is disposed of, but no 
soldier is allowed to be dfscharged in England till he has pro- 
duced adequate documentary evidence that he will not become 
a charge on the British public. 

In the case of soldiers who have received injuries to limbs 
necessitating amputation, the procedure of hospital treatment is 
the same until their arrival at a Canadian convalescent hospital. 
As soon as they arrive there, if they are sufficiently recovered, 
instefjd of being sent forward to the Canadian Casualty Centre, 
Folkestone, they are transferred to the Granville Canadian Spe- 
cial Hospital, Ramsgate. At this hospital, as soon as the stump 
is ready for measurement, the representative of the Artificial 
Limb Company, from Queen Mary's Auxiliary Hospital, Roe- 
hampton, sees the soldier and makes the necessary measure- 
ments and casts for the artificial limb. The soldier either 
rcnutiiis at Ramsgate pending the completion of his limb, or, if 



52 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

ihe Las friends in England, may be given furlough until this is 
ready. Upon the completion of the limb at Roehampton the 
soldier is transferred to the King's Canadian Convalescent Hos- 
pital, Bushev Park (which is near Roehampton), and from 
there driven over daily in an ambulance to Roehampton for fit- 
ting of the limb and practice in its use. When he becomes par- 
tially expert he is transferred again to Ramsgate, and his train- 
ing in the use of the limb completed there. Queen ]\Iary's 
Auxiliary Hospital, Roehampton, is the hospital specially set 
apart for the manufacture and adaptation of artificial limbs for 
all soldiers of the British service who have suffered the loss of 
limbs. 

Blinded soldiers are sent to St. Dunstan's College for the 
Blind, Regent's Park, London. This is one of the most beauti- 
ful residential colleges in England, is under the direction of 
Sir Arthur Pearson, and every comfort of these cases is studied 
and attended to there. These patients are particularly bright 
and cheery, and in no way reflect to the ordinary visitor the 
serious loss they have sustained. They are trained to various 
trades and useful occupations, such as ohicken raising, basket 
making, typing, massage, piano tuning, book making, etc., and 
are, of course, instructed in the Braille System and every 
method of reading and writing of the blind. A more delightful 
spot cannot be found in England, and more thorough training 
for these cases cannot be found in the world. 

An idea of the extent of the work of the Canadian medical 
service may be gained from the fact that during the week ending 
June 24 the number of Canadian soldier patients in hospitals 
in England was over ten thousand. 

The matter of artificial eyes is dealt with at Westcliffe, 
where an absolutely complete series of eyes (all sizes and colors) 
have been supplied by the leading British manufacturer and 
greatest artist in this somewhat restricted field of art, so that 
an exact copy of any can be promptly supplied, and these 
are given in duplicate to provide for any accidental loss. This 
was largely the work of Colonel Court enay. 



Aug., lOlG THE HOSPITAL WORLD 53 

EPSOM HOSPITAL IS UNIQUE 



"On the road to Epsom." The phrase recalls the thousand- 
times-pictured carnival of Derby Day, when the four-in-hand 
of the aristocrat jostles the light cart of the Lambeth tinsmith. 
A very different kind of traffic goes along the same road in these 
present months. Made up mostly of slate-colored ambulances, 
it leaves the route for the racecourse soon after the pleasant 
little red-tiled town is passed, and pulls up on one sweeping 
shoulder of the Downs, where the largest convalescent hospital 
in the United Kingdom has come into being. 

■ There are approximately four thousand beds for sick and 
wounded soldiers in this hospital. Fifteen hundred are Cana- 
dians, who are housed in their own special division. A thou- 
sand or more patients are from the Imperial forces, and the 
rest of the pojuilation of invalids consist of Australians and 
l^ew Zealanders. In its elements, therefore, the thousands in 
this city of wounded and sick soldiers are a replica of the mil- 
lions in the battle-line. 

Frankly, the proper title for this settlement is Woodcote 
Park. The surroundings thoroughly deserve such a pretty 
name. The huts of corrugated galvanized iron have brought thes 
term " Tin City." To be honest, this is the name by which it 
has been dubbed for the moment, and is justified when a view 
is taken at close quarters. K'ot the least disparagement- is in- 
tended. Pather the other way, for the name of " Tin City " 
is an indication that the Government Avhieh designed this bio- 
plant has been alive to its opportunities in gathering material 
the most easily convertible for the object, and putting it to 
use in an environment which of itself will do wonders in help- 
ing to make sick and wounded soldiers strong again. 

Surgeon-General Kilkelly, C.M.G., M.V.O., surgeon of the 
Grenadier Guards, is in command of the entire hospital. The 
Canadian division is commanded by Major L. E. W. Irvi.no- 
D.S.O., of Toronto, and is divided into two sections known as 
AVoodcote Park section, and Farm Camp section. Captain D. 
A. Murray, of Toronto, is in charge of the Woodcote Park 
section (nOO beds), and Captain Gonlden, of Winnipeg, of the 



54 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

Farm Camp section (1,000 beds). Other officers of the Cana- 
dian division are: Captain H. E. Thomas (Toronto), Adjutant 
and Transport Officer; Captain H. Bell (Collingwood), Eegis- 
trar; Captain Duck (P.E.I. ), Paymaster; Captain G. P. How- 
lett (Ottawa), Medical Officer; Captain Tait (Vancouver), 
Dental Officer; Captain the Rev. W. B. Carleton (Ottawa), 
Chaplain. Sergeant-Ma j or A. Pegg (Ottawa) is regimental 
■sergeant-major. 

Whatever mistakes have been made in the British conduct 
of the war, nobody has yet brought any charges of neglect 
against medical forces established in the United Kingdom. 
Woodcote Park, like every other hospital here, English or Cana- 
dian, is — as we expect — ^perfect in resources and organization. 
No need, therefore, to dwell on these points. More interesting 
is it to review the special character of the treatment given to 
the patients, which reveals how the war has brought into play 
initiative and enterprise in the medical no less than in other 
branches of the service. 

-Woodcote Park is for patients who have been discharged 
from active treatment hospitals, and are convalescents, but who 
need a course of physical training, adjusted to each patient's 
ability and physical condition, before they are fit to return to 
the fighting units. The wounded or sick soldier comes here for 
a stay of six weeks for treatment, discipline and physical train- 
ing. Besides severe disabilities, there may be others which 
are slight in themselves, perhaps, but which make it impossible 
for a man to return to the ranks as an efficient fighter. In 
addition to a staff of trained sergeant-instrnctors in physical 
exercise, there is at AVoodcote a staff of masseuses. 

Massage is often a prime remedy for such disablements. 
Women workers, incidentally, are also found in several other 
departments. All the cooking, for example, is done l)y women, 
for whom a special line of huts has been built. Graduated 
route marching, to fit in with the condition of the patient, is 
another feature of the treatment — not the deadly slog in the 
sweltering sun which we associate with the training of a re- 
cruit, but a steady, gentle exercise which brings no exhaustion, 
and which will cause the man who partakes in it to feel that 
on each day's marching he sheds some little of his old hurt. 



Aug.; 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 55 

There is, too, a grand assistance of the surroundings of the 
hospital to be reckoned in the currieulum of the treatment. A 
look over tlie Dowms from any point of Woodcote Park is in 
itself a first-rate tonic. With such a panorama to gaze upon, 
a patient would he justified in apostrophizing nature with the 
same ecstacy as did Mr. Pickwick at Dingley Dell. The 
patients are going to emulate the Dingley Dellers this summer 
in vanquishing All Muggleton at cricket. Football matches 
against local clubs have already provided great sport. Baseball 
is played regularly, and all forms of sport are encouraged to 
get the men back into " fit " condition. Every night there is a 
first-rate theatrical show or concert. Lord Killanin, who is 
resident in the hospital, takes great interest in the entertain- 
ments, and devotes his whole time to this for the benefit of the 
patients. The recreation hall comfortably holds an audience 
of 1,500, and is provided with theatrical and cinema equipment. 
In the establishment of Woodcote Park one beholds an en- 
terprise hitherto unattempted in the medical service of the 
Empire. The main object, it is seen, is to oave hardened and 
• experienced soldiers from being " scrapped " on account of 
obstinate ailments for which a remedy may be found in special 
treatment. When one considers the length of time and expense 
incurred in fitting a recruit for the firing line, it will be real- 
ized that the truly skilful management of resources lies in 
assisting him, should he' be disabled, to regain his position in 
his battalion. This, of course, apart from the obvious benefit 
to the man himself in regaining his full strength. The Govern- 
ment and the officers connected with this institution, therefore, 
■ deserve our gratitude to the full. 



Western UniversitylHospital Corps 

The First Contingent of the Western I^niversity No. 10 Hos- 
pital Corps left for the front on June 19 th. The doctors and the 
rest of the unit left a few days later, the corps' organization 
having been completed in record time. . This unit is under the 
.command of Lieut.-Col. (Doctor) Seaborne, of London, Ont. 



56 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

The King's Canadian Hospital, Bushey Park 

Six wings of the King's Canadian Hospital at Bushej Park 
have been completed and furnished by the Canadian Red Cross 
Society. Each wing will bear the name of oile of His Majesty's 
children. It was hoped that Their Majesties would perform 
the opening ceremony, but they- found it impossible to do so, 
being unwilling at the present time to appear ceremonially, 
preferring rather to make visits to the hospitals after they are 
fully established. 



Another Hospital for Canadians 

Lieut.-Col. Johnson, of Charlottetown, has been detailed for 
duty with the Canadian Medical Stores in France. Major 
Guest, of St. Thomas, succeeds him as Commandant of the 
Convalescent Hospital at Buxton, which is already open and 
nearly holding its full capacity of three hundred suffering from 
rheumatism and like ailments. 

The accommodation of the Canadian Section of the hospital 
at Epsom has been increased by a thousand, making the total 
2,500. It is instended shortly that Epsom shall be devoted 
entirely to the Canadians, which will give 3,800 beds. 



The following have joined the Canadian Army Medical 
Corps ; Dr. Pratt, of Stratford, Ont. ; Dr. R. D. Sanson and 
Dr. Bishop, of the Calgary General Hospital; Dr. Gauthier, 
M.P. for Gaspe; Dr. J. L. Seibert, of Stratford, Ont.; Dr. 
Egerton L. Pope, of Winnipeg. 

M'r. Harold Kennedy, lumber merchant of Quebec, who has 
already placed the Bromley Hotel at the disposal of the Cana- 
dian Medical Service as a Convalescent Hospital, has now 
acquired an estate near Maidstone for the same purpose. The 
mansion is a particularly tine one. The estate comprises five 
thousand acres. 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 57 



'&•? 



Canadian Hospitals 



NEW ONTARIO HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE 

AT WHITBY 



On July lltli a new era in hospital work in Canada was started. 
It witnessed the beginning of the end of an undertaking which 
when completed will have cost in the neigliborhood of a niillion 
and a quarter dollars, and will be the finest thing of its kind, 
not only on this continent, but excelling anything in Europe, a 
proud boast for Ontario. 

To be explicit, on July 11th, the first patients went into 
the new hospital for the mentally ill, which has been under 
erection by the Government for the last two or three years 
on the lake shore in the heart of the country adjacent to 
Whitby, and which will supersede the Toionto asylum for 
insane in Queen Street West. 

As different as day from night are the new surroundings 
for the mentally ill from the building they have occupied 
for so many years. It is the difference between iron bars 
and the freedom of green fields. 

Representatives of the daily newspapers were motored to 
the new hospital property of 650 acres near Whitby, to see 
the buildings, under the guidance of the men directly respon- 
sible for the achievement, before the patients began to move 
in. The Hon. W. J. Hanna, Provincial Secretary, who has a 
fund of practical sense combined with his " vision" ; the Deputy 
Minister, Mr. S. A. Armstrong, with his genius for carrying 
out a tremendous undertaking down to the smallest detail; the 
architect, Mr. Govan, who has worked out to such perfection 
the hospital buildings, with Dr. Forster, head of the hospital 
for the mentally ill, made an inspiring group with whom to go 
over the hospital. And every member of the visiting group 
left late in the afternoon with a profound admiration for the 
achievement and a keen realization of the value of the new in- 
stitution, with its perfect surroundings. 



58 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

To set down the story of genius and its inspiration-bearing 
fruit is a part of the duty of these words. 

To tell not of man's inhumanity, but something of man's 
dear humanity to man is another part of what I would try to 
convey here. All of which sounds a bit in the clouds when, 
after all, it is a practical story of bricks and mortar, combined 
with that blessed thing, a man, or men, with a vision, who con- 
fidently step out into untried places and achieve things worth 
while. 

We have always glibly spoken of the lunatic asylum, or 
asvlum for the insane in Queen Street West. As we have 
passed the high brick walls surrounding the grounds and build- 
ing it has been with more or less of horror if our thoughts 
dwelt on the people behind those walls. They have seemed to 
us something apart from human beings. It was as though 
there were wild things caged up there, things which might 
excite a morbid curiosity, but which were removed from us 

t.' 7 

more effectually than if they were in their graves. To know 
that eight or nine hundred lives were being lived there had 
something of the horror of a nightmare. 

This has been the attitude for generations towards the 
people who in reality are just mentally ill, as you or I might 
be physically ill. Some — many — are curable, just as in phy- 
sical illness. Others become chronic — as in physical illness. 
And just as you or I know of our illness, so many of those 
mentally ill are conscious of the fact. And it is only modern 
grasp of the situation which is calling them, not insane, not 
lunatics, but people ill mentally. 

Dr. Forster, in charge there, can tell you of many people, 
who have gone to him voluntarily to be treated in the asvlum. 
Their agonized query is, " Doctor, am I insane ?" 

" No," is his answer. " You are mentally ill," and the 
agony and horror in their minds is relieved by the more human — 
and truer statement. For as the doctor says, " We hope to 
prove that ninety per cent, of the cases of mental illness are 
curable." 

But to get back to the building. Some four or five years 
ngo the present property in Queen Street West (which is quite 
inadequate for the demands), was sold to the^ railway. Im- 



\ 



Aim-., 1010 THE HOSPlTx\L WORLD 59 



'&•; 



mediately the Provincial Secretary and his Deputy Minister 
were on the lookout for suitable property on which to build the 
new institution. 

They did not look in the city. 

Why? — Because a moment's thought will make one realize 
that the city is not a place for a hospital to treat jangled nerves 
and minds. It needs the country, with its quiet, its pure health- 
giving air. And so it was that 650 acres of land was purchased 
not far from Whitby, and plans for tne hospital buildings were 
made and the work of building began, a certain portion of 
which is now completed and ready for occupation. It should 
be a matter of pride with Canadians that this new institution 
in construction and equipment and sanitation is superior to 
iinything modern scientific effort has produced. New York 
h«s been watching the development in which scores of original 
ideas have been introduced,' with keen interest. One of tbo 
leading American electrical journals is running an article on 
the perfection of the lighting system as worked out here by tlie 
nien we all know, while the kitchen equipment has revolution- 
ized such things for all time in institutions. 

A few of the outstanding facts might be given before at- 
tempting to picture the place. Of the 650 acres, over 300 
was swamp land three years ago. Now 550 acres are under 
cultivation and the most modern methods of farming intro- 
duced have resulted in bumper crops of potatoes, vegetables, 
hay, grain, etc. The men working the land have been men 
from the prisons, men who in days gone by would have been 
spending time inside prison walls, adding viciousness to their 
natures, and being an ever-growing expense to the community. 

The produce of this property has helped to provide other 
Provincial institutions with food. And on the same principle of 
making these Provincial institutions self-supporting, instead of a 
burden to taxpayers, prison industries have provided practically 
■everything but the raw material for the new buildings. From the 
red tiles of the roof and the tile stairs of an original design 
made at the prison industry at Mimico, to the doors, window 
sashes, tables, iron beds, nuittresses and even to blankets, almost 
everything has been produced by prison labor, at a cost which 
would not have begun to cover the expense, had manufacturing 
industries throughout the country done the work. 



60 THE HOSPITAL AVORLD Aug., 1916 

ISTot a dollar has been spent on useless adornment. Every- 
thing is planned for the spending to the best advantage, every 
single cent. To prevent waste in any way many ingenious ideas 
have been evolved which will help to revolutionize equipment 
of institutions. 

The buildings are absolutely fireproof, so far as scientific 
ingenuity can make them. Sanitation has been one of the out- 
standing features. There are no corners. Floors meet the 
walls with a cove. Everything is washable. Non-corrosive metal 
has taken the place of wood in cabinets or shelves for clothing. 
Practically everything from the very garbage cans in the base- 
ment to the snow-white equipment in the diet kitchen will be 
sterilized. 

Now to give some idea of the property and buildings. Pic- 
ture a square mile of typical Ontario country. Orchards, 
country roads, great fields of clover and hay, corn, fields of 
small fruits, rows of beautiful old spruce trees, the property 
running to the shores of Lake Ontario. Vision the green 
fields, the blue waters,, the little Whitby inlet with its quaint 
lighthouse.. Catch the fragrance of clover and of new mown 
hay. And see in the midst of all this, buildings beautiful in 
their simplicity, giving the impression of groups of lovely 
country homes. 

Of course the majority of the buildings are still incom- 
]dete. And when the building is done, will come the making 
of terraces and lawns, surrounding the buildings. 

We speak of buildings in the plural — not of one monster 
building. According to the plans there will be something like 
25 when they are completed. But those in which at present 
we are particularly interested are the groups of '' cottages " 
for men and for women patients which form the big part of 
the colony. The nurses' residence, the chapel, the amusement 
building and others are still seen only on the plans and in the 
loads of bricks. 

The cottages for women, of which there are eight, all 
identical as to both design and architecture, and each with ac- 
commodation for from 50 to 60 patients, are so far complete, 
that to-day one cottage was occupied by fifty-five patients. 
To-morrow another fifty-five will follow until all are occupied. 



Aiip„191G THE HOSPITAL WORLD 61 



'&•: 



The group of buildings for the female patients is a com- 
plete hospital unit, and is identical with a similar group for 
the male patents. Besides the eight cottages, each a complete 
hospital in itself, the group of buildings includes a completely 
equipped infirmary building, and the separate building for 
dining-rooms and kitchen equipment. Here is a separate 
dining-room for each cottage, so that the classification of 
patients as arranged in the cottage may be obtained. In this 
building also is the nurses' dining-room, the maids' dining- 
room, and ■'■' the last word in scientific kitchen equipment." 

To give any concrete idea of the kitchen equipment is al- 
most impossible. The man in charge here is one who for years 
lias specialized in elimination of waste, and on correct diet. 
He is a man with a continent-wide reputation. 

The entire huge kitchen and serving corridor with its white 
tiled floor and walls, its metal serving tables, its dish washing 
machine (in which 12,000 dishes can be washed and sterilized 
in an hour by the efforts of one person), its miracles of meat- 
cutting machines, potato masher and peeler, its monster soup 
caldrons, its polished steel tables, and its economic system of 
steam cooking, must be seen to be appreciated. Two thousand 
meals a day will be served in the kitchen, and twice the number 
could be handled. One's great wish in seeing these things is 
that manufacturers might also see the wonders of scientific 
saving accomplished, and might realize what can be done here in 
Canada. 

There is, of course, complete refrigerating system. Even 
down to the detail of a special sink arranged to catch the scales 
from fish cleaned there, nothing has been overlooked. 

The dining-rooms are more attractive than one often sees 
at the most exclusive summer resorts. The nurses' dining- 
room opens on to a wide balcony, giving them opportunity for 
privacy and rest at their spare time. 

To return to the cottages. You get an excellent idea of 
the exterior from a northerly viewpoint. It is of brick and 
stucco. The construction is of hollow concrete reinforced with 
metal. Everything is fireproof, and nothing over two storeys in 
height. And here is something interesting. " Can you allow 
the patients to wander about the grounds ?" was asked of the 
doctor. 



62 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

" They will always return to a place that looks like a 
home," was his answer. Surely that was an illuminating fact in 
the comfort and happiness these places promise. 

Each cottage has three day rooms, iitted with wide brick 
fireplaces, lighting and plumbing, which cannot be tampered 
with by patients, complete diet kitchen, metal fitted clothing- 
room, bath for therapeutic treatment if patients become ex- 
cited, airy and attractive, sunny wards, so arranged as to be 
easy of observation by the nurse, wide verandahs, head nurses' 
rooms, etc. 

The dav rooms are most attractive, the walls finished in 
light buff and Quaker grey. The best of furniture, great fire- 
side benches, chintz hangings, and bright rugs help to make the 
rooms attractive. The floors are all either tiled or covered with 
ship linoleum. 

Such is a very incomplete picture of the new hosj^ital 
colony for mentally sick people, who stand an infinitely better 
chance of being cured in such surroundings and under scien- 
tific treatment than could ever be the case in the present 
asylum. 

The value of outdoor work, never possible in the old 
quarters, will be apparent here, where there is every oppor- 
tunity to give the exercise which will help to restore normal 
conditions. And for those who can never get well, there is a 
place beautiful to dwell in, removed from the curious gaze, 
from the exciting noise and from the narrow quarters in the 
city. After all God's sunshine and pure air are the greatest 
gifts, and man's best gift is a " home." All these and more are 
bequeathed to the mentally sick, fortunate enough to be housed 
in the new colony hospital near Whitby. — Helen Ball in To- 
ronto News. 



The Executive of the Hamilton Recruiting League recently 
decided that special provision should be made for caring for 
returned soldiers, and that the new Mountain-top Hospital, 
when completed, be used for this purpose. 



Aug., 1916 THE HOSPITAL AVORLD 03 

Kootenay General Hospital at ISTelson, B.C., is to he recon- 
structed and greatly enlarged. 

Dr. Howard Black has been appointed Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Toronto General Hospital. 

It is proposed to enlarge Tranquille Sanitarium, B.C., so 
as to accommodate three hundred patients. 

Cobourg General Hospital held its first commencement re- 
cently, when ten nurses received their diplomas. 

The Lady Minto Hospital at Cochrane is now completed, 
and was formally opened on May 24th. 

The City Council of Brantford submitted to the ratepayers 
on June 26th a by-law for $58,000 for Hospital extension. 

The graduating exercises of the Training School for ITurses 
at Wellesley Hospital, Toronto, were held on Wednesday, July 
5 th, A reception followed afterwards. 

Dr. John Hicks has been appointed to succeed Dr. J. J. 
McFadden as Superintendent of the Brandon Insane Asylum. 
He was formerly Assistant Superintendent. 

The Isolation Hospital, at St. John, IST.B,, was recently 
destroyed by fire. Fortunately, there were no patients in the 
building at the time. 

An Isolation Hospital has been opened at Lindsay. The 
Dominion Government made a grant of $10,000 toward the 
purchase of the site. 

Major J. A. Dixon, of Hamilton, Medical Offioer of the 
91st Regiment, Canadian Highlanders, has joined the Royal 
Army Medical Corps, and has left for England. 

A Nurses' Home is to be built on the western side of Cal- 
gary General Hospital, and will be connected with the Hospital 
by a passage. It will provide accommodation for one hundred 
nurses. 



64 . THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

Dr. Kidd, Medical Superintendent of the Hospital for the 
Insane at Cohourg, has been appointed Assistant Medical Super- 
intendent at Brockville, and will have charge of the new Recep- 
tion Hospital for l^ervous Diseases there. 

The annual commencement exercises of the Kingston Gen- 
eral Hospi tar Training School for ISTurses took place recently, 
when the announcement was made of a legacy of $10,000 from 
the estate of the late E. H. Schmerhom, of ISTapanee. It is 
intended that the monev will be used in enlarging the Nurses' 
Residence. 

The new head of the Toronto Orthopedic Hospital, succeed- 
ing the late Dr. B. E. McKenzie, is Dr. W. S. Verrall, formerly 
of Vancouver. Dr. Verrall is a graduate of the Faculty of 
Medicine, University of Toronto, and has recently been in 
practice in Vancouver, though he specialized in orthopedic 
surgery. 



Toronto's New Military Base Hospital 

A FEW days ago the new Military Base Hospital, reconstructed 
out of the old Toronto General Hospital, was announced ready 
for occupation, and Lieut.-Col. T. B. Richardson and staff 
moved in, feeling grateful for the relief from over-crowded 
quarters at Exhibition Grounds. There is no' doubt that the 
new hospital was urgently needed, there being at the time of 
removal nearly 550 patients at Exhibition Camp. Lieut.-Col. 
Richardson has been formally promoted officer commanding, 
with the following as his staff : Captains H. H. Harvie, B. L. 
Gingall, J. W. Livingstone, R. D. Mackenzie, A. A. Campbell, 
Colin Campbell, C. E. Treble, H. E. Wallace, 0. C. Ballantyne, 
R. F. Slater, James E. Barry, F. G. Wilson and A. E. Mac- 
donald. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XV 11 




Walk-Over Shoes 

Correct Foot Troubles in a 
Natural, Comfortable Way 

/-yAHE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP makes a specially 

of fitting; shoes to deformed or abnormal feet . A wide range 

of over twenty lasts and at least 112 sizes in each last 

makes it possible for us to fit almost any foot, even though 

badly deformed, with a stylish and comfortable shoe. 

The doctor in charge of our Orthopedic Depart- 
ment is expert in the fitting of arch supports, 
made-to-order shoes, etc., and gladly gives free 
consultation and advice. 

Self-measuring FOOTOGRAPH charts will be 
mailed to out-of-town customers who do not find it 
convenient to visit the store. Full directions with 
each chart. 

WALK-OVER 
BOOT SHOP 

290 YONGE STREET - TORONTO 

Also at 521 St. Catherine St., Montreal 




GRAND PRIZE 

Panama-Pacific Exposition 
San Francisco,' 1915 



GRAND PRIZE 

Panama-California Exposition 
San Diego, 1915 



Registered 
Trade-Mark 



BAKER'S COCOA 

IS as delicious in flavor as it is nign 
in quality ana absolute m purity. 

All or our goods sold in 
Canaaa are made in Canada 



Booklet of Choice Recipes 
sent tree on request. 



WALTER BAKER & CO. LIMITED 

ESTABLISHED 1780 

MONTREAL, CAN. : DORCHESTER, MASS. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xviii , THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aua., 1916 



ABDERHALDEN TEST IN MENTAL DISEASES 

Charles E. Simon, Baltimore, {Journal Amer. Med. Assoc), 
takes up the claims of Fauser as to the findings of the Abder- 
halden test in oertain' types of insanity, with special reference to 
dementia precox. He reviews the literature which followed 
Fauser 's publication, and says that in surveyin'g it one cannot 
help but be impressed, on the on© hand, by the wonderful uni- 
formity of the results reported by Fauser and the wide diver- 
gence from those of certain other authors, like Hauptmann and 
Bumke. He thinks that there is good ground to suspect that 
Fauser was too enthusiastic in his views and also that his oppo- 
nents may have lacked complete control of the technic. Fauser 
himself states that he obtained a reaction with sex gland repeat- 
edly in cases in which it was unexpected, and that the diagnosis 
between maniac depressive insanity and dementia precox could 
not always be made with certainty. Simon relates his own ex- 
perience with the use of the test in 106 cases and says "to sum- 
marize the results" that a sex gland reaction may be obtained 
in nearly if not all cases of dementia precox at some stage or 
another, but that this action is not specific, as Fauser asserts. 
He finds that the reaction may also be obtained in other forms 
of insanity, and he does not attempt to explain them. He must, 
therefore, Gonclude that Fauser's rule has exceptions or that 
the positive findings in manic-depressive insanity or paresis are 
due to errors of diagnods or technic. The fact, however, remains 
that in dementia precox the positive reaction is the rule, while 
in the purely functional psychoses it is the exception. Simon, 
therefore, discusses at length the technic employed and which 
he thinks meets fairly any criticism from the technical point of 
view as far as our knowledge goes at present. He believes, how- 
ever, tiiat advances can still be made, and while Ave cannot, as 
yet, draw positive conclusions regarding the significance of the 
reaction in dementia precox, certain possibilities suggest them- 
selves. One of these is that of a perverted function of the cells 
concerned in the production of the internali secretion of the sex 
glands in dementia. "Considering the problem from the clinical 
side, the all-important question, of course, suggests itself whether 
or not the reaction' bas any relation to the pathogenesis of 
dementia precox. Theoretically, this is, of course, perfectly 
possible. Granted that anti-sex gland ferments do occur in the 
circulation in dementia precox, and that their presence were 
the outcome of the appearance in the circulation of an abnormal 
secretion! or of abnormal cells, then we may also assume that 
digestion of these cells or cell-products will take place, and that 
all conditions would thus be given for a chronic protein intoxi- 
cation which might very well expend itself on the central nervous 
system. Should this be true, then we might also expect that the 
administration of sex gliand to such patients would cause an 
aggravation of the patient's condition, while partial or entire 
castration, possibly combined with the transplantation of normal 
organs, might similarly be expected to have a beneficial influence. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



XIX 



r 



Retarded, Impeded Circulation 
in an Inflamed Part— Unless 
Quickly Relieved — Inevitably 
Leads on to Suppuration .... 
In Clinical Practice, Nothing 
Approaches 



'<w£uiuuui' 



*: 



•HSM"^ 



^....Mwminmntmm 

}S: I'NDKR THE FduD ANU !>■- .., 



IkeTp the lTpIojL 



\0 



' ^DENVER CHEMICAL MFC-. 

*«fcj, NEW YORK CITY. U. S. »• 






aiCE, 50 CENTS 



Directloas: — Always heat 
in the original container by 
placing in hot water. 
Needless exposure to the 
air, impairs its osmotic 
properties — on which its 
therapeutic action largely 
depends. 




applied hoi and thick — ir^ its unique power to relieve, by 
osmosis and nerve stimulation, the congestion of inflam- 
mation; thus benignly assisting Nature in restoring normal 
circulation — the requisite for healthy cell-growth. 



Uniformly and consistently the same reliable 
"Antidote for Inflammation" — Summer and Winter 



By ordering Antiphlogisline in full and original packages : Small, ^Tedium, 
Large, or Hospital Size, "a perfect poultice" is assured. 



- Physicians should WRITE ' 'Antiphlogisline " to A VOID ' 'substitutes. ' ' 

"There's Only One Antiphlogisline" 
THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. COMPANY - MONTREAL 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug.. 1916 

PARAFFIN CANCER 

Chronic irritation by coal oil products is considered by B. F. 
Davis, Chicago j in the Journal Amer. Medical Assocmtion. Irrita- 
tion from coal oil products was first discussed by Volkmann in 
1875, who described an acute and a chronic form. The final stage 
is thus described by him: "As a result of individual predisposi- 
tion and particularly deficient cleanliness, the process, which 
previously has been a hyperplastic epidermic growth and seb- 
aceous secretion, now develops into multiple, warty or papillary 
formations, some of which degenerate into cancer." In some 
cases the sebaceous crusts described above exhibit almost a horn- 
like consistency. The chief seat of these hyperplasias are the 
exposed forearms and the scrotum. Iw an old workman Volk- 
mann counted fifteen such warty growths with thick crusts on 
the dark-bro^^Ti spotted and fissured forearm, and three on the 
scrotum. This picture of warty growths completely suggests the 
''verruca canoerosa" of the aged. Schamburg tabulated re- 
ported cases np to 1910 and remarked on the tendency to 
undergo spontaneous involution. Many of the lesions ulcerate 
and destroy themselves. The source of the tar seems to have an 
influence. In Great Britain gas works tar causes dermatitis, 
while blast furnace tar does not. One explanation is that gas 
works tar contains substances capable of producing cell division 
in vitro, while blast furnace tar does not. The iritating sub- 
stances seem to be present in crude paraffin as bodies haxdng 
possibly an amidine nucleus and associated particularh* with the 
compounds of the anthracene group. The greater portion of 
them are probably separated from the oil in the pressed distillate 
process. Davis reports a case from Dr. Bevan's clinic and 
describes the conditions found by hi'm in an oil company's plant 
where the crude paraffin is run intO' great presses and the oils, 
pressed distillate, extracted. The paraffin remaining in the press 
and presumably containing the irritating substances is scraped 
off by the men, who have their arms smeared with the substance. 
During the first few montlis the majority suffer from "wax 
boils" on the arms and neck and in some cases it develops into 
true epithelioma, as in the case reported. Closely allied to this 
form of cancer is the so-called tobacco cancer, the cancer of 
aniline dye workers, of c'himney-sweeps and kangri burns of 
the natives of Cashmere caused by the little portable heaters 
that they carry under their clothing. Irritation by heating can- 
not, however, be considered as the cause of most of the other 
forms, and none other than a chemical cause seems possible, in 
the tumors of aniline workers and the betal-nut Avorkers. Davis 
concludes that it seems justifiable to assume that the paraffin 
cancer is from chemical irritation and the other forms may also 
have the same cause. 



Am;-., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



xzi 



A Boon to Institution 
Laundries 

In these days when there is considerable 
trouble in reference to " help in large 
Institutions, any effective labor saving 
device is more than welcome. One such 
device, which will make laundry work in 
a Hospital easy, is 

TORO TABLETS 

Their use will be found a boon, rendering 
the work of washing far more effective 
and easy. The TORO TABLET is dis- 
infectant in character, so that no matter 
how mixed the articles of clothing may 
be, or how soiled, they come out spotlessly 

white. TORO TABLETS will not 

injure the finest fabric and no scrubbing is 
necessary. One tablet of TORO and 
half-a-pound of soap and the work is done. 
Hospitals supplied in large quantities at 
loi»^ prices." 

THE TORO TABLET CO. 

BIRMINGHAM - ENGLAND 

Canadian Office — 
113 RONCESVALLES AVENUE, TORONTO 



Q r3ssj-SLj^rsji3SBJBTSjEssjB. n 



IT WOULD 
BE DIFFICULT 

to exaggerate the necessity of a 
healthy mouth, and clean, sound 
teeth or their importance as related 
to constitutional health. 




asserts its value in this direction by 
its efficiency as an aid in the treat- 
ment and prevention of 

PYORRHEA 

PYORRHOCIDE allays soft, bleeding, 
spongy, receding gums — removes mui aid 
deposits — retards the accumulation of 
salivary cal .lus. PYORRHOCIDE 
cleans and polishes the teeth •< • promotes 
oral health. 

THE DENTINOL & PYORRHOCIDE CO. Inc. 



110-112 West 40th Street 



New York 



I 



dHraiajaj^rarajaraLramrajc ' 



li||lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll!lllllllllllllllllllll!llllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll^^ 



The Principles of Nutrition 

are well defined. Milk is one of .^?^ /^c^^r^^i^ 

the most necessary food materials — 
oi the body. When pure, it is a 
wholesome, digestible and nutri- 
tious food for all ages. Ordinarily, 

foods have but one function — to build 
tissue or \neld energy. 




■C«"..L"^ 



iSOKTBEAUXAIMP* 



Condensed 

MILK 

THt ORIGINAL 

does both. Its protein and ash content repair 
waste tissue, while its fat and carbo-hydrate 
elements produce heat and muscular energy. It is 
a safe and dependable food for infants where for 
any reason Nature's supply fails. 

Samples, Analysis, etc. , will be mailed upon 
receipt of professional card. 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - Montreal 

"LEADERS OF QUALITY" 
Branch Office : 2 Arcade Bldj., Vancouver, B.C. 



yiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiy^ 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospitai World. 



xxii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Aug., 1916 

A LETTER 

Doctor, — When consulted by patients on the important question 
of the laundry, won't you bear in mind the following facts 
regarding Taber Laundry Works, 444 and 446 Bathurst Street, 
Toronto: Our laundry is one of the most up-to-date and best- 
equipped institutions of the kind in Canada. Every depart- 
ment is conducted along the strictest sanitary lines. Each and 
every piece entrusted to us is not only washed but sterilized, 
and dried with super-heated air, rendering impossible the trans- 
mission or existence of germ life. Taber Laundry Works exer- 
cise also the greatest care in not taking work from houses or 
places where there exists contagious disease. Our patrons are 
protected in this way from danger. It has been our rule for 
years that each and every customer receives personal attention. 
Telephone College 8333 and 5143 for our van service. Note. — In 
the past few years laundry chemists and engineers have devel- 
oped the modern power laundry so that it now ranks high in 
the public service. Sanitation has been the mainspring of their 
efforts. We invite professional men and visitors to call on us. 
For the above reasons, we ask the endorsement of physicians. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Refraction of lite ILinnan Eye and Methods of Estimating the 
Refraction. By James Thornington, A.M., M.D., Emeri- 
tus Professor of Diseases of the Eye in the Philadelphia 
Polyclinic and College for Graduates in ]\redicine. Phila- 
delphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co., $2.50. 

Dr. Thorniugton has here amalgamated into one volume, 
three of his former works, " Refraction and how to Refract," 
'' Prisms," and " Retinoscopy," and has certainly thereby added 
to their value and popularity. For the medical student and the 
medical j^raetitioner beginning to take an interest in practical 
ophthalmology, one cannot too highly recommend this book on 
methods of refraction. 



The Description of an Ophthalmoscope. Being an English 
translation of Von Helmholtz' ''' Besehreibung eines Augen- 
spiegels." Berlin, 1851. By Thomas Hall Shastid^ A.B., 
]\r.D., Chicago— Cleveland Press, 1916. 

To every oculist this translation will be, and to every phy- 
sician should be, of the greatest interest. It does not at all 
detract from the fame of that great physicist. Von Helmholtz, 
to say that in 1847, Babbage, an Englishman, devised an in- 
strument for seeing the interior of the eye, which contained 
the essential features of the ophthalmoscope, as later devised 
bv Von Hehnholtz. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOULD 



XXIU 



"THE WHITE LINE 



M SCANLAN-MORRIS 
COMPANY 




Steriliziner Room, St. Mary's Hospital, Rochester, Minn. 




Operating Room, Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago 

Our eatcdogue of Modern Operating Room Furniture and Sterilizing Apparatus 
will he forwarded upon request, to Hospital Superintendents 

SCANLAN-MORRIS CO., MADISON, WIS., U.S.A. 

Manufacturers of the "White Line" Hospital Furniture and 
Sterilizing: Apparatus 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Aug., 1916 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

^^ WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Low-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 
than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 diflferent 
operations as our higher grades — sells lor 
' ;^ less because made from short staple cotton 

which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 
Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Maplewood Mills 




Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 



THE PARTICULAR ATTENTION OF 
PHYSICIANS, NURSES AND HOSPITALS IS 
CALLED TO 

The Allen Germ -Proof Water 
Purifier and Cooler 

In these da^s, when the water supplied in many 
of our cities is not what it ought to be, the Profession 
and, through it, the PubHc will welcome such a device. 

The ALLEN WATER COOLER SERVICE, through, 
its system of filtration, guarantees a water that is practically 
ahsoluteiy pure. Dr. A. A. Thibaudeau of the Laboratory of 
Pathology, University of Buffalo, states that "The Allen 
Filter can maintain an efficiency of 100 per cent." adding 
that the filter was allowed to operate continuously for three 
days and that no iac/er/a/ §ron)//i u)as/ounrf in the samples after 
48 hours' exposure on plates. 

Medical men can rest assured that, in recommending the use" of 
the Allen Water Cooler Service to their patients, _;they are 
materially hastening their convalescence, 

THE DOMINION SALES CO., LIMITED 

Suite J, Yonge St. Arcade, Toronto Telephone Main 3797' 

When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 




Aug., ii>i(; 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXV 



PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 



i 




FLAT 
WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE = 



-DUSTPROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

Elastica. ^^^ Perfect Floor Finish 
^^^^^^^ Send for Sample Paper 




TORONTO 



ONTARIO 



ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGES 
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, 'M ass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 




Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Kjeldahl 
Stills 



Bottle 
Shakers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Paraffin 
Microtomes 



Modern General Diagnostic Outfit 

This Outfit now weiehs but 4'; pounds, and measures 
3% X 7 X 15 inches, making it very convenient to carry. The 
instruments are equipped with tungsten lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tungsten lamps with which they are now equipped, 
have greatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 

Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryngeal Specula 

Holmes Nasopharyn^oscopes 

Tuttle and Lynch Procto-Sig^moidoscopes 

Braasch Cystoscopes 

Koch, Swinburne and Young Urethroscopes, etc. 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELECTRO SURGICAL INSTRUMENT CO., Rochester. N.Y. 



XXVI 



THE HOSPITAL AVORLD 



Aug., 1916 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




GERHARD HEINTZMAN 



] 



GRAND 

SELF-PLAYER [ PIANOS 

UPRIGHT J 

Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on any instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City HaU) 



41 West Queen St., Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 19 IG 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXVll 



is appreciated by discerning people because — 
Only the best materials are used, 
Of our exclusive process of fermentation, 

Of the exactness of manufacturing methods, assuring bread and buns of uniform 
excellence, 
The greatest cleanliness is observed in the manufacture and distribution. 

SWF-UfE 

MADE AND WRAPPED BY MACHINERY 



The Peculiar Advantage 



•I 



of the 






Prominent physicians and 
gynecologists everywhere 
recommend the MARVEL 
Syringe in cases of Leu- 
corrhea.Vaginitis and other 
Vaginal diseases. It al- 
ways gives satisfaction. 



All Druggists and Dealers 
in Surgical Instruments sell 
it. For literature, address 

MARVEL COMPANY 

'44 E. 23rd Street, NEW YORK 



Marvel "Whirling 
Spray'' Syringe 

is that The Marvel, by its 
Centrifugal action, dilates 
and flushes the vaginal passage 
with a volume of whirling 
fluid, which smooths out the 
folds and permits the injec- 
tion to come in contact with 

its entire sur- 
face. 

The Marvel Company 
was awarded the Gold 
Medal, Diploma and 
Certificate of Appro- 
bation by the Societe 
D'Hyfiene de France, 
atParii,Oct. 9, 1902. 



Wlieii wiitin.i; .■ulvertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXVlll 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Aug., 1916 



Cut Flowers for the Sick Room 



^ I ^HERE is a feeling abroad that physicians are sometimes apt to pay 
-^ less attention than they should to the aesthetic side of their profes- 
sion. Can there be any question as to the added comfort to the patient, 
during the weary days of convalescence, of the fragrance of Nature's most 
beautiful products in the form of Roses, Carnations, and other cut flowers ? 

May I ask Physicians to note that / ma^e a specialty of cut flowers of 
almost any kind. 

Particular attention is called to my three-year-old Rose Plants, ready 
for planting, and which I svill deliver at $1.50 per dozen. They are 
Hybrid Teas, and will bloom all summer long. 

Special prices quoted to Hospitals and Doctors 



W. J. Lawrence 



152 Roselawn Avenue 



Toronto 



Phone North 2221 



Hospital Superintendents 

should instruct their Nurses and Domestics to use 

GILLETT'S LYE 

for disinfecting sinks, closets and drains. It is also ideal for the 
cleansing of urinals and bed pans — in fact any vessel that requires 
disinfecting. Gillett's Lye should always be used for scrubbing 
hospital bath tubs and operating room floors. 

For cleansing and disinfecting, dissolve one teaspoonful of Gillett's 
Lye in two gallons of water. 



(s^y^^^Js 




BEWARE OF IMITATIONS 



E. W. Gillett Co. Ltd. 

TORONTO, ONT. 



Winnipeg 



Montreal 




"Vhen writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXIX 



A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and find 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble hke that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt dehvery is an ab- 
solute rule with us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



Pnysicians should always remember 
that by the use of 

THE DELANEY DUSTLESS AND 
FIREPROOF SIFTER 

all further trouble from dust in the house- 
hold is eliminated, no more Bronchial 
Coughs from dust in the sleeping rooms as 
the atmosphere of the house is sweet and 
clean. The publishers of this Journal re- 
commend the adoption of The Deianey 
Dustless Sifter as a sanitary measure. 

W. H. DELANEY 
89 West Marion St. 

Phone Park 4992. 



Toronto 




Physician's Scale. 

Designed especially for use in Hospitals, 
in offices of physicians. Something that is 
essential in connection with every private 
bathroom. 

Scale is ordinarily finished black, with bronze 
ornamentation, but is also furnished in liKht colors, 
elaborately ornamented, with nickel-plated beam 
Scale is furnished with or without measuring rod 
as desired. Write for prices. 

GURNEY SCALE CO. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 

When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXX 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Aug., 1916 



LIABILITY of 



PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS, DENTISTS 
and DRUGGISTS 

LIABILITY on account of 

Automobile Accidents 

involving injury to PERSONS or PROPERTY (including Owner's) 

INSURANCE for LOSS OF INCOME 
by reason of ACCIDENT and SICKNESS 



UNDERTAKEN BY 



The General Accident Assurance Company of Canada 

Continental Life Building, Toronto, Ontario 
Represented in all imp^ortant parts of Canada. Enquiries respectfully solicited- 

JOHN J. DURANCE, Manager 



The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 






PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Aug., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXXI 



THE BRANSTON VIOLET RAY HIGH 

FREQUENCY GENERATOR Made ,n Canada 




Lighting Current. 



A Portable High Frequency Outfit 
Extremely Compact and of High Efficiency 

Our Model 6 Generator is particularlv well designed 
for the physician desiring a portable High Frequency 
Coil giving a range of High Frequency suitable for 
all forms of treatment. 

The coils and condenser are wound to give a current 
of exceedingly high voltage and oscillation and at 
the same time generate sufficient heat. It gives 
about two million oscillations or vibrations per 
second. The c nnecting cords and insulated handle 
are sparkless. It can be regulated to give any strength 
of current desired and is built to last for years. The 
coils are impregnated by a special vacuum process 
which makes a burnout practically impossible. 
It is mounted in a leather covered velvet lined case 
8x12x6 inches. Ample space is provided for ten 
electrodes, handle, conducting cords, etc. 
Full descriptive catalogue and prices showing our 
complete line of machines and electrodes. 

Manufaciured by 

CHAS. A. BRANSTON CO. 

Offices and Factory: 359 Yonge Street 
Phone Main 1712 

Canadian Representatives for the Celebrated 
White Gross Vibrators ^nd Electric Specialties 



INVALID STOUT 
For Weak Folks 




8 



0BQ0gTRENGTHENING and 
nourishing qualities, com- 
bine d with a really 
acceptable flavor, make 

Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 

the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co., 



LIMITED 



TORONTO 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXXll 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Aug., 1910 



GLYCO-THYMOLINE 



IS INDICATED IN 

Catarrhal 
Conditions 

of mucous me m- 
branes in all parts of 
the body — maintains 
Asepsis without irri- 
tation — reduces con- 
gestion and by stimu- 
lating the capillaries 
to increased activity 
restores normality. 




:..J^iL^ 




Perfect Mouth Wash 



For Daily Use 

Keeps the mouth Alkaline as 
nature intended it should be. 
Stops the formation of lactic acid 
and prevents dental decay. 

LITERATURE ON REQUEST 

KRESS & OWEN CO. 

361-363 Pearl St. '.• New York 



When writins advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Name 




XD A Y AND HIGH FREQUENCY 
■IVr\ I APPARATIK! 





APPARATUS 



iician 
Hospital 



Interrupterless 
X«Ray Transformer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 1915 




Model "E" 
Portable X-Ray 
and HifiTh Fre- 
quency Coil 



Highest Award to X-Ra^ and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass. 

Sales Agencies— Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 

Heating and Ventilating cannot be 
made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "Keith Fan"\s used. 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
economical on account of its service 
> * and durability. 

See our new Catalogue No. 55. 

Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont. 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 
AGENTS : 
Messrs. Ross & Greig, 412 St. James St., Montreal. Que. 
Messrs. Walkers Ltd., 2A1 Stanley St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Messrs. Gorman, Glancey & Grindley Ltd., Calgary and Edmonton. Alta. 
Messrs. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancouver B.C., (Bank of Ottawa Bldg.) 




ECONOMY IN YOUR 



X-RAY WORK 



EVERY good hospital manager is interested in improving the standing of the 
X-Ray Department, and thereby the standing of the hospital, through the 
better diagnosis possible on important cases. Our new MILLIAMPERE 
SECOND TECHNIQUE is the greatest advance in Radiography in years. 
Thoroughly tested by well-known men for months, it eliminates guesswork entirely. 
INSURES ECONOMY. Novice or expert can make every plate a valuable 
diagnostic one. NO DUPLICATES NECESSARY. 
This means money saved to your institution. 

Being based on known laws of the chemical effect of X-Rays, one milliampere 
second exposure producing a definite chemical change in a Paragon X-Ray plate, 
proper exposures can be determined in advance, and the highest grade of radi- 
ography produced with any type of apparatus. 

No excuse for failures or poor work now, if PARAGON TECHNIQUE 
is used. 

Now ready for free distribution to all radiographers. 

Send your radiographer's name for a 
free copy, and see that it is followed. 
Why not have the best work ? 

Make the other fellow try to produce 
work equal to that done at your hospital. 

Geo. W. Brady & Co. 

773 S. Western Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Stock carried by INGRAM & BELL, Limited, Toronto 



PHILLIPS* MILK OF MAGNESIA 

" The Perfect Antacid'' 

For Correcting Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylates, 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 

Of Advantage in Neutralizing the Acid of Cows' Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

Nori' Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

^Vith Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To be relied upon where 
a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS, H, PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO. 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Repreientatives : The Wingate Chemical Co.. Ltd., 545 Notre Dame ^V., 
Montreal, who will be pleased to send samples upon request. 



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IIHOSPITAL WORLD 



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Vol. X (XXI) Toronto, September, 1916 



No. 3 



CONTENTS 



EDITOBIAIiS. 

Page 

The Restoration of Disabled 65 

Line upon Line 67 

Cooling Rooms 69 

ORIGINAI. CONTBIBUTIONS. 

Concerning tlie Architecture, Con- 
struction and Erection of the Hos- 
pital Kitchen and the Equipment 
of Same. By Von Ingenieur 
Hitzlee, Wurzburg. (Translated 
by Rudolph Baumart from Zeit- 
schrift fur Krankenstalten) 70 

The 18th Annual Conference of the 
American Hospital Association, 
Philadelphia, Sept. 26-29 83 

ST 



= -^p--|>J 



"rr^'T- 



- ^ _- ^ J. ,„ — J,, _.-, 9 ^-^ -^ 



WAR HOSFITAI.S. 

Page 
The King's Canadian Red Cross Con- 
valescent Hospital 89 

Canadian Red Cross Hospital Opened 

at Buxton, England 91 

Items 92 

BOOK BEVIEWS. 

A Text-Boole of Physiological Chem 
istry 94 

A Text-Book of r'hysiological Chem- 
istry in Thirty Lectures 94 

Industrial Welfare Number of The 
•Modern Hospital 95 



\m 



Fellows^ Compound Syrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 

For 50 Years The Standard 

5 Syr. Hypophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 

P . ^ Cheap and Inefficient Substitutes 

Reiect ^ PreparaUon. "Ju«t as Good" 



■<M««»M«'<ri»!»' " »''Tn»i-^i>»f»«a»TWta« » ■. 



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelve. 
by the Publishers at the Department of Agriculture. All rights reserved. 



LISTERINE 

A safe, non- poisonous, unirritating antiseptic solution 

LISTERINE embodies a two-fold antiseptic effect, in that after the evaporation of its 
volatile constituents — thyme, eucalyptus, mentha, gaultheria and ethyl alco- 
hol — a film of boracic and benzoic acids remains upon the surface to which 
Listerine has been applied, affording more prolonged antiseptic protection. 

LISTERINE is a trustworthy surgical dressing ; it has no injurious effect upon the tissues in 
which the healing process is going on. 

LISTERINE in proper dilution is useful in the treatment of abnormal conditions of the 
mucosa and forms a suitable wash, gargle or douche in catarrhal conditions of 
the nose and threat. 

LISTERINE in teaspoonful doses will often afford relief in fermentative dyspepsia and is 
largely prescribed, with excellent results, in the various forms of diarrhoea 
occurring in infants and adults. 

LISTERINE literature, including special pamphlets upon Disorders of Digestion and 
Respirator}) Diseases, may be had, by physicians, upon application to 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 

Church and Gerrard Sts. Toronto, Canada. 



Is jour estate properly 
protected? 

No matter how little or how much you own, these 
possessions make up your estate, and should be pro- 
tected by efficient and economical management. 
This can best be done by an Executor or Trustee. 
This Company, by acting in this capacity, will give 
your estate the benefit of experience gained in the 
management of many estates, of large and of only 
moderate size, and will scrupulously guard the in- 
terests of your heirs. 

No charge for drawing up your will when the Sterling 
Trusts Corporation is appointed your executor and 
trustee. 

Our officers will give you further information on 
request. 

Sterling Trusts 

CORPORATION 

.^.^J^^SIOCfsiJ MANAGIN6-OIRECTOR 

<^. S OINNICK HERBERT WADDINGTON 

60 KING ST. EAST "M^Vr'7?'^= TORONTO 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 



This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 

A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPEHIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J. F. HARTZ CO., LTD. 

Physicians' and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 

When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



11 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Sept., liJlB 



Hospital Superintendents 

should instruct their Nurses and Domestics to use 

GILLETT'S LYE 

for disinfecting sinks, closets and drains. It is also ideal for the 
cleansing of urinals and bed pans — in fact any vessel that requires 
disinfecting, Gillett's Lye should always be used for scrubbing 
hospital bath tubs and operating room floors. 

For cleansing and disinfecting. dissolve one teaspoonful of Gillett's 
Lye in two gallons of water. 




(^U'^TTs 




BEWARE OF IMITATIONS 



E. W. Gillett Co. Ltd. 

TORONTO, ONT. 



Winnipeg 



Montreal 





DESCRIPTION OF DOLL.— Over 5 feet tall, made of finely woven 
stockinet. Is durable, waterproof and sanitary. Has copper Reservoir 

-EAifih has three tubes leading into it, correspcnJinK in location and 

■^ize^o the urethra, yaginal and rectal passages. 



The Chase Hospital Doll 

For Use in Training Schools 

Adult size, also infant models, 2, 4 
and 12 months, and 4-year-old sizes. 

Chase dolls are well made of cloth, 
jointed, and painted with waterproof 
paint, with internal reservoirs. 

The Value 

of this substitute of a living model is 
found in the many practical lessons 
which can be taught in the class room, 
such as handling of patients, admin- 
istering enema, douching, probing in 
the ear and nose cavities — in short, 
the complete care of the patient. 



We make dolls with- 
out reservoir if desired . 
Send for illustrated 
booklet gi^^ng full 
particulars . 



M. J. CHASE 

22 Park Place, Pawtucket, R.I. 




When writing advertisers, please mention The, Hospital World. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL AYOKLD 



111 




The Medical Profession 

Endorses the Wonderful 

Properties of 

"THERMOGENE" 

8 Million Packets Sold in 1914 

THREE MILLION PACKAGES HAVE BEEN SENT TO AND ARE 
NOW BEING USED BY THE RED CROSS SOCIETY IN BELGIUM. 

For the alleviation of pain and the effecting of a speedy and certain cure in all cases 
of Rheumatism, Bronchitis, Lumbago, Colds on the Chest, Sprains, etc., etc., 
THERMOGENE is wonderfully efficacious. 

THERMOGENE is a curative absorbent, scientifically medicated and prepared, thus 
rendering it warming, curative and pain-dispelling in its effect. 

Ready for instant application, does not blister and can be worn day or night without 
the slightest discomfort. 

THERMOGENE has the endorsement of the highest medical authorities. A Free 
Package will be sent to any Doctor on request. 

THE THERMOGENE CO., LTD., Hayward's Heath, London, Eng. 

Canadian Ajenti : HAROLD F. RITCHIE & CO., TORONTO 



MEDICAL COUNCIL 
OF CANADA 

October Examinations, 1916 

The Fall examinations of the 
Medical Council of Canada 
will be held at Montreal and 
Halifax on October 10th. 1916. 

Forms of certificate may be 
obtained from the Registrar 
at any time. 



Registration 



for the October 
Examination will close promptly 
at the Registrar's Office in 
Ottawa, on September 12th, 
1916. 

R.W. POWELL,M.D.,Registrar 
180 Cooper St., Ottawa 




Milk Made More Digestible; 

and more p.-ilatable. The first step in the digestion of milkj 
coagulation by rennet, is accomplished in Junket before itj 
is eaten. 

Junket 

MADE WITH MILK "^^ 

made of absolutely pure rennet and a little-table salt (noth-- 
ing else) is thus more easily digested and more nourishing 
than raw or pasteurized milk, proven by t)i^e fact that acids, 
such as juices from acid fruits, have not tbe injurious effect 
upon Junket that they have upon milk. ' 

It is an ideal food for invalids, dyspeptics and convales-! 
cents, as well as an excellent diet (and dessert) for healthy 
people — of all ages. Junket whey, containing to a dcgreoj 
every element of nutrition, is excellent as a temporary 
substitute for milk and often used as food in cases ot 
cholera infantum . 

Junket is sold by grocers and druggists or direct by us 
to the profession at 75c. per hundred tablets. 

Send for interesting treatise Junket in Dietetics,^' 

and free sample, \ 

CHR. HANSEN'S LABORATORY 
Helen St.. Little Falls, N.Y. 

Illlllllillllllllllllillllillllllllllllllllllllllllillilllll 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital "World. 



IV 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Sept., 1916 



THE "TARBOX" DRY-DUSTING MOPS 

1 Chemically Treated — No Oil to Soil- 

Destroy Nothing Except the Drudgery of the 

DAILY DUSTING 

The chemical action causes the Mop to absorb just sufficient 
dampness from the Atmosphere to collect and hold the dust 
while working — Do not flit the dust — Do not smear or dissolve 
the floor wax as oils do. 

" Tarbox " Dry-Dusting Mops are not Dry Mops. 
Note the distinction. 

The whole room may be dusted 
without fear of smearing or soil- 
ing anything — Paper, Bases or 
Mats. 

Every dusting adds that desired 
sheen to waxed floors. 

The essentia] chemical used is 
a germicide. 

Made in Canada 
Sold in Foreign Countries 

Manufactured by TARBOX BROS., TORONTO, CANADA 

Sole Factors for the United Kingdoms : J. & A. McFarlane, Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiitiiiiiiii 



iiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiriMiini 




I No. 106. 

I Strong, substantial, heavily silver- 
I plated, highly polished. 

Tittitititifi(i[!iiiiiiiiiiiinr(uiiiriiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:i!iHiiiiiiiitiiinnnNiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiniiii 



PHYSICIANS KNOW 



that the days of the common Drinkine Cup are passed 
and Eone. One of the marked advances in Sanitation 
during the past year or two is the introduction of the 
Single Service Sanitary Drinking Cup as a guarantee 
against infection from many types of Communicable 
Disease. Not only Members of trie Profession, but 
all Public Institutions, including Hospitals, should 
acquaint themselves with the merits of 

The Vortex System 

which dispenses entirely with the washing and steriliz- 
ing of Glasses and Chinaware. The VORTEX SYSTEM 
is unquestionably the most Sanitary in exis'ence and has 
already the endorsement of a large number of Health 
Authorities. It may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that it meets the requirements of all Sanitary Laws 
in reference to the PREVENTION of THE SPREAD 
OF DISEASE. 

The cups are made of pure white rice paper, paraf- 
fined, and the initial cost is trifling. Once installed in 
an institution, the System will never be substituted. 
The cups are made for either hot or cold drinks and 
once used are immediately discarded. 

You are asked to write for particulars. 

Canadian 
Wm. A. Rogers Limited 

570 King Street West - - Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Hospital 

Superintendents 

Know 

that nothing is so detrimental to the 
health of patients as the lack of the 
normal percentage of moisture in the 
air they breathe. How often it has been 
demonstrated beyond question that the 
moment the air of the sleeping room 
becomes too dry, just so soon will the 
inmate of that room suffer from sore 
throat, headache, sleeplessness and gen- 
eral malaise, a condition that is at once 
changed on returning to normal con- 
ditions. The attention of Hospitals, therefore, is 
particularly called to 

The Radiator Humidifying Pan 




(PATENT) 




This is a strongly made metal device so 
shaped that it snugly fits any standard 
steam or hot water radiator, out of sight, 
between the radiator and the wall. This 
pan is filled with water, which evaporates 
very rapidly, converting the air of the 
room or corridor into moist, wholesome, 
healthful atmosphere that Nature's good 
health demands. This is the very thing 
needed in all Institutions, not only Hos-' 
pitals, but Asylums, Sanatoria, and 
Public Charitable Institutions as well. 

One Radiator Humidifying P.an to each 
steam or hot water Radiator gives ample 
humidity to any room. 

The first cost is the onlj' cost, and they 
A\ill last a lifetime. 

$1.50 each. 

Superintendents should at once look into 
the merits of this device. Full particular 
can be ootained from 

Wilson Specialties 

33 Melinda Street, Toronto 

Manchester Building 
Phone Adelaide 3089 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Sept., 1916 




ROLLING 

RECLINING 

AND CARRYING 



CM^IK: 



ITE FOR 

rade:"C"Catalogue 
containing 
FULL LINE 





ONTO 



GENDRONMFG.CO. Cana^ 

LIMITE.D- 



COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are 
maintained. 



THE COWAN CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



RESULTS 



I^TOTHING but a successful plate will produce 
successful "first time" results. That is what the 
Roentgenologist must have in order to properly diagnose 
the case. Seed X-Ray Plates are dependable, rapid and 
accurate, and give " first time " results. 

For sale by all supply houses. 
Pamphlet by mail on request. 

CANADIAN KODAK CO. 

LIMITED 
TORONTO 



When writing attvertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



vn 



Attention of Canadian Hospitals 



We are 
manufactur- 
ers of Metal 
Hospital 
Furniture 
of all kinds. 

Wheel 
Apparatuses 

Cabinets 
Screens, etc. 




CANADA FIRST 



No matter 
how small 
your re- 
quirements, 
let us have a 
chance to 
give you a 
price. 



THE METAL CRAFT CO. 

GRIMSBY, ONTARIO, CANADA 



CEND your Christmas 
^ parcels for overseas 
early this year — there'll 
be a rush later. 

To give a lot of pleasure, 
include 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

A box holds five different 
flavors, securely wrapped. 
This is good to remember 
and to suggest to your friends. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Vlll 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Sept., 1916 





SPECIALISTS, PLEASE NOTE 

"Rigo" Eye Pipette 

has a round point that 
can be injected under 
the eyelids without 
injuring the eye. 

Better prescribe this 
article for your patient, 
not leave it for them to 
buy the ordinary medi- 
cine dropper. 

Most druggists have 
them; all can procure 
them from us. 

Each Pipette in a slide box, 
retails for 10 cents. 

Write us for a sample. 

The Richards Glass Co., Ltd. 

265 Adelaide St. W., Toronto 



NURSES' AGENCY 

Physicians should note that I am prepared 
to supply Graduate, Undergraduate and 
District Nurses, at any hour, night 
or day. I use the greatest of care to supply 
only women of unquestioned reputation and 
ability. — A trial call solicited. 

9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 
Telephone Main 1507 

Nights, Sundays and Holidays, 
Telephone Park. 5320 

H. S. DAVEY 

163 '4 Church St. Toronto 



Members of 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

desirous of getting rid of the worry of book- 
keeping and who have not had the time to give 
the attention necessary for the successful collec- 
tion of their accounts, should call upon 

H. R. Heyes & Company 

59 YONGE ST., TORONTO 

Messrs. Heyes & Co. are prepared to attend to all such 
details, not only the actual collection of the accounts ; but, 
through a special system of their own, attend to all book-keeping 
and records, mailing of monthly statements, etc., etc. 

The firm will be very glad to hear from physicians, and, on 
receipt of a post card or phone message, will call upon the Doctor 
at his office at any convenient hour. 

The Telephone No. is "M. 4962" 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Sept., 191 G 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



IX 



A Reliable Disinfectant 

Piatt s Cnlorides Has a record oi 
over thirty-six years, and has the 
endorsement or the medical pro- 
fession. 

A po"weriul disinfectant and de- 
odorant ^vhich destroys germs and 
had odors. 

Is absolutely Odorless and does 
not cover one odor ■w'lth another. 

C hlorides 

TIiG Odor-lesrs 

Two Sizes — 25c. and 50c. 

Sold everywhere. 

Write for booklet to tlie manufacturer 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 




A POPULAR PHYSICIAN 

The common-sense treatment 
of uric acid diathesis, gout, and 
other therapeutically trouble- 
some stages of rheumatism, by 
recommending the daily use of 
PLUTO WATER has helped to 
build many a physiciau's repu- 
tation. 

Clinical data, substantiating 
the claims made for PLUTO 
WATER mailed on request. 

PLUTO 

Bottled by the FRENCH LICK SPRINGS HOTEL CO., 
Freiiwh Lick, Indiana. 




In order to Duild up a patient's strength after ill- 
ness, rrom "wnatever cause, increase tne naemoglobin 
in the red dIoocI corpuscles by prescribing 

O'Keefe's Old Stock Ale 
Pilsener Lager 

OR 

Extra Mild Stout 

These malt preparations \vill increase appetite, nelp 
tne patient to sleep and rapidly bring nim back to 
normal healtn. 

When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Sept., 1916 




rJ/^QPTXAT PmTTIPMFXrnr The New General Hospital of Montreal, and scores 
^^^-^''-^^^ ^ ^^*-' l^yyuxiTiVlLii'^ X ^f other Canadian Hospitals, are equipped with 

' Alaska " Beds and 

OSTERMOOR MATTRESSES 

They last a lifetime, and are absolutely satisfactory. More sanitary than hair — for less money. 



THE ALASKA FEATHER AND DOWN CO., Limited 



Montreal and Winnipeg 



GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use, the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions (no weighing, measuring 
or waste). 

For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 
For cleansing w^ounds (bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 
For disinfecting surface lesions. 

For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not affect nickel 
or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital. 
Our word and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample with descriptive literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS a CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot— 118 St. Paul Street W., Montreal, Quebec, 



When writing adveitiseis. please mention The Hospital World. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOULD 



XI 




Seal 

COFFEE 



F^- 





Prized equally in 
hospital and home, 
because no other 
Coffee is at once 
so rich, so strong, 
so delicate, and so 
unfailingly ^ood. 



In %, 1 and 2 pound cans. 
Whole — ground — pulverized — 
also Fine Ground for Percolators. 



CHASE & SANBORN, MONTREAL. 

160 



The Soap 
for health 



Better to be 

safe than 

sorry — 

wash with 

LIFEBUOY 
SOAP 

ITS choice oils 
give a smooth 
velvety lather 
that soothes while 
itcleansestheskin 
— Its mild carbolic 
solution means no 
germs. The odor 
does not cling, but 
vanishes a few 
seconds after use. 

Grocers sell Lifebuoy 
Healthy Soap 



lbl4 



':^^m 



^^3S 



^ 



When writins advertisers, please ni'^'-tion The Hospital ^Vorld. 



Xll 



TFIE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Sept., 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfully 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of "Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to Lysol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydal Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 



POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS 

Toronto, Ont. 



CO. OF CANADA 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMS 

AND EQUIPMENT FOR 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Design and Fit at Rsasonable Prices 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

44-46 YORK STREET - - TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Uniform Contractors to the Dominion and Imperial Governments. 

When Enquiring be sure to Specify what you are Particularly Interested in. 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



Sept.. 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



xiu 



The Largest Hospitals 



have proved 



Made 

in 

Canada 



i)\i 



fytu^^E■fWEiG^^T 

FLOOR 
WAX. 

' nj^ORi IfTPOCB ■oco/'**' 



mm 



Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
wood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. 

Manufactured by 

COOKE S BOOLTOM, ''Io'JjJ'n^'o ^• 



DOCTOR 

IN' CASES OF 

Delayed Convalescence or 
for Patients in Need of an 
Invigorating Tonic 

PRESCRIBE 

Puritan Invalids' 
Port Wine 

It is made from Canadian 
Grapes and medicated with 
Cinchona Bark. Procur- 
able from any druggist. 

Price One Dollar a'Quart Bottle 

PURITAN WINE CO., TORONTO 

Telephone Park. 5454 



La Deesse 
Corsets 

Excel in Style 

Comfort 

Satisfaction 




Try them and be 
convinced. 



GASTROGEN 



Correct 




TABLETS 



Sample On Kequest 
Bristol-Myers Co. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 




'When writing advi-rlisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XIV 



THE HOSPITAL WOIH.D 



^ept., 1916 



T^OCTOR : — In this age the critical and progressive 
^^ Doctor has a keen appreciation for that which is 
giving quick results. 

JAMUN COMPOUND IN DIABETES 

IS SPECIFIC IN ACTION 

A modern product, strictly ethical. Literature will 
be sent to members of the Medical Profession upon 
application. 

The National. Drug and Chemical Company are 
the wholesale distributing agents for Canada. 

THE JAMUN COMPANY 
343-344 Loeb Arcade, - - Minneapolis, Minn. 



SANITARY WASHING APPLIANCES 

Manufactured by 

CANADA WIRE AND IRON GOODS CO., HAMILTON 




Illustrating: our HOLDER! AND BASKETS for Sterilizing: Glasses and Silverware 

Tliis type of equipment is in use at the Guelph Agricultural College. INQUIRIES SOLICITED 

We Manufacture METAL LOCKERS and HOSPITAL TABLES 




Invalid Chairs and Tricycles 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

This has been our study for thirty-five years. We build Chairs 

that suit the requirements of any case. If your dealer cannot ; 

supply you, write us direct for catalogue No. 80, and prices. 



GENDRON WHEEL CO., 



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Sept., 191G 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XV 



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When consulted on the sub- 
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19 Goodwood Avenue, Toronto 

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Flooring provided either plain or orna- 
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xvi THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1916 



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T T R A ^ A T Granular 
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Urotropin, Piperazine, Benzo-Citrate of Lithia 

The continual increasing demand demonstrates the 
results Physicians derive from the use of this Salt in 
Rheumatism, or where the medicants are indicated. 

Free Sample on Request. 



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Sbttnra : 



" l^ouiiital iKaittlf ttanrt unit 
3Fittan« " 



" Sfuratng Sppartmrnt " 



C J.C.O. HASTINGS, Medical Healtb 
Officer, City of Toronto; HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY, B.A., M.D., Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals. Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES, late Secy., Royal Free 
Hospital. London, England. 

" l^aiipttal Equitimrnt anft 
AppUanrpfl " 

N. A. POWELL. M.D., CM.. Senior 
Assistant Surgeon in charge Shields' Emerg- 
ency Hospital. Professor Medical Jurisprudence. 
Medical Department, University of Toronto. 

" l^aspitala auft prpuftitiut 

J. W. S. McCULLOUGH, M.D., Chief 

Officer of Health for the Province of Ontario. 

J. H. ELLIOTT. M.D.. Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Toronto. 

P. H. BRYCE, M.D.. Chief Medical Officer, 
Dept. of The Interior, Ottawa. 



MISS MARGARET CON ROY, Boston, 

Mass. 

" ij^ospital OlnuBtrurtton " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES, M.D., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH, 
M.D., M.VO., Medical Superintendent, 
Western Infirmary, Glasgow. 

" jlr&tral ©rganizatinn " 
HERBERT A. BRUCE, M.D., F.R.S.C, 

Surgeon. Toronto Gen-ral Hospital, Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE. M.D.. Kingston, Ont. ; H. 
E. WEBSTER, Esq., Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG. M.D., L.R.C.P.. London. 
Consultant. Toronto Hospital for Incurables, 
Toronto. 



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Pri-'on, Guelph, Ont. 

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GEORGE D. PORTER. M.D., Toronto ; 
J. H. HOLBROOK, M.B.. Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton. Ont. 



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Vol. X. 



TORONTO, SEPTEMBER, 1916 



No. 3 



Editorials 



THE RESTORATION OF DISABLED SOLDIERS 



The therapeutic treatment and re-education of our 
disabled soldiers are making progress hand in hand 
under the painstaking and enlightened policy of the 



()6 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1916 

Military Hospitals Commission. Some of its Institu- 
tions are, naturally, doing a larger and more varied 
work than others, but the Commission is evidently 
determined, as far as possible, to bring them all up to 
the highest standard of efficiency. 

The aim of this truly national work is to secure 
for every man disabled in the service of his country 
restoration to active and useful citizenship — restora- 
tion as complete as medical and surgical science can 
make it, with the co-operation of all the social and 
moral forces available. 

The degree in which success is achieved in this 
effort will be the degree in which we shall avoid the 
national disgrace of having a class of men among us 
reduced to the necessity of living on other people, or 
on their pensions alone, without doing their utmost 
to support themselves. 

At the Federal Commission's Hospitals and 
Homes, and in other Institutions co-operating with 
them, we have men already improving themselves 
in such subjects as elementary English, French, writ- 
ing and arithmetic, book-keeping and mechanical 
drawing, telegraphy, carpentry, wood carving, light 
metal work, clay-modelling and toy-making, with 
vegetable and flower gardening, poultry raising and 
bee-keeping. 

One of the most important steps lately taken for 
the improvem.ent of the system is the adoption of a 
time-table, sufficiently elastic to meet the greatly 
varying needs of the individual inmates of Military 
Convalescent Hospitals, and at the same time com- 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 67 

prehensive enough to provide, under medical super- 
vision, occupation of some kind or other for the whole 
of the time. The danger which this is calculated to 
prevent will be obvious enough to all our readers. 



LINE UPON LINE 



So much has been said and written about the 
necessity of pure milk supply that the subject has 
become too trite to hold the attention of the general 
public. Even the medical profession is inclined to 
dispose of it as a platitude. Yet every summer 
emphasizes the truth afresh and every hospital and 
sick room realizes how long a step has yet to be taken 
before perfectly pure, clean milk, and only such, 
becomes the common and only commodity of its kind 
in the market. 

There are dairies and dairies, of various degrees 
of merit, some openly unfit and dirty, some — and 
these are most to be dreaded — making pretence of 
cleanliness by outside show; while others, as yet in 
the great minority, are struggling with more or less 
success to measure up to the standard that ensures 
a safe, pure product. 

There are notable dairies in this respect, and 
certain points in their conduct are worth noting. 

Special breeds of cows, such as Holsteins and 
Guernseys, produce very fine milks which may be 
mixed without injury to the flavor of either. These 
cows, should, of course, be proved free from tuber- 
culosis by the tuberculine test. They are stalled in 



68 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1^16 

clean, well-lit, well-ventilated stables in preference 
to pasture fields. The most up-to-date dairies have 
a lounging barn, clean, sanitary and bright, like the 
stable, and bedded with j^lenty of fresh straw, which 
is constantly being removed for farm manure and 
replaced with the clean article. 

Between the barn and stable is a cleansing pool 
in which the sides and shoulders and udders are 
laved preparatory to milking. Electrical milkers 
are preferably used, the milk collected in closed 
sterile containers, and immediately taken to cold 
storage and kept cool until consumption. 

Naturally, milk thus prepared wdll cost more 
than that now delivered at the majority of hospitals; 
but it should be worth the value to the sick, since 
the guarantee of such richness and purity means 
so much in the process of building up the enfeebled 
body. 

Such conditions as related are neither fanciful 
nor ideal. They exist in some of the modern dairies 
of the continent, and are being widely copied. 

By-and-by these best things in milk production 
will become general conditions, and as such become 
the source of milk supply for the average citizen 
at a cost wdthin the reach of the average w^age-earner. 
No other will or should be tolerated. 

But the education of the people in this as in other 
health reforms is slow. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 69 

COOLING ROOMS 



A LEADING hospital in New York has recently 
provided an especially cooled room for pneumonia 
cases — the practical outcome of which innovation 
has yet to be announced. 

The recent protracted spell of intense heat which 
was so hard to endure in the hospitals, both by pati- 
ents and staff, brings up the problem of making pro- 
vision for cooling hospital wards and offices. It is 
taken for granted that many private wards are sup- 
plied with electric fans; but this does not solve the 
problem for the public wards, since the majority of 
hospitals do not feel that they can afford to provide 
fans in sufficient quantity for the large wards, or 
the cost of their continuous service. Awnings, of 
course, mitigate the heat somewhat. 

Hospitals having the plenum system, by which the 
heating and ventilating ai^ provided by the same 
process, can always obtain cool air. In addition to 
the pumping in of washed air, which affords a good 
deal of cooling, the incoming air-stream may be 
drawn through a chamber partly filled with ice. To 
such hospitals as are provided with fan intake this 
procedure is to be recommended. 

In the future it may be possible to provide local 
refrigeration in large wards somewhat on the same 
principle as that now employed by the John Manville 
Company in the compact little apparatus in which 
the refrigeration is produced by sulphur di-oxide. 



70 THE HOSPITAL WOKIJ) Sept., 1916 

Original Contributions 



CONCERNING THE ARCHITECTURE, CON 

STRUCTION AND ERECTION OF THE 

HOSPITAL KITCHEN AND THE 

EQUIPMENT OF SAME 



BY VOX IXOEXIEUR HITZLEE, WURZBURG. 
Translated by Rudom'H Baumakt from Zeitschrifl fiir Krankenstaltcn. 



W'jiEXEVEK an archite?t is called ajjon to snlnult i)laus for the 
installation of a coni]ilete kitchen for any kind of an institution, 
it is necessary to obtain, first of all, information re2;ardinf>; the 
space required, the equipment and all the installations needed, 
as well as the most economical and practical arran-icment of 
such apparatus. 

The usual method luirsued for aainina' such information 
is generally obtained throuoh the study of already established 
kitchens in full operation, and in absorbiuir the experience and 
knowledge of the management of institutions Avhich are o])erar- 
ino- such kitchens and have graduallv solved and overcome 
such problems as may have presented tihemselves from time to 
time, in the endeavor to place the operation of this part of the 
institution on a highly efficient basis. It is further customary 
to ask for complete working plans and specifications of kitchens 
from firms manufacturing kitchen a]:»paratus. This method of 
investigation will invariably result in the return of as many 
diiferent opinions and tiheories as the interested party has asked 
for. Such conditions, however, will be encountered not only in 
cases of this kind, but will prevail more or less wherever tech- 
nical specifications for complete equipment of large institutions 
have been required. 

The ideas regarding the number and size of the main work- 
ing rooms of the complete kitchen of a large establishment ditfer 
greatlv. For reasons of eeonomv and easv manaaemont. one 



Sept., 191G THE HOSPITAL WOULD 71 

large general room, sufficiently equi])})ed. is found, in many 
instances, wholly adequate for all ]iractical cooking purposes, to 
wliicli may be connected a small diet kitchen for short orders, 
wherever required. 

In other institutions, again, one will find that the culinary 
department is desired to be of complicated construction and 
divided into various sub-departments. In the latter instance 
separate rooms are demanded, e.g., stt^am cooking, frying, milk, 
so-called diet and cold service kitchens ; a separate kitchen for 
physicians and patients of the first class, as well as one for the 
nurses. There can be no doubt that such divisions can be of 
practical value only if applied to organizations of the first mag- 
nitude where the so-arranged different sub-departments come 
under the supervision of already installed sub-dopartment heads. 

The decision regarding the application of any specific sys- 
tem should be governed, naturally, by the character of the insti- 
tution in question, which may be a sanatorium with only one 
system of diet (.or none at all — that is, to install a kitchen for 
the sake of completeness or emergency only). Again it may 
be an orphans' home or an establishment for the care of the 
old and poor; or it may be a hospital where in-patients, as well 
as out-patients, are treated, special attention being given to an 
elaborate system of variegated diets. 

All these technical points, as well as the psychological and 
financial conditions under which the proposed kitchen will have 
to operate, should be perfectly clear before a decision as to the 
number and size of rooms is attempted. Such foresight will 
not only secure the right number and (for the required service) 
correct grouping of rooms, but it will also, in many cases, allow 
the architect to economize materially in the size and often in 
the number of rooms required for the purjiose. Without this 
information the contractor will find it absolutely necessary to 
provide for extra rooms, and also must figure the size of all 
rooms large enough to take care of a working capacity which 
may greatly exceed the preliminary estimate. 

Opinions regardinsr the size of such kitchens vary greatly. 
For instance, the city hospital, St. Rochus, of ^Mainz, Germany, 
with a capacity to accommodate 550 patients, has a kitchen 
covering an area of about 00 square metres ; while the city hos- 



a 



73 TEE HOSPITAL WOT^LD Sept., 191G 

pital of South ^Magai-d. of like size, boasts a kitchen space of 
about 160 square metres. It is obvious that dietary eonditions 
in these two hospitals must differ wideh% otherwise it would be 
logical to assume this department of one place is much too large, 
or that of the other much too small ; and, of course, either condi- 
tion would be highly undesirable. 

Too small quarters will always appear untidy, are hard to 
clean and, on the whole, will be found uncomfortable in every 
direction. The other extreme has also proved itself impractical, 
requiring too large a working force, and — what should be 
avoided most — involve not only an unnecessary large cai)ital 
to construct, but also will exceed greatly what may be called 
first practical upkeep expense." In summing up, it will be 
comprehensible that one general scheme, covering the practical 
installation of comiilete diet-kitchens for anv kind of institu- 
tion, as to size and distribution of rooms, must be considered 
more or less impossible. 

This is true, also, for all auxiliary apartments and its equip- 
ment required for the completeness of the former. A hospital, 
for instance, located in a city where hired help is expensive and 
hard to obtain, will instal, surely, preferably machinery to do 
away with the time-killing work of potato-peeling. No doubt 
this method will insure a certain loss of material. This, how- 
ever, should be found a negligible factor, as compared to the 
former, on time and expenditure, so wasteful method'. Dif- 
ferent, however, are the conditions in a home for the old, or in 
similar institutions. There are found old women and men who, 
for the benefit of the home, and even for the sake of their own 
physical well-being, may be used for general light work. Of 
course these different conditions will require quarters of differ- 
ent size as w^ell as of different equipment. A peeling-room of 
the latter kind must be spacious and the workers themselves are 
best placed on benches around the walls, facing the interior, so 
they may indulge in harmless conversations, to give interest to 
the rather monotonous work, but mainly to provide for easy 
control, which is of importance, for instance, in a sanatorium 
for the feeble-minded. 

The same room where mechanical devices only are to be 
employed may be much smaller than the one just touched upon. 



Sept., 1!J1(; THE HOSPITAL WOULD 73 

However, careful provision should be made beforehand for all 
machines and apparatus to be installed. It is customary to use 
this room also for the cleaning of all other vegetables. For 
large hospitals it may be practicable to locate this room next to 
the potato-storage. Institutions fortunate enough to grow their 
own vegetables and connected direct wdth their nurseries, should 
have the cleaning of vegetables attended to in the nursery, if 
necessary in a special shed erected for this purpose. This 
arrangement not only reduces thei work of this part of the 
kitchen, but also eliminates the work of returning the refuse to 
the so-called " compost-heap " of the nursery. ^Vliatever of 
this refuse is to he used for the feeding of animals can, of course, 
be separated and taken care of at the time of cleaning by the 
gardener or his helper. Some institutions have been found to 
send vegetables to be cleaned, peeled or dressed to certain wards. 
In such cases, however, the involved wards should be egnipped 
wdth suitable quarters for this purpose. 

Much simpler to solve are the problems of that department 
set aside for the cleaning of dishes. On the whole there are 
only two different conditions to be considered which may influ- 
ence the size and equi^Dment of this room: either the dishes are 
cleaned and stored in the different wards, while the room pro- 
vided for this purpose, the genei'al kitchen, takes care only of 
the cooking utensils, the vessels used in the transportation of 
the food to the different wards, and finally the dishes used by 
the kitchen personnel themselves; or all dishes used will be 
returned to general washroom, usually found next to the cook- 
ing department. This latter system will hardly be found prac- 
tical in very large public establishments, considering the extra 
work and risk of transportation of the dishes, and wherever 
found, conditions will or should warrant its application. So, 
generally speaking, no extra large room is required for this 
department of a complete kitchen plant. If no provision is made 
for a special room to store the dishes, it will be necessary to pro- 
vide for long walls, unbroken by doors and windows, to facili- 
tate the building of shelves for the proper keeping of dishe^^. 
However, a special room for this purpose, next to the wash- 
room, is recommended. 



14 THE HOSPITAL WOULD Sept., 1916 

The absence of a room for tlie teiiii)orarv storing- of all refuse 
and cooked food-remnants is disagreeably noticeable in some 
kitchens, and makeshift arrangements are resorted to, which 
spoil effectnally the otherwise immacnlare appearance of this 
department. Small box-wagons or barrels can be seen at the 
entrance of the kitchen, or at the doors of other kitchen depart- 
ments, with visible signs of spoiled foodstuffs around, its odor 
generally proving even more offensive than its untidiness. Even 
in the corridors to the general heating plant or power house 
could these vessels. containing the kitchen refuse be seen. To 
overcome these objectionable features it is always best to build, 
in a suital)le, little, well-ventilated ]ilace, either next to where 
the just-used dishes are returned, or next to the washroom itself, 
whichever may be found more expedient, easily accessible for 
l)oth the storing as well as the cleaning out of the refuse. What- 
ever establishment has followed this little bit of advice ha< never 
found reason to regret it. 

Again, the arrangement of those localities used for the dis- 
tribution of the cooked meals to their various destinations may 
differ widely. Many institutions, especially those for " psycho- 
pathies," or feeble-minded patients and the like, generally 
believe in the separation of sexes. In such cases there will be 
necessary a double provision for food-distribution, arranged 
according to the location of male and female departments. Of 
course this is required only if the food is received and distri- 
buted really by inmates of both sexes. This is, however, not the 
case very often, and' surely not where the establishment consists 
of several or many separate buildings or groups of buildiuis. 
In these cases properly designed hand-wagons may be used to 
convey the cooked food to the different units ; and here only one 
room for the dispensing of the meals is needed. It may be 
required, however, that some special prescribed food between 
regular meals, and ordered for both sexes, will have to be deliv- 
ered jointly. This work is mostly done by nurses or other snir- 
able institution employees. 

Now, then, is the meeting of both sexes at this department 
reallv so dangerous to require two separate places of food-dis- 
pensation ? What will hunt for each other will find each other, 
and that at occasions which surelv are more suitable than meet- 



Sept., 191() THE JlOSriTAL WOULD 75 

ing at the kitchen at meal times, when the surveilhiiiL-e is or 
shonld be the most stringent. The time of delivering meals to 
the (litiferent groups may also be so arranged that such condi- 
tions will be eliminated antomatically. Regular hospitals, 
where most of the nurses and other general help are of the 
feminine gender, only one place for the distribution of meals is 
needed. For establishments using for food distribution trans- 
portation wagons, only one ample, large room is required, allow- 
ing these wagons to come near enough to the delivery window to 
make loading and unloading ]:)ractical. In connection herewith 
it may be mentioned that these food wagons, with their per- 
sonrv'l, should not have to pass through open grounds, subje'^'t 
to all kinds of weather conditions, but be able to make their 
deliveries to all l)uildings while protected by roofs always; and 
further, the transport to the different floors should be mechani- 
cal, avoiding the climbing of stairs. It is self-understood that 
the actual kitchen rooms, including the delivery department, 
should be separated from that room where the food is received, 
and connected only through suitable apertures or delivery and 
receiving windows las the logical points of contact. 

I Note. — Short paragraph pertaining to dispensing of alco- 
holic drinks omitted, considering that it recommends the re2:ular 
use thereof by both patients (if -(fondition permits) as well as 
attendants. Will hardly receive American sym])athy.] 

Constant worry and trouble is usually experienced with the 
storerooms of the kitchen plant. (This does not include cellar 
or refrigerators, which will be treated separately at another 
place.) Beans, peas (dry), vegetables, spices, sugar, salt, flour, 
bread and cakes — in short, all kinds of groceries and mill pro- 
ducts generally bought wholesale by the larger institutions — 
have to be received, checked, and so stored that the goods will 
not spoil or lose in quality or weight. Furthermore, the storage 
should be so arranged that any article required at any time cau 
be procured without losing time by the necessity of huutiug 
therefor, or of moving large quantities of other articles to get 
to it. 

Therefore, the rooms provided for storage slioukl be ( oni- 
fortably large, light, dry, and well ventilated. Xot overlooked 
should be the fact that all incoming goods must bo ]U-operly 



:6 THE HOSPITAL WOELU Sept., 1016 

checked, by reweigbing, remeasiiring or recounting, as may be 
the case, which requires a special receiving-room equipped with 
the proper paraphernalia, sneh as scales, measures, etc. This 
department should have a good size receiving window and space 
enough to hold in orderly condition a large consignment of gro- 
ceries just received "without confusing the receiving-clerk, and 
should be in direct connection with the storage itself. Where 
the latter is located on a different floor, the relative position of 
the receiving to the storage room should be so arranged that a 
direct connection can be maintained by the aid of a dumb- 
Avaiter. Wherever possible, it will be found very practical to 
build outside of the receiving-room a protected platform, facili- 
tating unloading, avoiding the spilling and spoiling of goods 
more or less, which without this last safeguard must be carried 
through some outside space, no matter how short, with results 
at least highly aggravating if this happens on a rainy day. Of 
course it is assumed that the receiving department is located on 
the ground floor, where it actually should be. Now the entire 
work of receiving can be done in the storage rooms themselves. 
However, such practice invariably leads to trouble wherever it 
is found necessary to reject part or all of the consignment, for 
the obvious reason that goods returned accidentally will be 
exchanged for some already in storage, or that this at least is 
stoutly claimed by the party having delivered such disputed 
goods. 

The subdivision of this kind of storage, according to the dif- 
ferent nature of the groceries to be stored, is advisable and 
required for the same reasons as the division of cellar-rooms, 
which is discussed at length in a later paragraph. 

Beside the real storao-e rooms, which mav be located in the 
kitchen-building, but by no means should be too close to the 
actual cooking department, there should be a small room for 
miscellaneous goods, used at all times, but in such small quanti- 
ties that they cannot practically be accounted for each day. 
These special spaces, easily compared to the handy pantry found 
in all private houses, are absent in kitchens of many large insti- 
tutions. If such a room is missing, for the care of these small 
items just mentioned, then there must be for them coffers and 
chests or cupboards in the cooking or adjacent rooms, where 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKT.D 77 

thej do not belong, and take up unnecessary space. It is also 
impossible to take proper care of such goods in the dark and 
narrow places provided by these makeshift contrivances. The 
building in of one or two of such pantries, if possible next to the 
cooking-room, is highly recommended. 

x\nother very necessary kind of storage facilities are the 
cellars. Good cellar rooms are found to be of great benefit, 
sometimes even a necessity, to private houses. This is also true, 
only infinitely more urgent, for the proper running conditions 
of complete kitchens of large institutions. The natural demand 
to place this kind of storage in the basement or sub-basement 
of the kitchen-building is difficult indeed, considering the hot- 
water and steam pipes used -for the modern kitchen apparatus, 
such as condensers, steam cookers, etc. The mains of such pipes 
are generally laid through the basements, and no matter how 
well isolated, will radiate heat, which slowly but surely per- 
meates the whole basement, preventing the cellar rooms from 
retaining their natural coolness, which makes cellar storage so 
valuable in private houses not suffering under these complica- 
tions. 

To obtain the required cellar temperature under the above- 
mentioned adverse conditions, it would seem necessary to exj^el 
the warm air from these cellars and replace it with the required 
much cooler article by mechanical means ; but how can this be 
done when the outside air is already much too warm for cellar 
purposes? As stated before, the isolation of the pipes alone 
does not solve the problem. It has been tried to lead all mains 
through a special, therefor provided, basement room, insulate its 
walls and keep the storage rooms as far as possible removed from 
this so-called " pipe-cellar." But even this method proved futile. 
The storage cellars could not be used for their designed pur- 
pose. This artificial warmth once in the basement is there to 
stay, and nothing short of the removal of the offending pipes 
can brinff relief. Some benefit has been obtained sometimes bv 
shutting the storage cellar completely off from the other parts 
of the basement by solid, heat-isolating walls and allow for an 
extra entrance to your storage, and if possible direct to the outer 
air. But in this case all other intervening walls must also be 
heat-isolated, otherwise little joy and satisfaction will be experi- 



78 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 'Sept., 191(3 

eneed with these cellars. It may be considered hiohly advisable 
to overlook the inconvenience and transfer this cellar storage to 
the basement of some other bnilding- in which such offending 
pipes will not be fonnd. It is further recommended, especially 
for institutions engaged in truck farming, to build for potatoes 
and turnips a special cellar direct in the ground. This is the 
best and natural cellar obtainable. Of course, even in such nat- 
ural cellars proper provision has to be made for drainage, airing, 
facilities for easv storing as well as easv delivery of the stora2;e 
to the kitchen, and in some modest measure also for what light- 
ing may be needed. 

Special mention is made here regarding such cellars used 
for the making and storing of "sauerkraut." Special arrange- 
ment must, be made for the admission of water for the washing 
of the cabbage, as well as good drainage for the disposal of all 
used water as well as the water liberated by the pressing of the 
" kraut." For the latter purpose certain machinery is required, 
making necessarv extra hi£>h ceilings to allow for the unim- 
peded working thereof. In this cellar extra attention must ba 
paid to the sufficient airing of this room. 

The very nature of the articles to be stored in cellars will in 
tbemselves demand certain isolations and make easy a decision as 
to the proper division of the different cellar storage rooms. It is 
for instance, self-evident that cheese, eggs, fruits, meats or 
" sauerkraut " cannot be stored in one room. Barring other 
complications, such proceeding would lead surely to one article 
rakino- on the taste or smell, or both, of one or more other 
articles stored in its vicinity. This is one of the important 
things the efficient kitchen manager has to bear in mind in the 
distribution of cellar storage rooms. The best proof of the 
above statement is found easily in many small grocery stores, 
where all goods are piled in an indescribably little space and, to 
the distress of the discreet buyer, have taken on all kinds of 
tastes and odors. Even the air of such a store is a conglomera- 
tion of many odors characteristic of these stores. Of course, the 
actual food-value may not be impaired. However, a good sup- 
erintendent will make sure that all goods retaiji their own orig- 
inal aroma and peculiarities, and this cannot be done by the 
dividing of cellar storage by lattice-work or board partition-s. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 79 

It requires reg-nlar old-fashioned brick and mortar, or modern 
concrete, walls to obtain results. 

[Note. — Parao'raphs on storine; and ihandlina' of beer and 
wine and pertainine; to making; of wine, omitted.] 

Tt hardly requires mentioning that all cellar storages must 
be absolutely immune to frost. 

■ A verv important group are the ice and cooling celbirs. 
Large and even medium establishments will do well to instal 
a complete mechanical ice-plant, for cooling and ice manufac- 
ture, which will be found very economical where the necessary 
power can easily be supplied by their own power-house. Arti- 
ficially cooled rooms are required mainly by that space pro- 
vided for the storage of meats. Cooling facilities are further 
highly recommended for the milk, butter and lard, ego's. and 
similar storage rooms. Fruit and conserved articles will need 
cool storage, and may be included in the above list. However, 
where the beautiful appearance of long-stored fruit is of minor 
consequence, a natural cool storage room will suffice. 

To provide faultless plans for the building of these kinds 
of cellars, as far as number and size is concerned, just fit for a 
later full running development, is extremely difficult. Too 
manv or too large cooling rooms are undesirable, on account of 
their high building cost as well as their comparatively high run- 
ning expense. On the other hand, these rooms must not be 
too small nor insufficient in number if a practical storage of all 
articles to be cooled is desired. A decision in this direction must 
be found mainly in considering the conditions governing the 
buying facilities. In the case of procuring meats, for instanr-e, 
here it should be known whether meat will be received daily 
from local or nearby butchers or it is required to buy meat 
through sources far away ; and in this case enough must be pro- 
cured to last for three to five days, or longer. For reasons of 
economy it will be found necessary sometimes to unexpectedly 
place an institution's meat order with some outside concern, 
where, for instance, the local butchers have tried to take advan- 
tage of the daily demand and by agreement have killed healthy 
competition as far as the establishment in question is concerned. 
Consequently it would l)e unwise to shut out the opportunity of 
breaking such a ring l)y omitting a meat-storage, while de]iend- 



so THE HOSPITAL ^\'OELD Sept., 1916 

ing on local daily supply. Conditions are similar in reference 
to the supply of all other goods which require cooling storage. 

The failure of having in the first place provided for a suffi- 
ci-ent large cold storage has, in fact, made itself felt very uncom- 
fortably in many institutions. Adjacent to the cold storage 
rooms should be the room for the complete ice and cold storage 
jDlant itself, which should be so installed that easy connections 
to the power-house may be made, and so arranged that tihese 
machines can be made to run or may be shut off, according to 
demand, and independent of all other machinery. A brand new 
establishment which, of course, will be hardly operated to its 
expected full capacity for some time to come, need not instal 
an expensive complete ice-plant until its need is felt. However, 
the room must be there, with correct plans which show careful 
j)rovision for every machine later to be set up in this room. Of 
course, proper connection should also be provided for during 
building. Under such conditions a later installation will not 
be more exj^ensive than if done at the time of building. 

The rule expounded when treating the creation of natural 
cellars for storage of eatables, that all warm air, no matter from 
what source, must be kept out, does apply more so to the cold 
storage rooms. Tn this case it will be also necessary that all 
walls, ceilings and, under adverse conditions, the floors, are 
made properly heat-proof. This includes doors and windows, 
which must be a perfect fit and absolutely air-tight. It is very 
often impossible to find room for the complete cold storage 
(plant and rooms) in the basement of the kitchen buildiufj;. 
This, 'however, is not so essential. The most used cold storao'e 
rooms, such as used for meats and milk, are better located on 
an even floor with the kitchen itself. This arrangement will 
save time, running expense, and greatly facilitate the kitchen 
routine work. There are no difficulties found in this two-storey 
arrangement as far as the technical or mechanical side of the 
question is concerned. Where cold storage rooms are placed 
even and next to the kitchen, two doors enclosing a small ante- 
room should be provided to prevent the transfer of hot air from 
the kitchen to the cold storage, or vice versa. Is this ante-room 
large and light enough, then a few ammonia pipes may be 
extended into it, and it may be used whenever practical or 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 81 

desirable for the preparation of meats for the cooking or frying 
process, as the case may be. 

As stated before, for all machinery of the cooling plant, as 
motor, compressor, condenser, ammonia and ice machines, as 
well as all auxiliaries, careful survey should be taken that the 
room provided for each machine is absolutely correct as to floor 
space, height of ceiling and all other dimensions, allowing every- 
where room for easy accessibility and a liall ample and light. 
To enable the builder to accomplish ihis, it is highly recom- 
mended to first agree upon a certain system or ice plant, and if 
possible consult a firm of engineers specializing in this class of 
work. 

Another small department to be mentioned in connection 
with institution kitchens is that of coffee roasting. The size 
of this room, therefore, of course depends upon the magnitude 
of the whole establishment, and consequently upon the kind and 
size of machinery to be installed. 

We believe that the above endeavor comprehensively covers 
all general needs and requirements demanded of a modern 
kitchen plant of any kind of institution, as far as the space and 
proper division is concerned. 

The furnishing of a choice variety of complete kitchen plans 
for different kinds and sizes of institutions with given specific 
dimensions has been abstained from advisedly. 

As touched upon before, the conditions governing the man- 
agement of every institution differ greatly. It is a well-known 
fact that two establishments of like size and capacity, and 
apparently demanding like facilities, have in reality nothing in 
common but their size and, mavbe, their line of endeavor, the 

7 t,' .' 

conditions of which, however, mav run in vastly different direc- 
tions, w^hich of needs influence the handling of every department 
and the general management and is governed by the principle 
followed in handling the inmates, the class of inmates itself, and 
sometimes even by the conditions of its very surroundings. It 
is, therefore, clear that no cut and dried rules can be conscien- 
tiously given ; the conditions which will probably govern the 
later work of a new to be built institution must be carefully 
taken into consideration l)y the builder, making full use of his 
experience, as well as that of unbiased authorities on public 



82 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., WUi 

institutions, whose long-time connection with such work makes 
their advice verv valuable. We must strongly advise against 
the use of ready-made ])lans for all kinds of institutions, which 
can be found everywhere for sale in the open market, for rea- 
sons stated. Many a management who had adopted such plans 
has later found ample reasons and time for regret. 

The details of full equipment for each kitchen department 
have not been gone into. These are stronglv influenced l)v the 
nrevailino- ideas of the buildino- commission, the architec'ts and 
the management to be, and last, but not least, by the financial 
resources of the institution. Furthermore, to offer advice relat- 
ing to building material and on other purely technical questions 
would be assuming and highly impractical, especially as our 
modern industries put on the open market constantly new 
materials, some better than others, which, however, should bo 
considered bv a wise builder, too. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD S3 

THE 18TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE 

AMERICAN HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION, 

PHILADELPHIA, SEPTEMBER 26-29 



Officers. 

Peesident, Dr. Winford H. Smith, Sii})t. Jolius Hopkins 
Hospital, Baltimore, Md. 

Secretary, ]\Jiss Lydia H. Keller, R.!N^., Acting Supt. 
Asbury Hospital, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Treasurer, Asa S. Bacon, Esq., Siii>t. The Presbyterian 
Hospital, Chicago, 111. 

First Vice-President. Dr. C. D. Wilkins, Snpt. Charity 
Hospital, Xew Orleans, La. 

Second Vice-President, Miss Kettie B. Jordan, Snpt. 
Aurora General Hospital, Aurora, 111. 

Third Vice-President, Dr. A. R. Warner, Supt. Lakeside 
Hospital, Cleveland, O. 

Executive Committee. 

Dr. Frederick A. Washburn, Chairman, Su])t.' Massachu- 
setts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. ; Dr. S. S. Gold water, 
Supt. Mt. Sinai Hospital, jSTew Yoyk City ; Dr. W. L. Babcock, 
Su'pt. Grace Hospital, Detroit, Mich. ; Dr. L. D. Baldwin, Supt. 
I^niversity Hospital, ^linneapolis, jMinn. ; Miss Mary L. Keith, 
Supt. Boehester City Hospital, Rochester, X.Y. 

PROGRAMME. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1916. 

MoRXixG Session, 10 A.:\r. 

Invocation, by Rt. Rev. Phili]) ^L Rhinelander, Bishop of 
Pennsylvania. 

Address of Welcome, by the Mayor of Philadelphia. 

President's Address, by Dr. Winford Smith, President, 
Su]it. The elohns Hopkins Hospital. 

Report of Committee on Constitution and l)y-laws, by ^Er. 
Richard P. Borden, Trustee, Fnion Hospital, Fall River, ^fass. 

]\redical Organization and Medical Educatiou, by Dr. Chas. 
Youno'. Supt. Presbyterian Hospital, Xew York City. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. L. B. Bahhvin. Supt. I^niversity 
Hos])ital. ^Fiuueapolis, ^finn. 



8i THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1916 

After:xoo]s^ Sessio^t, 2 p.m. 

Report of the Committee on tlie Training of Xiirses, by 
Ella Phillips Crandall, Pels'., Exec. Sec. IvTat. Organization 
for Public Health N'lirsing, New York City. 

Report of Committee on Grading and Classification of 
Nurses, by Charlotte Aikens, Chairman, Editor Trained Nurse 
and Hospital Review, Detroit, Mich. 

Discussion. 

The Open Door Hospital, by Dr. W. L. Babcock, Supt. 
Grace Hospital, Detroit, Mich. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. J. W. Fowler, Supt. Louisville 
City Hospital. 

Report of Committee on Development of the Association, 
by Dr. R. R. Ross, Supt. Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, 
N.Y. 

EvExixG Session, 8 p.m. 

Symposium on Outpatient Worh. 

What Dispensary AVork Should Stand For, by Dr. Richard 
C. Cabot, Boston, Mass. 

Clinics for Venereal Disease : Why AVc Xced Them ; How 
to Develop Them, by Dr. Wm. F. Snow, Sec. American Social 
Hv2:iene Association. 

Industrial Accident Cases in Dispensaries : Should Thoy 
be Accepted ? How Shall the Finances be ^Nfanaged i Sjieaker 
to be announced. 

New Features in Dispensary Work (Committee Report), 
by Michael M. Davis, Jr., Chairman, Boston Dispensary. Bos- 
ton, ]\[ass. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTE:\rBER 27, 1010. 

MORXIXG SeSSIOX, 10 A.M. 

Report of Committee on Hospital Construction, by Dr. 
Walter B. Ancker, Supt. City and County Hospital, St. Paul, 
Minn. 

Hospitals and Esthetics, by Grosvenor Atterbury, F.A.LA., 
New York City. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. H. B. Howard. Supt. Peter Bent 
Brigham Hospital, Boston, Mass. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 85 

The Hospital Dietary, by Dr. Elliott P. Joslyn, Associate 
Prof, of Medicine, Harvard University. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. Thomas McCrae, Prof, of Medi- 
cine, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Afteea^oo^t Sessio:s!"^ 2 p.m. 
Large Hospital Section. 
Disinfection and Other Practicable Methods of Preventino- 

& 

the Spread of Infection in Hospitals, by Dr. Robert J. Wilson, 
Snpt. of Hospitals, l^ew York Health Department. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. AVm. H. Walsh, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The So-called Diphtheria Epidemics in General Hospitals: 
Preventive Measures, by Dr. Clyde G. Guthrie, Associate in 
Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. 

Discussion, opened by Dr. R, R. Ross, Supt. Buffalo Gen- 
eral Hospital, Buffalo, IST.Y. 

Autopsies: Methods of Obtaining Same and Measures of 
Protecting the Hospital, by Dr. Milton C. Winternitz, Asso- 
ciate Prof, of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Discussion by Dr. Frank Holt, Supt. IMichael Reese Hos- 
pital, Chicago, 111. • 

Small Hospital Section. 

Conducted by Miss J^ettie B. Jordan. Second Vice-President. 

Symposium: The Creation and Management of a Community 

Hospital. 

Paper : The Survey of the Community and the Preliminary 
Work in Establishing a ISTew Hospital, by Dr. W. T. Graham, 
Supt. University Hospital, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Discussion by E. E. Munger, Spencer, Iowa. 

Paper : Organization by the Trustees and Superintendent 
in the Physical Management of a Community Hospital, by F. 
E. Chapman, Supt. Mt. Sinai Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. . 

Discussion by Martha Oakes, Supt. St. Luke's Hospital, 
Davenport, Iowa. 

Paper: Financing the Small Community Hospital, by Ida 
Barrett, Supt. Blodeett Memorial Hospital, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 



8G THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1916 

Discussion by Lucia Jajquith, Supt. Children's Hospital. 
Worcester, Mass. 

Paper: Building- and p]quipping the First Unit of a Small 
Hospital, Ralph Shepherdson, M.A., B.S., Aurora, Illinois. 

Discussion by Margaret Robinson. Supt. Jefferson County 
Hospital, Fairfield, Iowa. 

EvENiis'G Session^, 8 p.m. 

Theatre Party, Keith's Theatre. Arranged by the Enter- 
tainment Committee. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1010. 
Morning Session, 10 a.m. 

Report of the Committee on Bureau of Hospital Informa- 
tion, by Dr. Thomas Howell, Supt. New York Hospital. 

Report of Committee on Hospital Standardization, by Dr. 
elohn A. Hornsby, Editor Modern Hospital. 

A Study of Hospitals for the Purpose of Arriving at Proper 
Standards, by Mr. John J. Bowman, Director American College 
of Surgeons. 

Team Work and Stumbling Blocks, by Dr. Charles A. Drew, 
Sii])t. Worcester City Hospital, Worcester, ]\Iass. 

Discussion, Opened by Dr. Charles I). Wilkens, Sii]it. 
Charity Hospital, New Orleans. 

Dental Clinics in General Hospitals, by Dr. Thomas B. 
Hartzell, University Hospital, Minneapolis, ^liuu. 

Discussion, Opened by Dr. Simon Cox, Snpr. Xcw Ha\('u 
Hospital, New Haven, Conn. 

Luncheon, Pennsylvania Hospital, 12.30 to 2.30. By invi- 
tation of the Trus'tees and Superintendent of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital. 

Afteknoon Session, 2 p.m. 

Large Hospital Section. 

Re])ort of Committee to Memorialize Congress to Place In- 
struments on the Free List, by Rev. G. F. Clover, Supt. St. 
Luke's Hospital, New York City. 

Report of Committee on Hospital Finances aud Cost Ac- 
counting, bv Dr. A. R. Warner, Supt. Lakeside Hospital, Cleve- 
land, O. 



Sept., lUKJ THE HOSPITAL WOULD 87 

Building the Hospital: Departments and Rooms, by J\Ir. 
O. H. Bartine, Siipt. Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled, 
Xew York City. 

Discussion, Opened by Dr. A. C Bachmeyer, S\ipr. Cin- 
cinnati General Hospital, Cincinnati, O. 

Convalescent Hospitals: Methods, Results, by Dr. Fredk. 
Brush, Supt. Burke Foundation, White Plains, N.Y. 

Discussion, Opened by Dr. F. A. Washburn, Supt. Mass. 
General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

Small Hospital Section. 
Conducted by Miss jSTettie B. Jordan, Second Vice-President. 

Paper: How May a Hospital Su'perintendent Promote 
More Scientific Work in the Small Hospital, by Mary Riddle, 
Xewton Hospital, Newton Lower Falls, Mass. 

Discussion by Emma Anderson, Supt. New England Baptist 
Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

Papers : How are the Superintendents of Small Hospitals 
to be Trained ? by Annie C. Goodrich, Teachers' College, Col- 
umbia University, Xew York City ; Dr. Joseph Howland, Asvst. 
Supt.,, Mass. General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 

Discussion by H. E. Bishop, Supt. Robert Packard Hos- 
pital, Sayre, Pa. 

Paper: How the Scientific Services May be Standardized 
in the Small Hospital, by Dr. 0. L. Pelton, President Kane 
County ^fedical Society, Elgin. Illinois. 

Discussion by Joseph Purvis, Supt. AVestern Suburban Hos- 
pital, Oak Park, Illinois. 

Round Table: Vital Problems of the Small Hospital, by 
Katherine Prindiville, Supt. Lawrence Hospital, New London, 
Conn. ; Mrs. Oca Cushman. Supt. Children's Hosjntal. Denver. 
Colorado: ]\[argaret Rogers, Supt. Jewish Hospital, St, 
Louis, Mo. 

Evening Session^ 8 p.m. 

Round Table Session for Large Hospitals. Conducted by 
Dr. John A. Hornsby. Editor Modern Hospital. Any member 
who wishes to have a topic discussed may suggest the same t<> 
Dr. Hornsbv. 



88 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Sept., 1916 

Small Hospital Section. 

Question Box Session. Conducted by Dr. C. D. Wilkens, 
Yiee-President. Those who have questions which they wish 
to have discussed may send them to Dr. Wilkens. 

FEIDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 1916. 

MoRIvING SeSSIOjST^ 10 A.M. 

Report of Committee on Legislation, by Dr. H. T. Sum- 
mersgill, Supt. University of California Hospital, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Treasurer's Report. 

Report of Auditing Committee. 

The Hospital and the Surgeon, by Dr. S. S. Goldwater, 
Supt. Mt. Sinai Hospital, Xew Yorlc City. 

Discussion, Opened by Dr. John G. Clarke, Professor of 
Gvnecolofi'v, University of Pennsylvania. 

Report of Committee on EtHciency and Progress, by Dr. 
George O'Hanlon, Supt. Bellevue and Allied Hospitals, Xew 
York Ci'ty. 

Election of Officers. 

Report of Committee on Time and Place of Xext Meeting. 

Adjournment. 

AFTERxoo^" Session. 

A boat ride down the river and a visit to Leao'ue Island and 
the ISTavy Yard. 

An auto trip through Eairmonnt Park to Yalley Forgo and 
Washington's Headquarters during the Revolutionary War. 

The Committee on Local Arrangements has also made pro- 
vision for visits to the'U. S. ,Mint, Independence Hall, Wana- 
maker's Stores and other points of special interest at various 
times during the Convention. 

Special arrangements have been made for those who wish 
to visit Baltimore on the Saturday followins; the Convention, 
and arrangements are also being made for special rates for 
those who wish to spend a week-end at Atlantic City. 

One of the special feativres of the meeting this year will be 
the large commercial exhibit, which will undoubtedly be one 
of the most instructive exhibits ever presented. 



Sept., 1916 THE n(3SPITAL WORLD 89 

War Hospitals 

THE KING'S CANADIAN RED CROSS CONVALES- 
CENT HOSPITAL 



Within talf an hour's ride from London, England, on the 
London «S: S'onth- Western Kail way, th-^re lies a spot of intense 
interest to all Canadians, and to not a few other Britishers as 
well. It is Bnshey Park at Hampton Hill, Middlesex, wherein 
is the King's Canadian Red Cross Convalescent Hospital. The 
ideal location is due to the generosity of His Majesty the King- 
in placing this delightful section of his park at the disposal of 
the Canadian Red Cross Society. 

Bushey Park consists of about 1,100 acres, and was in its 
early days a sporting ground for kings and princes. To-day 
it has a beautv and indefinable charm of its own. Its magni- 
ficent and stately avenue of rich foliage, the long stretches of 
placid waters in its streams, the herds of timid deer browsing 
on its rich pastures or gracefully gambolling among the trees, 
all combine to form a wonderful setting of solemnitv, grandeur 
and repose. * 

Famous for its magnificent Chestnut Avenue, which is over 
a mile long and fifty-six yards wide, Bushey Park, when the 
chestnut trees are in full bloom at the end of May, presents a 
picture of unrivalled splendor. The low, wide, sweeping 
branches are then laden with myriads of spiked, white flowers 
tinged with red, to which the massy dark green piles of foliage 
serve as an admirable background, and which, falling, powder 
and bespangle the turf below with countless stars. The sight 
is one that attracts throngs of visitors, and is well worthy the 
visit of the King and his entourage on Chestnut Sunday, every 
spring. 

In- the enclosure occupied by the King's Canadian Red 
Cross Convalescent Hospital, the old brick and stone mauor 
house, until recent years occupied by the late Lady Paget, to 
S'ether wuth the adjoining stables and servants' accommodations, 
has been transformed into quarters for the administrative staff 
and wards for the patients. 



1)0 THE HOSPITAL WOULD Sept., 191G 

The dispensary, dental operating room and laboratorv, as 
well as the general administrative offices, occupy new and splen- 
did constructed asbestos-walled huts near the main entrance 
to the grounds. Similarly built huts, with accommodation for 
200 patients, have recently been completed near the main 
driveway. All the most modern ideas in hospital constructidu 
have been embodied in these huts, which are a complete unit 
in themselves and altogether independent of the wards in the 
manor. The new wards are large, airy and cheerful in ap]iear- 
ance, and will, with the kind consent of their Majesties, be 
named after the children of the Royal family. 

In another section of the grounds a commodious concert hall 
has been erected. This is utilized by the patients as a music 
and recreation room during the day, while in the evenings it 
is often the scene of high-class concerts and musicales arranged 
by patriotic and kind-hearted artists and artistes, the majority 
of whom have wide reputations as entertainers. 

All visitors express the greatest aduiiration for the niaiiiic!' 
in which the Canadians have transformed the place into a 
veritable Garden of Eden. Lawns have been laid out, under- 
brush cleared away in the woods, beautiful old \vi11din2: walks 
among the trees have been regraded and new paths run through ; 
trees and shrubs have been trimmed, ornamental flower beds 
of quaint design planted, until now the suri'onudings jireseiit 
a most brilliant si)ectaclc of horticultural grandeur, through 
which, placidly wending its course, is a quiet little stream that 
stumbles over the preci]iice beueath overhanging branches at 
the edge of the large lawn in front of the manor. Among the 
trees further down the stream the waters deepen perceptilily 
and form a pool which is at once a delight and diversion to all 
who enjoy a cool, refreshing plunge to the accom})animent of 
nu ever-present orchestra of birds concealed among the leafy 
''or'ghs above. 

Then, too, there is the large vegetable garden and orchard 
with an abundance of growins,- vegetables and fruits of all kinds, 
large and small, sufficient for the needs of the hospital for many 
days to come. 

The Canadian Red Cross Society is to be congratulated 
that its efforts to provide a suitable home of rest for conval- 



Sept., ]91G TJIE HOSPITAL WOKLD 91 

escing Canadian soldiers are meeting with tlie success already 
attained at tdie King's Canadian Red Cross Convalescent Hos- 
pital at Bushej Park. This is in no small measure due to the 
efficiency of Colonel Hodgetts, commissioner of the society at 
14 Cockspur Street, London, England. Colonel Hodgetts pos- 
sesses the useful faculty of obtaining the greatest ])ossible re- 
sults for the least expenditure of money. 

The commanding officer of the institution is Lieut.-Col. 
Casgrain, who organized ISTo. 3 Canadian Stationary Hospital 
in l^cndon. Out., and went over in command of that unit to 
Shorncliffe, England, where it was largely due to his influence 
that Canadian medical men were first allowed to perform opera- 
tions and attend the sick in the Military Hospital there. Col. 
Casgrain's unit, although organized for duty in France, volun- 
teered for service at the Dardanelles, was accepted, and pro- 
ceeded to the Island of Lemnos. While there the rio'ors of the 
tropical climate claimed Col. Casgrain for a victim, with the 
resivlt that for more than two months his recovery was in doubt 
in a British hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. However, the 
Colonel is now busy demonstrating his administrative ability at 
the Bushey Park institution. 

To the King's Canadian Red Cross Convalescent Hos]n"tal 
there come for rest and recuperation soldiers who were enlisted 
in all parts of Canada ; men w^ho fell wounded at Ypres, Given- 
chy, Festubert, Loos and St. Eloi, and men who passed un- 
scathed throuo-h the horrors of those fields of carnage. 



CANADIAN RED CROSS HOSPITAL OPENED AT 

BUXTON, ENGLAND 



The formal opening of the Canadian Red Cross Hosjutal at 
Buxton took place on August 18th in the presence of Sir Sam 
Hughes, of Ottawa. The Duke and Duchess of Devons^hire, who 
are expected very shortly in Canada to occupy Ride'au Hall, 
formally opened the institution. The Duchess had just com- 
pleted a tour of the hospitals in Derbyshire. 



d2 THE HOSPITAI. WOKLD Sept., 1916 

Items 



The plans have been prepared for the new Fraser Building 
to be added to the Victoria Public Hospital at Fredericton, 
X.B. 

The annual meeting, of the Board of "Directors of the King's 
Daughters' Hos2:)ital at Duncan, B.C., was held on May 24th. 

The Cottage Hospital at Beverly, Alta., was opened on 
May 10th. It is one of the lirst hospitals to be opened in this 
country to be maintained by a municipality. 

The following have been api^ointed House Surgeons at the 
Victoria Hospital, London: Drs. Stanley ^Murray, A. McKay, 
D. D. Ferguson, L. ^I. Jones and Renwick. 

Dr. Hugh lEcKay, who has been the doctor at 'the Ontario 
Reformatory, Guelph, for some time, has been transferred to 
the staff of the Convalescent Hospital for returned soldiers at 
Cpbourg, and left on July 21st to assume his new duties. 

The 33rd annual report of the Prince Edward Island Hos- 
pital was published a few weeks ago. The hospital closed this 
year with a deficit of $163.08. the deficit of the previous 
year being $263.00. The number of patients who received 
treatment during the past year was 562, as compared with 417 
during the previous year. Prince Edward Island Hospital 
now has accommodation for about sixty patients. 

The annual report of the Alexandra Hospital, Montreal, 
shows that during the year 1915 903 eases were treated, in- 
eluding 417 of diphtheria, 292 of scarlatina, 183 of measles, 
6 of erysipelas, and 3 of cerebro-spinal meningitis. The cost 
of maintenance amounted to $2.20 a day per patient. As we 
already announced, the Xurses' Home was opened about a 
year and a half ago, and this has improved conditions at the 
hospital very materially. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 93 

The recent amendment to the Hospital Act in British 
Columbia now throws the onus of responsibility for hospital 
expenses incurred by its residents upon the municipality. V\) 
till recently the municipality w^as only responsible for indigent 
patients, but as it is extremely difficult to prove that a patient 
is indigent, the hospitals have frequently been unable to collect 
the fees from either the patient or the municipality. Under 
the new arrangement, if the bill is not paid by the patient, the 
municii>ality will pay the hospital, and will then do its best to 
collect the amount from the patient. 



A Hospital for Mentally Disabled Soldiers Opened at 
Cobourg 

At the request of the Dominion Hospitals Commission, the 
Ontario Government has donated the old Victoria College Build- 
ing at Cobourg for the care of mentally disabled soldiers. Two 
expert alienists have been appointed to carry out the treatment, 
and up-to-date electrical and other appliances have been placed 
at their command. The new hospital was opened two weeks or 
so ago with eight inmates, and it is expected that others will at 
once be taken from the various institutions where they have been 
temporarily accommodated. In future all soldiers suffering 
from mental breakdown or disability will be sent to the Cobourg 
institution, where attractive surroundings combined with expert 
treatment may, it is hoped, remove the disability. 



Another Hospital Opened for Canadian Officers 

The Perkins-Bulls Hospital for Canadian officers at Putney 
Windows, which overlooks the famous Heath, was opened on 
July 19th by the Lord Mayor, Sir Charles Wakefield, himself 
intimately acquainted with Canada. He spoke of the associa- 
tions of the new hospital. William Pitt died in the adjoining 
house ; Oliver Cromwell lived close by ; Dick Turpin and Jack 
Shepherd knew every inch of the district. 

Surgeon-General Jones read a letter of appreciation from 
the first five officers to occupy the hospital — Capt. McDiarmid, 
Vancouver; Capt. Eyres, Toronto; Capt. Bull, Winnipeg; 
Lieut. Clark, Calgary; and Lieut. Morrison, Halifax. 

Sir Thomas IMacKenzic, of Xew Zealand ; Sherilf Touche 
and Sir Richard McBride, also spoke. ^Miss Fitzpatrick, of 
Hamilton, is Matron, and John T. Ryan, Secretary. 



9± THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 191G 

Book Reviews 



A Text-Book of Physiological Chemistry. By O. Hammarstej^, 
Emeritus Professor of Medical and Phvsiolooical Chemis- 
try. University of Upsala. Authorized translation for the 
8th German edition, by John A. Mandel, of the LTniversity 
of Xew York. Xew York: John Wiley i: Sons, Inc. Lon- 
don: Chapman & Hall, Ltd. 1915. 

The revision of this edition was made with the ^assistance of 
Professor Hedin, of the University of Upsala, and was l)r(>n<>-ht 
up to 1913. 

Althoug-h the work has been enlarged, the number of chap- 
ters has been cut from eighteen to seventeen by combining Chap- 
ters I and II. 

This translation is the seventh i\nierican edition arid is very 
well done. 

This book is })r()l)al)ly the best there is in the English lan- 
guage, both as a reference book and working manual, ^fethods 
and tests generally are described in detail, and in such manner 
that the man in the laboratory can follow directions and get 
results. 

The book contains nianv references to original articles; also 
index of authors and a \erv complete general index. 



A Text-Book of Physiological Chemistry in Thirty Lectures. 
By E. ABDERirAi.BEx, Professor of Physiology of the 
Physiological Yeterinary High School, Berlin. Translated 
by William T. Halt, and George Defren. New York : 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. London: Chapman & Hall. Ltd. 
191L 

This book is a compilation of thirty lectures and is therefore 
a book of reference rather than a workino- manu'al. 

As stated in the author's ])reface, the aim has been to con- 
sider only subjects of general interest and importance, and 
which have been proved, omitting isolated facts and such as 
have not been definitelv estal)lished. 



Sept., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 95 

Although printed in IDl-t the translators' preface is dated 
1908. 

The snbjec't-matter includes the topics ordinarily considered 
under this heading. A few tests and methods are given, but in 
a general wav rather than in detail. 

The book is well written and the rrauslatitm is well done anl 
forms smooth reading. The translators have used the systema- 
tized form of spelling recommended and adopted by the chemical 
societies of this country and England. 



Industrial Welfare Number of the Modern Hospital. 

The August number of The Modem Hospital, St. Louis 
;ni<l Chicago, is devoted to a symposium on welfare work among 
tlio industrial corporations of the country. There are editorials 
l)y those competent to write on this important subject, a great 
numl^er of papers written by welfare directors in some of the 
most important industrial corporations, and an immense 
amount of statistics and figures and facts showing the huge 
\olume of work that the corporations are doing to protect their 
employees against sickness, accidents and discontent. The 
journal contains many illustrations of first aid stations, emer- 
gency hospitals and welfare departments of industrial plants, 
and many facts that should be of great help to those interested. 
Among the topics discussed are those of first aid, industrial 
nursing, lunches and diets for industrial employees, safety de- 
vices in factories and athletic and social clubs for employees. 
The editors frankly state that they have been unable to obtain 
figures as to cost of welfare work in the industries, but a num- 
l)er of writers attempt to make deductions and draw conclu- 
sions from their experiences of the past few years. 

The Modern Hospital divides welfare work into three 
])hases : 

1. To make employees healthy, comfortable and happy, in 
order that they may achieve the highest efficiency in their 
work. 

2. To help employees prepare for the day when they are 
]"trevented from being bread winners, so that dependents on 
them may be provided for in cases of sickness or disability. 



96 THE PIOSPITAL WOELD Sei^t., 191G 

3. To provide entertainment, recreation and interesting 
grouiiings, in order that the employees of the corporation may 
have mutual interests which will enhance their loyalty and 
team work. 

Some able writers have discussed the various features of 
welfare work for the different branches of industry, as, for in- 
, stance, Dr. Thomas Darlington, former Health Commissioner 
of ]^ew York and medical director of the American Iron and 
Steel Institute, discusses the present scope of welfare work in 
the iron and steel industries. Dr. Samuel Lambert writes on 
provision for medical care under health insurance, and Dr. S, 
S. Goldwater, formerly , Health Commissioner of New York, 
has an editorial on the conservation of health of industrial 
workers. Welfare work in the public utility corporations is 
discussed bv Mr. H. H. Vreeland, ijeneral manager of the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company, Xew York. ^Ir. James 
Prentiss Duncan discusses welfare work in the telephone and 
telegraph corporations. Mr. H. G. Kobick, manager of the em- 
ployment department of the Commonwealth Edison Company, 
discusses welfare work in the electric lighting corporations. Mr. 
S. F. IVJeore discusses welfare work among the gas corporations. 
There are stories of welfare work in such department stores as 
Wanamaker, Macy's, Mart^hall Field, and similar great con- 
cerns. Mr. G. A. Ranney, secretary, discusses welfare work of 
the International Harvester Company. Mrs. Anne Kendrick 
Walker discusses welfare work among the clothing and suit 
manufacturers. A representative of Armour & Co. writes on 
the subject of welfare work in Packingtown, Chicago. Besides 
many more of these special papers, there is an epitome of wel- 
fare work in hundreds of the corporations of the country. 

Perhaps the best feature of the industrial numl>er of The 
Modern Hospital is the attempt on the part of the editors to 
weed out those features of industrial welfare that they believe 
midesirable and to emphasize those that seem to best meet the 
present needs of the American public. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



xvn 




Walk-Over Shoes 

Correct Foot Troubles in a 
Natural, Comfortable Way 

>qpHE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP makes a specialty 

of fitting shoes to deformed or abnormal feet. A wide range 

of over twenty lasts and at least 112 sizes in each last 

makes it possible for us to fit almost any foot, even though 

badly deformed, with a stylish and comfortable shoe. •■ • 

"^ The doctor in charge of our Orthopedic Depart- 
ment is expert in the fitting of arch supports, 
made-to-order shoes, etc., and gladly gives free 
consultation and advice. 

Self-measuring FOOTOGRAPH charts will be 
mailed to out-of-town customers who do not find it 
convenient to visit the store. Full directions with 
each chart. 

WALK-OVER 
BOOT SHOP 

290 YONGE STREET - TORONTO 
Also at 521 St. Catherine St., Montreal 




GRAND PRIZE 

Panama-Pacific Exposition 
San Francisco, 1915 



GRAND PRIZE 

Panama-California Exposition 
San Diego, 1915 



Registered 
Trade-Mark 



BAKER'S COCOA 

IS as delicious in flavor as it is nigh 
in quality and absolute in purity. 

AH of our goods sold m 
Canada are made m Canada 

Booklet or Choice Recipes 
sent tree on request. 



WALTER BAKER y CO. LIMITED 

ESTABLISHED 1780 

MONTREAL, CAN. : DORCHESTER, MASS. 



"When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xviii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., V.m> 



NEW HOSPITAL APPLIANCES, PHARMACEUTI- 
CAL PREPARATIONS, ETC. 



An Odorless Disinfectant 

Platt's Chloride, the Odorless Disinfectant, does all the 
work a disinfectant is called upon to do — quickly, thoroughly, 
economically and without objectionable features of any kind. 

It is harmless and does not stain articles which it touches, 
when diluted according to directions. It is used universally, 
has the endorsement of the medical profession everywhere, and 
is far superior to the coal tar products on account of being free 
from ^any pungent odor which so many of them contain. 

Piatt's Chlorides not onlv removes odors, bivt destroys the 
cause. It is of big value in the sick room as well as the 
household. 

An attracti\'e booklet, '' The Sanitary Home," will gladly be 
mailed on request, by addressing the manufacturers, Henry B. 
Piatt, 42 Cliff St., X.Y. 



The Ostermoor Mattress 

Hospital Superintendents who are anxious to instal high- 
class bedding in their Institutions should, before doing so, com- 
municate with the Alaska Feather and Down Co., ]\Iontreal. 
This firm recently equipped the New General Hospital, Mont- 
real, as Avell as other large Institutions. The Ostermoor Mat- 
tress is resilient and ideal for Hospital use, as it Avill stand the 
hardest of wear without sagging. It sells at a very reason- 
able price and is comjiosed of the best of nuiterial. 



The Purity of Cocoa 

L^NDOUBTEDLY, the most important point to be considered in the 
selection of cocoia is ])nrity. Many people, however, do not 
understand what is meant by the phrase ^' absolutely pure " as 
we apply it to Baker's Cocoa. It means that the cocoa has been 
prepared by a mechanical process ; that it has not, during any 
stage of that process, been touched by chemicals ; that only so 
much of the cocoa butter is removed as is necessary to niake 
the cocoa more easily digestible and keep it in the form of 
powder; that nothing has been added to it; that it is all cocoa, 
nothing bnt cocoa, and that cocoa of high grade. It does not 
contain any added mineral matter. 

Opposed to the cocoas made by the mechanical process are 
those prei^ared by the chemical or so-called " Dutch " process. 



Sept., 1916 



THE TIOSPITAL WOULD 



XIX 



r 



Retarded, Impeded Circulation 
in an Inflamed Part— Unless 
Quickly Relieved — Inevitably 
Leads on to Suppuration .... 
In Clinical Practice, Nothing 
Approaches 



■^'WEEO^MHW. SERIAL Nck»t___ f 



nmii.""*< 




i 




CO. '■ 



^•^^ DENVER c'hEMICAUM 

; tSTiij NEW VOHK CITY. U. S.»-. ^<t»' 



. MF(i 






t ►UJ<i-li«--' J--^' ,;tEl .^ 



15 




Directions:— Always heat 
in the original container by 
placing in hot water. 
Needless exposure to the 
air, impairs its osmotic 
properties — on which its 
therapeutic action largely 
depends. 




applied hot and thick, — in its unique power to relieve, by 
osmosis and nerve stimulation, the congestion of inflam- 
mation; thus benignly assisting Nature in restoring normal 
circulation — the requisite for healthy cell-growth. 



Uniformly and consistently the same reliable 
"Antidote for Inflammation" — Summer and Winter 



By ordering Antiphlogistim in full and original packages : Small, ^M^edium, 
Large, or Hospital Size, "a perfect poultice" is assured. 



Ph})sicians should WRITE " Antiphlogistine" to AVOID '•substitutes. " 

"There's Only One Antiphlogistine" 
THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. COMPANY - MONTREAL 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Sept., 1916 

Look at the labels on the packages of these cocoas. They bear 

the inscription " Contain per cent, of added mineral 

matter." Su'oh cocoas are impure; they are adulterated by the 
addition of potash deposited during the process of manufacture ; 
and the addition of potash even in small quantities offers a 
serious menace to digestion. 

In the process employed in the mills of Walter Baker & Co., 
Ltd., no chemicals are employed. 

The delicious flavor of Baker's Breakfast Cocoa is the 
natural flavor of high grade cocoa beans, skilfully blended ; the 
color is the natural color, and its general excellence is so well 
known to food experts and dietitians that it is used as the 
standard with which all other brands are compared. 

The cocoa and chocolate preparations of Walter Baker & 
Co., Ltd., received the Grand Prize at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, at the Panama-Pacific Expo- 
sition at San Francisco in 1915, ^at the Panama-California 
Exposition at San Diego in 1915, and altogether 57 highest 
awards in Europe and America. 



The Condition of Floors 

The cause of much worry and trouble to those in charge of 
keeping 1)he floor in proper condition is the use of unsatisfac- 
tory material or improper treatment, and can be avoided or 
corrected, as has been proved in many cases. 

If yoivr floor is linoleum, hardwood, composition, or if only 
a painted pine floor, it can be kept in perfect condition at the 
minimum of cost /and less labor by the proper use of C. & B, 
Floor Wax, whioh gives 'the hardest and most durable finish, and 
is altogether the most satisfactory medium known to those who 
have tried every experiment on floor finishes. 



Ziratol a New Antiseptic 

A NEW germicide and antiseptic has recently been brought under 
the notice of the Profession in Canada under the name of Ziratol. 
It belongs to the Naphthalene series and is almost free from odor. 
Two teaspoonfuls to one quart of water can be used most effectively 
in washing out incised wounds. It not only is germicidal in actiou, 
but will arrest minor hemorrhage. For general disinfecting, as 
well as for laundry purposes, two teaspoonfuls to one quart of 
water will be the correct strength. The same strength should be 
used for washing out the bath tub, basin, toilet and for scrubbing 
floors and walls -after contagious disease. For vaginal douche use 
one teaspoonful to the quart. Ziratol is quite pleasant to use and 
physicians will be pleased with the results. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXI 



A Boon to Institution 
Laundries 

In tbese days when there is considerable 
trouble in reference to " help " in large 
Institutions, any effective labor saving 
device is more than ^velcome. One such 
device, vi'hich will make laundry ■work in 
a Hospital easy, is 

TORO TABLETS 

Their use will be found a boon, rendering 
the ^vork of washing far more effective 
and easy. The TORO TABLET is dis- 
infectant in character, so that no matter 
how mixed the articles of clothing may 
be, or ho\v soiled, they come out spotlessly 

white. TORO TABLETS will not 

injure the finest fabric and no scrubbing is 
necessary. One tablet of TORO and 
half-a-pound of soap and the work is done. 
Hospitals supplied in large quantities at 
low prices. 



THE TORO 

BIRMINGHAM 



TABLET CO. 

ENGLAND 



Canadian Office — 
113 RONCESVALLES AVENUE, TORONTO 



QTSSErSTZTETBTSSSSSJESSS^l 



There is Never 
Failure 

in performance of duty when the 
matterof the patient's co-operation 
in PYORRHEA treatment is 
based upon the daily use of 

mm 

Its tooth cleansing qualities 
and its beneficial effects in allayin^^ 
soft, bleeding, spongy, re- 
ceding gums are readily per- 
ceived by the user — THAT'S 
THE ANSWER. PYORRHO- 
CIDE is a home treatment for the 
prevention of 

PYORRHEA 

THE DENTINOL & PYORRHOCIDE CO. Inc. 

110-112 West 40tli Street - New York 



iO| 



IrfarajHrs-rHj-a-TH/HrHj-ajHraji D 



llllllll!llllllll!lllllllllllllllll!lllllllllllllllllllll!llllllllllllllllllllllll|l|llllllllllllllll!lllllllll^^ 



m 



When Breast Milk Fails 

the physician will find Gail ^ce^ 73or^c^^e^ 

Borden Eagle Brand Con- 
densed Milk a satisfying 
and satisfactory substitute. It 
is especially useful in gastro- 
intestinal disorders ot infants. 



BRAND 



Condensed 

MILK 




aSgllTREAL.CftNADA, ^■ 



THE ORIGINAL 

is advised because it is safe and wholesome, 
uniform in composition, easily assimilated 
and simple to prepare. During the warm 
months a safe milk supply is of the utmost 
importance. 

Wtilt lo- day for samples, analysis, Feeding Charts in any 
language, and our 52-page book, "Baby's Welfare. " 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - Montreal 

"LEADERS OF QUALITY" 
Branch Office : 2 Arcade Bldgf., Vancouver, B.C. 



lillllii 



illlllill 



lillTi 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xxii THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Sept., 1910 

The Vortex System 

INSTITUTIONS should look into the merits of the Vortex Indivi- 
dual Sanitary Service. This is essentially an advance along the 
lines of sanitary science and^is ideal for use in hospitals, sana- 
toria, asylums — in fact, all public places. The idea is the adop- 
tion of the individual drinking cup, which each person uses and 
at once dispenses with the cup by throwing it away, thus avoid- 
ing contagion. The Vortex Service consists of heavily plated 
cup holders and rice paper cups, the latter made water-tigiht by 
a patented process. The cups are kept in silver-plated containers 
and are removed \vithout even the hands touching them. The 
moment the cup is used it is discarded. With this system no 
time is lost in washing dishes and no expense of renewing broken 
glasses. The cups can of course be used not only for drinking 
hot and cold fluids, but also for serving ice-cream, fruit, etc. The 
Vortex System is not only sanitary, meeting every requirement 
of sanitary laws, but is quite economical. Could anything be 
more suitable for the average hospital, ])articularly in private 
patients' buildings ? Full particulars can be obtained from the 
Canadian Wm. A. Rosi'ers. Lirnitcil. r)70 Kini>' St. AVcst, Toronto. 



The Rigo Eye Pipette 

Readers of this journal will note on another page of this issue 
the advertisement of the Rigo Eye Pipette, as manufactured by 
the Ridiards Glass Co., Limited, Toronto. Oculists are aware 
that sometimes injury is done to the eye through the use by the 
patient himself of an ordinary medicine dropper, as sold liy drug 
stores. Frequently the edge of the medicine drop]ier is rough, 
setting up trouble in the eye as a result. The Rigo Eye Pipette, 
however, is made from heavy glass tubing, free from all defects, 
and is fitted with the best quality of rubber nipple. It is now 
prescribed by many of the leading oculists, both in Toronto and 
Montreal. The shape and style was first suggested by Dr. Gil- 
bert Royce, who not only adopted the Rigo Eye Pipette for eye 
work, but also for introducing liquids in the post-nasal passage 
and for work on children's ears. The Rigo Eye Pipette can be 
procured at any important drug store or direct from the manu- 
facturers at 265 Adelaide Street AVest, Toronto. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL Wol.'LI 



XXI U' 



(4 



THE WHITE LINE" 



SCANLAN-MORRIS 
COMPANY 




Sterilizingr Room, St. Mary's Hospital, Rochester, Miaa. 




Operating Room, Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago 

Our catalogiie of Modern Operating Room Furniture and Sterilizing Apparatus 
will he forwarded upon request, to Hospital Superintendents 

SCANLAN-MORRIS CO., MADISON, WIS., U.S.A. 

Manufacturers of the "White Line" Hospital Furniture and 
Sterilizing Apparatus 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Sept., 1916 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Lo-w-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 
than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 different 
operations as our higher grades — sells lor 
less because made from short staple cotton 
which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 

Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Maplewood Mills 




Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 




WATER COOLtn 



THE PARTICULAR ATTENTION OF 
PHYSICIANS, NURSES AND HOSPITALS IS 
CALLED TO 

The Allen Germ -Proof Water 
Purifier and Cooler 

In these days, when the water supplied in many 
of our cities is not what it ought to be, the Profession 
and, through it, the Public will welcome such a device. 

The ALLEN WATER COOLER SERVICE, through 
its system of filtration, guarantees a water that is practically 
ahsolutety pure. Dr. A. A. Thibaudeau of the Laboratory of 
Pathology, University of Buffalo, states that "The Allen 
Filter can maintain an efficiency of 100 per cent." adding 
that the filter was allowed to operate continuously for three 
days and that no bacterial growth was found in the samples after 
48 hours' exposure on plates. 

Medical men can rest assured that, in recommending the use of 
the Allen Water Cooler Service to their patients, they are 
materially hastening their convalescence. 

THE DOMINION SALES CO., LIMITED 

Suite J, Yonge St. Arcade, Toronto Telephone Main 3797' 

When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 




Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXV 



PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 



# 




FLAT 
WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE 



-DUSTIROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

Elastics The Perfect Floor Finish 
^,^,__^ Send for Sample Paper 




TORONTO 



ONTARIOr 



ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGES 
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, Mass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 




Kjeldahl 
Stills 



Bottle 
Shakers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Paraffin ■ 
Microtomes 



Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Modern General Diagnostic Outfit 

This Outfit now weighs but -i^: pounds, and measures 
3'/i X 7 X 15 inches, making it very convoment to carry. The 
instruments are equipped with tungsten lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. fc* 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tungsten lamps with which they are now equipped, 
have greatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 

Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryngeal Specula 

Holmes Nasopharyngoscopes 

Tutlle and Lynch Procto-Sigmoidoscopes 

Braasch Cystoscopes 

Koch, Swinburne and Young Urethroscopes, etc. 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELECTRO SURGICAL INSTRUMENT CO.. Rochester, N.Y 



XXVI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Sept., I'JIG 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




GERHARD HEINTZMAN 

GRAND ) 

SELF-PLAYER PIANOS 
UPRIGHT J 

Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on any instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City HaH) 



41 West Queen St., Toronto 



When writing advertisers please mention Tlio Hospital Worlrf. 



Sept., lUlG 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXV 11 



is appreciated by discerning people because — 

Only the best materials are used, 

Of our exclusive process of fermentation, 

Of the exactness of manufacturing methods, assuring bread and buns of uniform 
excellence, 

The greatest cleanliness is observed in the manufacture and distribution. 

S Wf II FE 

MADE AND WR VPPED BY MACHINERY 




The Peculiar Advantage 



of the 



Prominent physicians and 
gynecologists everywhere 
recommend the MARVEL 
Syringe in cases of Leu- 
corrhea, Vaginitis and other 
Vaginal diseases. It al- 
ways gives satisfaction. 



All Druggists and Dealers 
in Surgical Instruments sell 
it. For literature, address 

MARVEL COMPANY 

'44 E. 23rd Street, NEW YORK 



Marvel "Whirling 
Spray'' Syringe 

is that The Marvel, by its 

Centrifugal action, dilates 
and flushes the vaginal passagt 
with a volume of whirling 
fluid, which smooths out the 
folds and permits the injec- 
tion to come in contact with 

its entire sur- 
face. 

The Marvel Company 
was awarded the Gold 
Medal, Diploma and 
Certificate of Appro- 
bation by the Societe 
D'Hyffiene de France, 
at Paris, Oct. 9, 1902. 




When writing advertisers, please nienf.on Tl.e Hospital WorM. 



xxviii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Sept., 1916 



Cut Flowers for the Sick Room 



I HERE is a feeling abroad that physicians are sometimes apt to pay 
-*- less attention than they should to the aesthetic side of their profes- 
sion. Can there be any question as to the added comfort to the patient, 
during the weary days of convalescence, of the fragrance of Nature's most 
beautiful products in the form of Roses, Carnations, and other cut flowers ? 

May I ask Physicians to note that / make a specialty of cut flowers of 
almost any kind. 

Particular attention is called to my three-year-old Rose Plants, ready 
for planting, and which I will deliver at $1.50 per dozen. They are 
Hybrid Teas, and will bloom all summer long. 

Special prices quoted to Hospitals and Doctors 



W. J. Lawrence 



152 Roselawn Avenue - - - Toronto 

Phone North 2221 



"Yhen writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Sept., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXIX 



A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and fiad 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble like that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt delivery is an ab- 
solute rule with us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



Pnysicians should always remember 
that by the use of 

THE DELANEY DUSTLESS AND 
FIREPROOF SIFTER 

all further trouble from dust in the house- 
hold is eliminated, no more Bronchial 
Coughs from dust in the sleeping rooms as 
the atmosphere of the house is sweet and 
clean. The publishers of this Journal re- 
commend the adoption of The Delaney 
Dustless Sifter as a sanitary measure. 

W. H. DELANEY 
89 West Marion St. 

Phone Park 4992. 



Toronto 




Physician's Scale. 

Designed especially for use in Hospitals, 
in offices of physicians. Something that is 
essential in connection with every private 
bathroom. 

Scale is ordinarily finished black, with bronze 
ornamentation, but is also furnished in light colors, 
elaborately ornamented, with nickel-plated beam 
Scale is furnished with or without measuring rod 
as desired. Write for prices. 

GURNEY SCALE CO. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 

When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXX 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Sept., 1916 



LIABILITY of 



PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS, DENTISTS 
and DRUGGISTS 

LIABILITY on account of 

Automobile Accidents 

involving injury to PERSONS or PROPERTY (including Owner's) 

INSURANCE for LOSS OF INCOME 
by reason of ACCIDENT and SICKNESS 



UNDERTAKEN BY 



The General Accident Assurance Company of Canada 

Continental Life Building, Toronto, Ontario 
Represented in all important parts of Canada. Enquiries respectfully solicited 

JOHN J. DURANCE, Manager 



The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 



PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlio Hospital World. 



Sept., lUlG 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XXXI 



THE BRANSTON VIOLET RAY HIGH 

FREQUENCY GENERATOR Made in Canada 




Model 6. Operates on the Electric 
Lighting Current. 



A Portable High Frequency Outfit 
Extremely Compact and of High Efficiency 

Our Model 6 Generator is particularlv well designed 
for the physician desiring a portable High Frequency 
Coil giving a range of High Frequency suitable for 
all forms of treatment. 

The coils and condenser are wound to give a current 
of exceedingly high voltage and oscillation and at 
the same time generate sufficient heat. It gives 
about two million oscillations or vibrations per 
second. The connecting cords and insulated handle 
are sparkless. It jan be regulated to give any strength 
of current desired and is built to last for years. The 
coils are impregnated by a special vacuum process 
which makes a burnout practically impossible. 

It is mounted in a leather covered velvet lined case 
8 X 12 X 6 inches. Ample space is provided for ten 
electrodes, handle, conducting cords, etc. 

Full descriptive catalogue and prices showing our 
complete line of machines and electrodes. 

Manufacturtd by 

CHAS. A. BRANSTON CO. 

Offices and Factory : 359 Yonge Street 
Phone Main 1212 

Canadian Representatives for the Celebrated 
White Cross Vibrators and Eiectric Specialties 



INVALID STOUT 

For Weak Folks 




BQE10BXRENGTHENING 

nourishing qualities, com- 
bine d with a really 
EiGiHtgH acceptable flavor, make 
Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 
the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co., 



LIMITED 




TORONTO 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXXll 



THE HOSPETAL WORLD 



Sept., 1916 



GLYCO-THYMOLINE 



IS INDICATED IN 

Catarrhal 
Conditions 

of mucous me m- 
branes in all parts of 
the body — maintains 
Asepsis without irri- 
tation — reduces con- 
gestion and by stimu- 
lating the capillaries 
to increased activity 
restores normality. 





Perfect Mouth Wash 



For Daily Use 

Keeps the mouth Alkaline as 
nature intended it should be. 
Stops the formation of lactic acid 
and prevents dental decay. 

LITERATURE ON REQUEST 

KRESS & OWEN CO. 

361-363 Pearl St. •.• New York 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 




XP A YAND HIGH FREQUENCY 





APPARATUS 



iician 
Hospital 



Interrupt erless 
X«Ray Transformer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 1915 




Model "E" 
Portable X-Ray 
and High Fre- 
quency Coil 



Highest Award to X-Ra^ and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass. 

Sales Agencies — Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 



''^ Heating and Ventilating cannot be 

made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "/Cci7A/%an"is used. 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
\ economical on account of its service 
and durability. 

See OUT new Catalogue No. 55. 

Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont. 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 
AGENTS : 
Measri. Ro»s & Greie. 412 St. James St., Montreal. Que. 
Mestr*. Walkers Ltd., 261 Stanley St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Meairs. Gorman, Clancey & Grindley Ltd., Calgary and Edmonton, Alta. 
Mcaara. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancourer B.C., (Bank of Ottawa Bldg.) 




ECONOMY IN YOUR 



X-RAY WORK 



EVERY good hospital manager is interested in improving the standing of the 
X-Ray Department, and thereby the standing of the hospital, through the 
better diagnosis possible on important cases. Our new MILLIAMPERE 
SECOND TECHNIQUE is the greatest advance in Radiography in years. 
Thoroughly tested by well-known men for months, it eliminates guesswork entirely. 
INSURES ECONOMY. Novice or expert can make every plate a valuable 
diagnostic one. NO DUPLICATES NECESSARY. 
This means money saved to your institution. 

Being based on known laws of the chemical effect of X-Rays, one milliampere 
second exposure producing a definite chemical change in a Paragon X-Ray plate, 
proper exposures can be determined in advance, and the highest grade of radi- 
ography produced with any type of apparatus. 

No excuse for failures or poor work now, if PARAGON TECHNIQUE 
is used. 

Now ready for free distribution to all radiographers. 

Send your radiographer's name for a 
free copy, and see that it is followed. 
Why not have the best work ? 

Make the other fellow try to produce 
work equal to that done at your hospital. 



^«\\ii«iiiiiw/tew//^^^ 




X- R A^ 




Geo. W. Brady & Co, 

y 773 S. Western Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



stock carried by INGRAM & BELL, Limited, Toronto 



PHILLIPS' MILK OF MAGNESIA 

" The Perfect Antacid'' 

For Correcting Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylate!, 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 

Of Advantage in Neutralixing the Acid of Cows' Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

Non-Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

^Vitll Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To he relied upon ^vhere 

a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS. //. PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO. 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Repreientatives : The ^Vingate Chemical Co., Ltd., 545 Notre Dame ^V., 
Montreal, who will he pleased to send samples upon request. 



'iiFijF wuumi wryan m m}t viiauaotati t^nspttal AHHnrtattDtt 



! PER i< 



.'^-^^^ 



AMMUI^f) 



THE 



.:•«:•/ / 




HOSPITAL WORLD 



504- 

PF.P 
COPY 



/r 



ifi _ 



Vol. X (XXI) Toronto, October, 1916 



No. 4 



CONTENTS 



Z:i>ITORIAI.S. 

Page 

Resuscitation Apparatus 97 

And tiien. What? 100 

ORIGINAI. CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Anti-Typhoid Inoculation in Sold- 
iei-s. By George D. Porter, M.D., 
Captain A.M.C 102 

Preparation of a Patient for an 
Anesthetic. By ;R. J. Macmillan, 
M.D., Toronto 104 

Si:i.i:CTED ARTICIiES. 

Regarding Diets for Patients 107 

Geography of Medical Greatness . . 109 
The Abuse of the Free Dispensary 
Privilege. By Edwin B. Miller, 
M.D 112 



CANADIAN HOSPITALS. 

Xo. 4 General Hospital .... us 

Opening of the New Reception Hos- 
pital, Brockville 120 

The Princess Patricia Canadian Red 
Cr ss Convalescent Hospital 126 

The Hospitals Commission require 
Further Sanataria 126 

Hospital Items 127 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Physiological Economy in Nutri- 
tion, with Special iReference to 
the Minimal Proteid Requirement 
of the Health.- Man. An Experi- 
mental Study j9,s 



j^H 



^rn 



•rr^r 



»s?r—^?2 



Fellows^ Compound S5nrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 

For 50 Years The Standard 

I> Syr. Hypophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 

-> . ^ ^ Cheap and Inefficient Substitutes 
^S "reparations Just as t»ooa 



"■^*^:? 



fKiXOf «0»'«<l«— Vl">»- f---, 






"tered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelve, 
by the Publishers ajt the Department of Agriculture. All rights reserved. 



LISTERINE 



the well-proven and time-tried antiseptic solution, has been prescribed by the 
Medical Profession with very satisfactory results for 35 years in the treat- 
ment of Respiratory Diseases incident to Fall and Winter climatic conditions. 



LISTERINE 



one part, hot water three parts, is a useful gargle for sore throat. In 
mucous catarrhs, Listerine, suitably diluted, is most effectively applied by 
means of the spray apparatus or douche. 



LISTERINE 



is not only a vehicle for specially indicated alteratives, resolvents and 
astringents, but is itself an efficient, non-irritating antiseptic that is safe, 
pleasing to the taste and promptly effective. 

A treatise on Respiratory Diseases will be forwarded members of the medical 
profession on request. 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

TWENTY- FIRST AND LOCUST STREETS, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
66 GERRARD STREET E., TORONTO 



Is jour estate properly 
protected? 

No matter how little or how much you own, these 
possessions make up your estate, and should be pro- 
tected by efficient and economical management. 

This can best be done by an Executor or Trustee. 
This Company, by acting in this capacity, will give 
your estate the benefit of experience gained in the 
management of many estates, of large and of only 
moderate size, and will scrupulously guard the in- 
terests of your heirs. 

No charge for drawing up your will when the Sterling 

Trusts Corporation is appointed your executor and 

trustee. 

Our officers will give you further information on 

request. 

Sterling Trusts 



^ ^ eSIOEN T 

'. S OINNIICK 



ION 



60 KING ST. EAST 



MANACINe-OIRCCTOR 
HERBERT WADDINGTON 

^^•!r^a77?^= TO RONTOy 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 



This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 

A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPERIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J. F. HARTZ CO., LTD. 

Physicians' and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



n 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Oct., 1916 



CALYDOR SANATORIUM ON LAKE MUSKOKA 

Dr. C. D. PARFITT, Medical Director. 




""'^^^^^^ -^^^^SSi ' ^^^^9BiB^^'..^^^HliHi^^H^P^ 



A new and especially constructed sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis in a climate 
that is fine, sunny and invigorating both summer and winter. With the facilities afforded 
the out-of-door life in winter will be found entirely agreeable as well as highly beneficial. 

Accommodation for twenty-one patients. Convenience and comfort most carefully 
studied. Every room has private sleeping porch to which bed may be readily rolled through 
French windows. Several pairs of rooms en suite, with bath. Elevator. Excellent heatine 
sy.stem. 

Efficient nursing service. Thoroughly modern laboratory and X-ray room. 

Particular attention given laryngeal cases. Collapse of the lung, tuberculin and 
specially prepared vaccines used when indicated. 

Moderate Rates. Dr. D. W. Crombie, Resident. Physician. 

Tor information address: Calydor Sanatorium Iiimited, G-ravenhnrst, Ontario, Canada. 






^ 
t 



>'^vS"5^>l'^CV^.'^-?'T'^^X'-?P?^;H?^^-^^>.^-;i^^^^^ 





DESCRIPTIO.N OF DOLL.— Over 5 feet t.Tll, maHc of finely woven 
gtocUinct. Is durable, waterproof and sanitary. Has copper Reservoir 
which has three tubes leading into it, correspcn-Jine in lopation and 
ligf to the urethra, vaginal and rectal passages. 



The Chase Hospital Doll 

For Use in Training Schools 

Adult size, also infant models, 2, 4 
and 12 months, and 4-year-old sizes. 

Chase dolls are well made of cloth, 
jointed, and painted with waterproof 
paint, with internal reservoirs. 

The Value 

of this substitute of a living model is 
found in the many practical lessons 
which can be taught in the class room, 
such as handling of patients, admin- 
istering enema, douching, probing in 
the ear and nose cavities — in short, 
the complete care of the patient. 



We make dolls with- 
out reservoir if desired. 
Send for illustrated 
booklet 
particulars 




giving full 



M. J. CHASE 

22 Park Place, Pawtucket, R.I, 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



111 




The Medical Profession 

Endorses the Wonderful 

Properties of 



"THERMOGENE' 



8 Million Packets Sold in 1914 



NOW BEING USED BY THE RED CROSS SOCIETY IN BELGIUM. 

For the alleviation of pain and the effecting of a speedy and certain cure in all cases 
of Rheumatism, Bronchitis, Lumbago, Colds on the Chest, Sprains, etc., etc., 
THERMOGENE is wonderfully efficacious. 

THERMOGENE is a curative absorbent, scientifically medicated and prepared, thus 
rendering it warming, curative and pain-dispelling in its effect. 

Ready for instant application, does not blister and can be wo'-n day or night without 
the slightest discomfort. 

THERMOGENE has the endorsement of the highest medical authorities. A Free 
Package will be sent to any Doctor on request. 

THE THERMOGENE CO., LTD., Hayward's Heath, London, Eng. 

Canadian Agents : HAROLD F. RITCHIE & CO., TORONTO 



ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGES 
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, Mass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 




Kieldahl 
Stills 



Bottle 
Shakers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Pa 

Mi 



raffin 
crotomes 



Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Modern General Diagnos.Tic Outfit 

This Outfit now weichs but 4 '2 pounds, and measures 
3/^ X 7 X 15 inclies, making it very convpnient to carry. The 
instruments arc equipped with tungsten lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tunestcn lamps with which Ihcy are now equipped, 
have greatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 

Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryngeal Specula 

Holmes Nasopharynfoscopes 

Tuttle and Lynch Procto-Sigmoidoscopos 

Braasch Cystoscopes 

Koch, Swinburne and Young Urethroscopes, etc. 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELEQTIIQ $URGICAUNSTRUMENT CO., Rochester, N.Y 



IV 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Oct., 1916 



INVALID STOUT 

For Weak Folks 




BQQQgTRENGTHENING and 
nourishing qualities, com- 
bine d with a really 
HGiHQE acceptable flavor, make 
Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 
the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co,, 

LIMITED - - TORONTO 




.•iiiiiiiiiiiniMiiiiitiiniiiniiiitiintiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiUMiiitiitiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiililliii^ 




I No. 106. 

1 Strong, substantial, heavily silver- 
I plated, highly polished. 

? .iiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiii 



PHYSICIANS KNOW 



that the days of tin- common Drinking Cup are passed 
and gone. One of the marked advances in Sanitation 
during tiie past year or two is the introduction of the 
Single Service Sanitary Drinking Cup as a guarantee 
against infection from many types of Communicable 
Disease, Not only Members of trie Profession, but 
all Public Institutions, including Hospitals, should 
acquaint themselves with the merits of 

The Vortex System 

which dispenses entirely with the washing and steriliz- 
ing of Glasses and Chinaware. The VORTEX SYSTEM 
is unquestionably the most Sanitary in exis*encc and has 
already the endorsement of a large number of Health 
Authorities. It may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that it meets the requirements of all Sanitary Laws 
in reference to the PREVENTION of THE SPREAD 
OF DISEASE. 

The cups are made of pure white rice paper, paraf- 
fined, and the initial cost is trifling. Once installed in 
an institution, the System will never be substituted. 
The cups arc made for either hot or cold drinks and 
once used arc immediately discarded. 

You arc asked to write for particulars. 

Canadian 
Wm. A. Rogers Limited 

570 King Street West - - Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World, 



.Oet., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL \¥OELD 



Hospital 

Superintendents 

Know 

that nothing is so detrimental to the 
health of patients as the lack of the 
normal percentage of moisture in the 
air they breathe. How often it has been 
demonstrated beyond question that the 
moment the air of the sleeping room 
becomes too dry, just so soon will the 
inmate of that room sufTer from sore 
throat, headache, sleeplessness and gen- 
eral malaise, 3" condition that is at once 
changed on returning to normal con- 
ditions. The attention of Hospitals, therefore, is 
particularly called to 

The Radiator Humidifying Pan 




(OKMSBY PATENT) 




This is a strongly made metal device so 
shaped that it snugly fits any standard 
steam or hot water radiator, out of sight, 
between the radiator and the wall. This 
pan is filled with water, which evaporates 
very rapidly, converting the air of the 
room or corridor into moist, wholesome, 
healthful atmosphere that Nature's good 
health demands. This is the very thing 
needed in all Institutions, not only Hos- 
pitals, but Asylums, Sanatoria, and 
Public Charitable Institutions asj well. 
One Radiator Humidifying Pan to each 
steam or hot water Radiator gives ample 
humidity to any room. 

The first cost is the only cost, ami they 
will last a lifetime. 

$1.50 each. 

Superintendents shoukl at once look into 
the merits of this device. Full particular 
can be ootained from 

Wilson Specialties 

33 Melinda Street, Toronto 

Manchester Building: 
Phone Adelaide 3089 

Many Insurance Companies, Banks, 

and other Institutions have iiistalled 

these Radiator Humidifying: Pans. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World, 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Oct., 1916 



9> 



CATALOGUE "C 

^^jll write: for it,^ 
FDi^pOMESOR HOSPITALS 

^OR CARRYING PATIENTS UP OR DOWN STAIRS, 

" "' CAN ALSO BE USED ON THE LEVEL 

BY DETACHING CARRYING BARS, 
^ MAKES A FIRST CLASS 

LIBRARY VERANDAH 
ORSMOKINGROOMCHAIR. 

THE n 

Gendron 

MFG. CO. 

LIMITED 







,ria3a- 



COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are 
maintained. 



THE COWAN CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



RESULTS 



"^TOTHING but a successful plate will produce 
successful "first time" results. That is what the 
Roentgenologist must have in order to properly diagnose 
the case. Seed X-Ray Plates are dependable, rapid and 
accurate, and give " first time " results. 

For sale by all supply houses. 
Pamphlet by mail on request. 

CANADIAN KODAK CO. 

LIMITED 
TORONTO 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



vu 



Attention of Canadian Hospitals 



We are 
manufactur- 
ers of Metal 
Hospital 
Furniture 
of all kinds. 

Wheel 
Apparatuses 

Cabinets 
Screens, etc. 




No matter 
how small 
your re- 
quirements, 
let us have a 
chance to 
give you a 
price. 



CANADA FIRST 



THE METAL CRAFT CO, 

GRIMSBY, ONTARIO, CANADA 



SEND your Christmas 
parcels for overseas 
early this year — there'll 
be a rush later. 

To give a lot of pleasure, 
include 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

A box holds five different 
flavors, securely v^rapped. 
This is good to remember 
and to suggest to your friends. 



PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 



w 



FLAT 
WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE 

■ DUSTPROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

Elastica '^'^^ Perfect Floor Finish 

— Send for Sample Paper 




TORONTO 



ONTARIO 



When vv 



riting advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



vm 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Oct., 1916 




EYE SPECIALISTS, PLEASE NOTE 

The "Rigo" Eye Pipette 



has a round point that 
can be injected under 
the eyelids without 
injuring the eye. 

Better prescribe this 
article for t/our patient, 
not leave it for them to 
buy the ordinary medi- 
cine dropper. 

Most druggists have 
them; all can procure 
them from us. 

Each Pipette in a slide box, 
retails for 10 cents. 

Write us for a sample. 

The Richards Glass Co., Ltd. 

265 Adelaide St. W., Toronto 




A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and find 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble like that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt delivery is an ab- 
solute rule vv^ith us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



Members of 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

desirous of getting rid of the worry of book- 
keeping and who have not had the time to give 
the attention necessary for the successful collec- 
tion of their accounts, should call upon 

H. R. Heyes & Company 

59 YONGE ST., TORONTO 

Messrs. Heyes & Co. are prepared to attend to all such 
details, not only the actual collection of the accounts ; but, 
through a special system of their own, attend to all book-keeping 
and records, mailing of monthly statements, etc., etc. 

The firm will be very glad to hear from physicians, and, on 
receipt of a post card or phone message, will call upon the Doctor 
at his office at any convenient hour. 

The Telephone No. is "M. 4962" 



When writing- advertisers, please mentioH Thie Hospital World. 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



IX 



A Reliable Disinfectant 

Piatt s Cnloriaes has a record oi 
over tKirty-six years, and Kas tKe 
endorsement or tlie medical pro- 
fession. 

A powerful disinfectant and de- 
odorant -wnicn destroys germs and 
Dad odors. 

Is absolutely Odorless and does 
not cover one odor witn anotker. 

ddgrides 

TtlG OflOT'lGSS 

Two Sizes — 25c. and 50c. 

Sold everywKere. 

Write for booklet to the manufacturer 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 



A Practical Prescription 



Hours : 
k°g'f^- '°^'""-<^te Avenue 



<^ONCENTRATEl> 

SITING /ikwArt^ 



-^ 



tl^-Tl^ 






^.A 



Samples, clinical data and 
literature sent on request. 



PLUTO 

Bottled by the FRENCH LICK SPRINGS 
HOTEL CO., French Lick, Indiana 



LIABILITY of 



PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS, DENTISTS 
and DRUGGISTS 

LIABILITY on account of 

Automobile Accidents 

involving injury to PERSONS or PROPERTY (including Owner's) 

INSURANCE for LOSS OF INCOME 
by reason of ACCIDENT and SICKNESS 



UNDERTAKEN BY 

The General Accident Assurance Company of Canada 

Continental Life Building, Toronto, Ontario 
Represented in all important parts of Canada. Enquiries respectfully solicited 

JOHN J. DURANCE, Manager 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Oct., 1916 




fT/-^c;r>T'T' A r Trr^TTTP\TTr"M'T The New General Hospital of Montreal, and scores 
f^^"^^r^ ^ ^^*--' r:/V>Jir iVJ^i-^i^ J^ of other Canadian Hospitals, are equipped with 

' Alaska " Beds and 

OSTERMOOR MATTRESSES 

They last a lifetime, and are absolutely satisfactory. More sanitary than hair — for less money. 



THE ALASKA FEATHER AND DOWK CO.. Limited 



Montreal and Winnipeg 



GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use, the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions (no weighing, measuring 

or waste). 
For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 
For cleansing w^ounds (bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 
For disinfecting surface lesions. 

For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not affect nickel 
or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital, 
Our word and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample reith descriptive literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS C8> CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot — 118 St. Paul Street W., Montreal, Quebec. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



XI 




rj Seal 
'^Bravd 

Coffee 



Recognized in all 
professions and 
-walks of life, as 
the leading coffee 
in the best grocery 
stores of Canada* 



In K» 1 and 2 pound cans. 
Whole — ground — pulverized — 
also Fine Ground for Percolators. 



CHASE & SANBORN, MONTREAL. 



162 




y(F[i©Mi^!t 




^m 





For your comfort 
and your health's 
sake- -always use 

UFEIUOY 



HEALTHY 

iOAP 

Its velvety lather is 
a wonderful cleanser, 
while it soothes and 
softens the skin. Its 
mild carbolic solution 
means no germs. The 
odor is there, of course, 
but it vanishes quickly 
after use. Lifebuoy is 
the soap of all soaps for 
the toilet and the bath, 
because of its health- 
preserving qualities. 

Grocers Sell 

LIFEBUOY 
HEALTHY SOAP 




When writing advertisers, please niLiiliuu The Hospital W'urlJ. 



xii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfullj^ 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of " Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to Lysol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydal Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 

POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS CO. OF CANADA 

Toronto, Ont. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMS 

AND EQUIPMENT FOR 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Design and Fit at Reasonable Prices 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

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Oct., 1916 



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rhysicians Scale, 

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Scale is furnished with or without measuring rod 

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xiv THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Oct., 1916 



T^OCTOR : — In this age the critical and progressive 
-*-^ Doctor has a keen appreciation for that which is 
giving quick results. 

JAMUN COMPOUND IN DIABETES 

IS SPECIFIC IN ACTION 

A modern product, strictly ethical. Literature will 
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Cut Flowers for the Sick Room 



THERE is a feeling abroad that physicians are sometimes apt to pay 
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May I ask Physicians to note that / make a specialty of cut flowers of 
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Particular attention is called to my three-year-old Rose Plants, ready 
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Phone North 2221 

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Oct., 1916 



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XVI 



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Oct., 1916 



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lE&ttnrB : 



" I^OHpttal HHatntfttattrr aixh 

C J. CO. HASTINGS. Medical Health 
Officer, City of Toronto; HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY. B.A.. M.D.. Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals. Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES, late Secy.. Royal Free 
Hospital. London. England. 

" i^OBpital Equt;mtPitt a^^ 
ApjiUanrpa " 

N. A. POWELL. M.D.. CM.. Senior 
Asflistant Surgeon in charge SKields' Emerg- 
ency Hospital. Professor Medical Jurisprudence , 
Medical Department, University of Toronto. 

" l!^0flpttalB atxb T^rtvtxxtxvt 
Meb'xtxxxt " 

J. W. S. McCULLOUGH, M.D., Chief 

Officer of Health for the Province of Ontario. 

J. H. ELLIOTT, M.p.. Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine. Univ. of Toronto. 

P. H. BRYCE. M.D., Chief Medical Officer, 
Dept. of The Interior, Ottawa. 



'■ Nuraiitg Ippartmrnt " 

MISS MARGARET CONROY, Boston, 

Mass. 

" ^ag:(]ttal Qlnitstrurttatt " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES. M.D., Cincin- 
nati. Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH. 

M.D.. M.V O.. Medical Superintendent, 
Western Infirmary. Glasgow. 

" fflrbtral Orgatttzatiott " 

HERBERT A. BRUCF M.D.. F.R.S.C. 

SuriJeon. Toronto General Hospital. Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE. M.D., Kingston. Ont. ; H. 
E. WEBSTER. Esq., Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG. M.D., L.R.C.P., London, 
Consultant, Toronto Hospital for Incurables, 
Toronto. 



" g»nrinli;gy " 



Central 



J. T. GILMOUR, M.D., Warden, 
Prison, Guelph, Ont. 

" (Hubrrrulasis Siaitatnria " 

GEORGE D. PORTER, M.D., Toronto ; 
J. H. HOLBROOK, M.B., Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton, Ont. 



All Communications, Correspondence, and Matter regarding Subscriptions and 

Advertisements TO BE ADDRESSED TO "THE HOSPITAL 

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Reprints, including Half-tones, etc.. Supplied Authors at Net Cost. 



Vol X. 



TORONTO, OCTOBER, 1916 



No. 4 



Editorials 



RESUSCITATION APPARATUS 



Dr. Yandell Henderson, Professor of Physiology 
in Yale University School of Medicine, has made a 
pronouncement on various mechanical devices for 



98 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

resuscitating those who have been overcome by sub- 
mergence in water, suffocation by smoke, stunned 
by electric shocks, overdosed with chloroform, and 
the like, where respiration has stopped, providing 
the heart has not come to a standstill. 

Hospital superintendents who have of late and 
are at present being called upon by agents selling 
pulmotors, lungmotors, vivators, bellows, and other 
resuscitation apparatus, will do well to read what 
Dr. Henderson says about them in a recent number 
of the Journal of the American Medical Hospital 
Association. 

In describing the action of the pulmotor, Dr. 
Henderson points out, that the purpose served by 
the compressed oxygen is not, as many suppose, to 
enrich the blood with that gas, but to supply the 
motive, power which works the apparatus. He fur- 
ther shows that the valve which alternately provides 
for the blowing of the air to the face mask and then 
sucking it out when reversing is made to do so by 
means of a considerable positive and negative pres- 
sure that come just at those points in respiration at 
which they are most unnatural. Besides, if there 
be an obstruction to the flow of air, the positive and 
negative pressures needed to reverse the apparatus 
induce the suction and injection phases so rapidly 
that the patient's lungs are not properly distended 
and deflated. The injector is also liable to get out of 
order. 

The automatic working of the apparatus has 
overimpressed the buying public; and many useless 
machines are now lying as junk around hospitals, 
fireballs, and factories. 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 99 

The essayist writes more favorably of the lung- 
motor, which is really a combination of two such 
pumps as are used to inflate automobile tires. 

The advisability of withdrawing air from the 
lungs is questionable. 

But when all is said and done, too much reliance 
should not be placed on any of these devices. The 
old-fashioned methods of artificial respiration — the 
Sylvester and the Schafer — must still be taught and 
used ; for one can not always wait until some appar- 
atus is brought. The earlier efforts at resuscitation 
are commenced the better. If the apparatus has to 
be brought from a distance it generally arrives too 
late. A delay of five minutes, if no other means are 
used, is fatal. 

Dr. Henderson says that harm may be done by 
exerting too great a positive pressure in using some 
of these apparatus. To lessen this danger, he sug- 
gests that in the apparatus of the pump type there 
should be a blow-off valve or equivalent device set 
to open under a water column pressure of 10 inches; 
and when, as in the lungmotor, there is also a suction 
pump, there should be an inlet valve set to open 
under a pressure of 6 inches. 

The Resuscitation Committee, of which the 
essayist is a member, found that in a conscious, nor- 
mal, not apneic, subject, his own respiratory centre, 
rather than the exertions of the operator, determines 
the amount of pulmonary ventilation afforded by 
the prone pressure method. Between the applica- 
tions of pressure, the subject's respiratory muscles 
draw in what he needs — no more and no less. Be- 
sides, the amount of air which can be drawn in and 



100 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Oct., 1916 

V 

forced out by the manipulation of the arms and the 
squeezing of the chest and abdomen, gradually de- 
creases as the body muscles lose their tonus. When 
the body becomes flaccid only a negligible amount of 
air passes in and out as a result of the pressure and 
relaxation. 



AND THEN WHAT ? 



The indefatigable Rockefeller Institute has under- 
taken to make an exhaustive survey of the City of 
Chicago with the view of ascertaining how much 

of the crime within its boundaries is due to sub- 
normal mental conditions, or, in other words, to 
obtain the statistical relationship between the mental 
condition of Chicago citizens and their crimes. 

It appears to be a tolerably large undertaking, 
laut the Institute is never troubled by the size of its 
contracts. It worries through them somehow, and 
after the expenditure of much money and labor 
sends another of its many startling volumes of facts 
and conclusions out into a scientific world already 
burdened with previous volumes of information it 
has not yet been able to digest or live up to. 

Nevertheless, it is good to have a Flexner and 
a Rockefeller Institute, perhaps on the same homely 
supposition why it is good for the dog to have fleas. 
It keeps the conscientious section of the people alert 
and watchful and properly uncomfortable over evils 
that should not exist, yet that there is no clear and 
instant way to exterminate. 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 101 

This investigation of sub-normality in Chicago 
now is quite a needful and desirable thing, at least 
so every other American city will agree. Chicago 
was doubtless selected because of its prominence in 
both these attributes of sub-normality and crime. 
To discover what proportion of Chicago minds are 
mischievously sub-normal and to decide what is 
going to be done with them when they are located 
will be a pursuit of great magnitude, and the pub- 
lished results will doubtless make more fascinating- 
reading than any previous volume of the Institute 
records. 

So large a staff will be necessary to carry on 
and complete this survey, however, that there is a 
possibility of a sub-normal mind or two slipping in 
among the investigators. And then what? 



102 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., lOlG 

Original Contributions 

ANTI-TYPHOID INOCULATION IN SOLDIERS 



BY GEORGE D. PORTER, ZSI.D.. CAPTAIN A.M.C. 



The following is a brief report ou the early results of 126,600 
inocujations rather than a paper on the general subject of inocu- 
lation. It might be well to recall, however, that the excellent 
results which have followed inoculation in the British forces 
in India and elsewhere, and also in the United States army, 
have been largely responsible for its almost universal use in 
the armies of the world to-day. While sanitary measures in 
general ha\'e never been so closely observed as at the present 
time, yet the wonderful freedom of the troops fri)iii typhoid may 
be largelv attributed to inoculation. 

In ^lajor Lelean's book on '" Sanitation in War,'' he esti- 
mates that there are five and a half times as many cases of 
typhoid amongst the soldiers who are not inoculated, and that 
there are ten and a half times as manv deaths amongst those 
unprotected by inoculation as there are amongst those who have 
been inoculated. 

Another report states that froui August, 1914, to Xov em- 
ber 10th. lUl"), l.:i(!5 cases of typhoid were reported from the 
front (1,150 veritied by lalxu'atory diaguosis). In .570 cases 
amongst the inoculated there were 35 deaths, wdiile in 571 cases 
amongst those unprotected by inoculation there were 115 deaths. 
Owing to our lack of information regarding the number of 
inoculated soldiers who contracted typhoid, and those not inocu- 
lated who contracted the disease, it is impossible to compare 
the results, but these figures do show that the mortality is less 
than a third amongst those inoculated. Another list of figures 
taken from one of the British medical journals shows that in 
L;M7 cases of typhoid 801 had not l)een inoculated, while 225 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 103 

had been. Of the 891 cases iminociilated there were 15.5 
deaths, making 17.4 per cent. Of the 256 cases inoculated 
there were onlv 8 deaths, making 3.1 per cent. The mortality 
amongst those inoculated only once was greater than amongst 
those inoculated twice, and the mortality amongst those inocu- 
lated twice -was more than amongst those inoculated three 
times. 

In reply to a letter for further in^^ormatiou, however, I 
have received a letter from the office of the Director of Medical 
Services of the Canadian Contingents in London, statino- that 
" although the figures are such that they ought materially to 
help universal inoculation, the War Office refuses to allow any 
statistics regarding medical work to be published." 

The technique used at the Laboratory in District ]!^umber 
2 is to paint a small area beneath the clavicle with tincture 
iodine, and, after boiling the needles, syringe-; and ))lnngers, 
inject subcutaneously one c.c. of the anti-typhoid vaccine, which 
equals a dose of 250,000,000 dead bacteria. The second dose 
of the same strength is given from four to ten days later, and 
the third dose of double the strength is given from fous to ten 
days after that, making in all 1,000,000,000 dead bacteria. It 
is important to have the bottles containing the vaccine well 
shaken before using, also to have the rubber stoppers painted 
with iodine before inserting the needles through tbem for with- 
drawing the fluid. Our vaccine is prepared at the Provincial 
Laboratory, and must be kept in a cool place when not in use. 

The redness and tenderness surrounding the site of inocu- 
lation, wdiich sometimes supervenes begins to subside in a few 
hours. As the constitutional reaction comes on about six hours 
, after the inoculation, consisting of malaise, headache, a slig'ht 
! rise in temperature, and, in some cases, a tendency to faintness, 
light duties are advised for the men for 24 hours. When symp- 
toms are severe enough the men are admitted to hospital under 
the head of "' Inoculation Fever." The usual time spent there 
has been from one to three days, with an occasional illness 
lasting five days or a week. 

We have inoculated in District Number 2 between January 
1st, 1915, and ^lay 1st, 1916, 42,200 men three times each, 



104 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Oct., 1916 

making iu all 126,600 inoculations. We have had no deaths 
from these, and, while there have been a number of somewhat 
severe reactions, there have been admitted to hospital for this 
cause only 107 cases — less than one-quarter of the men inocu- 
lated, or about one admission in every twelve hundred inocula- 
tions. (Over one-half of these admissions were during the 
summer months.) 

We are now giving the combination of para-tvphoid vac- 
cines, and, while only a few hundred men have been inoculated 
with them thus far, the early results are just as satisfactory as 
with the typhoid vaccine alone. 



PREPARATION OF A PATIENT FOR AN 
ANESTHETIC 



E. J. MACMILLAN^ M.D.^ TORONTO. 



1. As TO Rest — All patients, where it can be arranged^ 
should rest both physically and mentally, better in bed, for at 
least twenty-four hours previous to anesthetic. 

2. As TO ISToTiRisHMENT — The diet should be regulated for at 
least two days previous to anesthetic. 

The patient should receive abundance of nourishing, easily 
digested food. Food that leaves little residue. From the 
eighth hour preceding the anesthetic and up to three hours 
before same, light fluids should be given. The patient should 
be encouraged to drink water up to one hour before the 
anesthetic. 

3. As TO Dbugs — (a) Hypnotics for nervousness and sleep- 
lessness the night preceding anesthetic. 

All hypnotics tend to increase post-operative nausea and 
vomiting. Prional. sulphoral and veronal are the worst; 
chloral hydrate, paraldehyde and somnos are the best. 



Oct, 191(3 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 105 

(h) As to use of morphia.- — -Morpiiia should always be 
given in \-ery nervous cases, unless there are strong contrain- 
dications, and in all cases of Graves' disease. Best ii'iven forty- 
five minutes before, combined with atropine. Dose for an 
adult, morphia gr. 1-4 1-G, atropine gr. 1-150. 

(c) Atropine. Atropine should be given in all cases. It 
lessens bronchial secretions. It lessens the escape of the heat 
i)f the body, thus lessening shock. 

4. As TO Ptjkgatives — The best preparatory purgative is 
calomel given two nights previous to anesthetic, followed in 
the mornino- bv a saline. 

!N^o laxative the night before. On the morning, two hours 
l)efore anesthetic, an enema should be given. In operations on 
the lower bowel, more enamata will be necessary. 

The usual custom of giving a purgative the night before, 
followed in the morning by an enema, disturbs the patient's 
rest, and leaves him in a condition far from the best to stand 
an anesthetic and operation. 

It almost inevitably results in more or less severe post- 
anesthetic nausea and vomiting. 

In cases where you only have your patient one day pre- 
vious to operation, castor oil is better than calomel; it is less 
apt to be followed by vomiting. I am certain if the above lines 
as to diet and purgatives were followed, post-anesthetic nausea 
and vomiting would be very rare. 

After Treatment. 

1. Post-anesthetic gastric lavage. I am certain that routine 
lavage does more harm than good in the majority of cases. 
Lavage requires that the patient be deeply anesthetized, and as 
in a great number of operations very light anesthesia is all 
that is required, it would be harmful to deeply anesthetize the 
patient for the juirpose of lavage; then lavage entails some con- 
siderable shock, and in ])atients already suflFering greatly from 
shock it might prove to be the last straw. 

In the following cases lavage is indicated : 

(a) In all operations where the stomach is handled, and 
in operatious on the gall bladder. In these operations blood 



lOG THE HOSPITAL WORLD Ocr., 1916 

or bile or both are forced into the stomach, ami are hctrer 
removed. 

(6) In all cases while during the period of anesthesia the 
patient vomits or endeavors to vomit. In these eases during 
the act of trying to vomit, air is sucked into the stomach, and 
the passing of the stomach tube permits the gas to escape. 

(c) In all cases where the stomach is distended with gas. 
These cases will usually require to be watched for distension 
later, and will be better of having the tube passed again. 

The presence of gas in the stomach is more serious than 
fluids. 

Many solutions are used for lavage. Kormal saline, soda 
bicarborate solution, lime water, weak solutions of hydrochloric 
acid, and plain warm water. The soda bicarl)onate seems to 
answer best ; it appears to wash the stomach better. It removes 
any mucus secretions better than others. 

Some advise, after lavage, leaving in the stomach certain 
solutions, as 5 i~5 ii of soda bicarbonate in § ii ~ .5 lii 
of warm water, or 5 'i - 5 iv milk of magnesia, ^fy (expe- 
rience is that it is a waste of material. 

A's to fluids and nourishment, post-anesthetic, as soon as 
the patient is able to swallow, they should be permitted, and if 
necesary encouraged, to drink water, given in small quantities, 
frequently. The temperature may vary as to the liking of 
patient, luit never should be ice cold. As soon as the patient 
can take water without nausea, tea and other light liquids may 
be slowlv added. 



Oct., l!)l<i THE HOSPITAL WORLD 107 

Selected Articles 



REGARDING DIETS FOR PATIENTS 



]N"o patient is to receive iionrislimeiir at meal hours witlmut 
orders. Feedings between meals are not to l)e given nnless 
ordered. Xo alcohol may be nsed even for flavoring, except bv 
orders. Tea and cocoa are included in the liquids of any diet. 
Coifee requires a special order. jSTo medical patients are to 
receive lobster, crab meat, raw oyster, raw clams, or cabbage. 

Xurses serving trays must bear in mind the importance of 
preparing patients for approaching meal by announcement and 
In- freshening bed, washing patient's face, and such methods 
of aronsing the psychical stimulus ftu- flow of gastric juice. 

The following titles are in use : 

Full diet. — Any available foods. — liquid, soft and solid, mw 
and cooked ; ^> times a day. 

Liglit diet. — Same as full diet, except no salads, no raw 
fruits, except oranges, no raw vegetables, and limited amounl, 
small helpings. -S times a day. 

Soft diet. — Any liquid; eggs — soft boiled, soft poached, soft 
scrambled, and raw ; toast — dry without crust ; cereals — cooked ; 
potatoes — mashed, creamed, baked ; rice — steamed ; gravies — - 
meat and creamed, junket; jellies — without solid content; cus- 
tards- — without hard fruits; oranges, stewed fruits, 3 times a 
dav. 

Rest rirted soft diet. — Any liquid; eggs — soft boiled ^r 
poached or raw ; toast — soft ; cereals — cooked fine without chaff, 
as wheatena, or strained oatmeal ; custard — -plain ; junket ; 
jellies — ]dain; 3 times a day. 

Li(iuid diet. — Any liquid, as milk, buttennilk, kejihir. al- 
bumen plain, albumen flavored, grape juice, cocoa shake; soups 
— thin and thick from meat stock, thin and thick from vea'c- 



*A dietary from one of our I)est known hospitals. 





8 a.m. 10 


a.m. 


12 noon 


2 p.m. 


4 p.m. 


6 p.m. 


S p.m. 


oz. 


3 


3 



• > 








3 





oz. 
oz. 


41/. 
6 


414 
6 


41/- 

6 


G 


6 


41/0 


41/0 

6 


oz. 


6 


6 


9 


6 


6 


9 


6 


oz. 


6 


6 


9 


6 


6 


9 


6 


oz. 


6 


6 


9 


fi 


6 


9 


6 


oz. 


6 


6 

8 


9 


6 


6 

8 


9 


6 



108 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct.. 10l(> 

table stock (without solid coutc^nt ) ; tea, with ?uiiar and i-i'c;ini; 
cocoa or chocolate ; ice cream, withotit solid content ; every 2 
hours day, and at night if desired, in doses of oz. IV. or VI. 

Intermediate nourishment.- — Anv liquid, oz. VI.. with 
Avafers if diet permits, at 10.30 a.m., 3.30 p.m.. and in the 
evening. 

Dubois Diet (Milh). 

6 a.m. 
1st day 3 
2nd day 4I/2 oz. 
3rd day C> 
4th dav 9 
5th day 12 
6tih dav 12 
7th day 12 
8th day 

On the 6th day, give bread, butter, and honey with the fir.st 
12 oz. of milk. 

On the 7th day, give full noon and evening meals in addi- 
tion to milk. 

On the eighth day the following, full diet and milk at 10 
a.m., 4 p.m., 8 p.m. 

The nurses shotild not give any information to the i')atient 
about the diet schedule, amotmt, time, duration, or object. 
Simply reply that each feeding is ordered l)y the doctor. 

Cardiac Diet. — Breakfast — Cereal with cream, 2 slices but- 
tered toast, 1 soft egg, 1 slice bacon, 1 glass milk (200 cc). 1 
orange. 

10 a.m. ) 1 glass fluids and crackers, buttered toast or bread 
4 p.m. j and butter, 2 slices. 

Dinner. — Chicken, sweetbreads or fish; 1 vegetable 
(cooked) ; 2 slices bread or toast; any soup except from meat 
stock, 180 ec. 

Supper. — 1 egg, not fried; 2 slices bread or toast; simple 
dessert 1 glass any liquid. 

Small amount of food. — E.rcha7ige. 



Oct., lUlO THE HOSPITAL WORLD 109 

GEOGRAPHY OF MEDICAL GREATNESS 



lu a recent niimljer of The Medical Times appeared a 
Immorous article on the above subject. Among other laughable 
things, it said : 

When we think of Boston, medically, we think of Harvard 
and the Massachusetts General Hospital. They are the hubs 
around which medical Boston revolves. Eelatively unlucky 
is the Boston physician who can own no affiliation with these 
corporations. He may be successful in a worldly sense, be a 
>;cholar and a gentleman, he may hold important institutional 
]iosts, but his sphere is an exoteric, relatively inglorious one. 
ISTo great part does he play in sustaining the rei;l palladia of 
Boston's medical greatness. He is a Philistine. 

It is rather difficult for an outsider to understand the mystic, 
esoteric qualifications which a man must possess before he can 
aspire to a place within the sacred walls of these medical tem- 
ples. The limitations of language do not permit one who is 
not a ]^ew Englander, much less a Bostonian, exactly to define 
the social and scientific sources of medical prestige in Boston. 

Despite the foregoing conditions, the attainments of the 
scientific personnel of Boston's medical " trust " are of an 
astonishingly high order, as everybody knows — in the sense that 
there is nothing medical worth knowing that these gentle- 
men don't know. The^' know the scientific '^ patter '' of 
medical science as they know the multiplication table, and they 
satisfy all possible requirements as regards Rabelaisian learn- 
ing and impressive dignity. 

One doesn't look much for anything erratic among such a 
])ersonnel. One expects to find only conservatism. Occasion- 
allv, however, one encounters an individual among thorn who 
has a strangle hold on the trust as regards all the esoteric re- 
quirements for membership , and who yet exhibits phe- 
nomena strange indeed for a Bostonian of the sacred sort. Thus 
we see one of the near-great flying fitfully from social settle- 
ment work, applied to medicine, to psycho-therapy in conjunc- 
tion with certain doctors of the churoh from blood researches 



no THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

to denial of the trustworthiness of urinary findina's as indi- 
cators of renal disease. Merely a clever, versatile man, opines 
the reader. Exactly, but think of the perturbing effect he must 
have on his staid confreres. To them it must seem like sins'ing 
the Bab Ballads to the tunes of g-reat hymns. This man, in 
such an environment, is like an aberrant embrvonal cell. He 
would be a really inspiring figure in Chicago. He is as outre 
in Boston as a typical Bostonian would be in Oshkosh. 

* * * * * 

Members of the medical aristocracy of jSTew York are the 
most fortunately situated as regards nearness to the concen- 
trated wealth of the country. It is safe to say, too. that they 
are more than alive to their opportunities. He would be a 
unique thinker and observer who would deny that this " near- 
ness " has had no reflex commercializing effect upon tlie pro- 
fession. 

The populace of ISTew York probably receive more static 
wave thrills, at five dollars a thrill, more vibratory agitations, 
at five dollars per agitation, than any other neurasthenic com- 
munitv in the world. If vou are a lavman, vou are irrio-ated 
for three months, subjected to vesicular massage for one mouth, 
passed along to the surgeon. Avho revises your table of contents, 
and end your days with a vacuum electrode against your pros- 
tate. Your spare time is passed visiting your relatives and 
friends in public hospitals and private sanatoria. People who 
claim to be healthy are detained at Bellevue until they promise 
to visit a physician. Females who do not bear upon their per- 
sons the heraldry of ])lastic geometry arc vcr\- r;iro. aud a 
child who needed no pharyngeal surgery would be entitled to 
a greasy effigy at the Eden ]\Iusee. Legion is the unuie of the 
neurasthenic, the sacred raven who bestows so much manna 
upon the Elijahs of Madison Avenue. ISTo where else are his 
symptoms so protean, though no neurologist has, as yet, reported 
a fear-of-money phobia. 

TT ^ w w ^ 

It is customary not to approach Baltimore without removino- 
the shoes, or in some way signifying one's deep reverence and 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 111 

humility in the presence of greatness. Even the medical stu- 
dents at Johns Hopkins write learnedly and exhaustively upon 
themes to whicli Virchow himself could barely have done jus- 
tice. You know that queer feeling that comes over you, reader, 
when you pick up a journal and read a title like the followino;: 
" The Psychology of Conversion in the Insane," by ]\[r. Philip 
Sydenham Lettsom, of the Senior Class, Medical School of 
Johns Hopkins University. 

If the students are so wise, what shall we say of the resi- 
dents ? At the very beginning of their careers they have reached 
a development about equal to that of Benjamin Push at the 
height of his career — no, not even excepting his wisdom. To 
them, " clinical medicine is a finished story," they know all 
that can be known about descriptive pathology, and the logical 
result is, they discover new diseases, devise new methods, write 
new books. Johns Hopkins has been launching this type of man 
for some years now, and it is a strange thing that medicine has 
not progressed faster at his hands. 

As to the Olympian faculty which presides over the func- 
tions and destiny of the University, their wisdom passeth all 
understanding. It is said that they systematically withhold 
much of their knowledge for fear that its announcement would 
tend to paralyze effort in others — tend to intellectual pauperiza- 
tion, in other words — just as the man of colossal wealth has to 
exercise great care in his benefactions, in order that charity 
be not abused and the poor pauperized. Thus do they feed the 
medical chicks of the country within their capacity. 

The professional body of Johns Hopkins is living, in point 
of fact, somewhere around seventy-five years ahead of actual 
scientific time. There is an apparently well-founded rumor 
that the members of this teaching body hold secret sessions at 
which the papers and discussions are pitched in a key which 
would strike any other medical men as transcendental, to say 
the least. 

The faculty have been inclined to regard at least one pro- 
fessor as sensationally inclined, and have regarded as rather 
indiscreet deliverances his articles and addresses upon the sub' 
ject to measurement of the capacity of the renal pelvis as a 



11-3 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

routine office procedure, and upon the cure by means of radium 
of deep-seated and extensive cancer. In the faculty's judgment 
these are things that the general profession is not yet prepared 
to receive, and they do not consider that any purpose is served 
by such pronouncements other than the exploitation of the pro- 
fessor himself. 

Great vras Diana of the Ephesians, but gTeater is Minerva 
Medica of Baltimore! 



THE ABUSE OF THE FREE DISPENSARY 

PRIVILEGE * 



P.Y EDWIIST B. MILT.ER. ^l.T). 



The trite saying that '' Fools rush in Avhere angels fear to 
tread " is probably true of the person who attempts to write a 
palmer on the above subject and to read it before a body like 
the Philadelphia County Medical Society. 

It is necessary in a discussion of this kind that the truth 
shall be told, regardless of the fact that some of the statements 
may seem like knocking an individual, a group of men, or an 
institution. So, in the words of Abraham Lincoln, " With 
malice towards none and with charity for all," I will proceed 
to a consideration of our subject, which, while a very old and 
much discussed one. is always new. The causes have always 
been the same, the methods of overcoming the condition well 
understood, and would be efficient to correct the evil ; but what 
has been lacking? Men of moral courage and stamina, ivlio are 
willing to sink their individual opportunities for the good of 
the profession as a whole. 

I propose to point out to you that both the lajnnan and the 
practitioner are responsible for the conditions which exist to- 
day in the dispensary service of the large hospitals of our city. 



♦Read before the Kensington Branch of the Philadelphia County Medi- 
cal Society. 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 113 

The most noble and notable example of Christian charity 
is the free dispensary, which, by the gratnitons service of the 
conscientions physician, is able to minister to the needs of 
snfTerino' hnmanity. 

These blessings ai-e so common in this country that they 
are little appreciated, and their importance is not seen here, as 
it is in heathen lands, where the whole system of the civiliza- 
tion of the individual, the development of commerce and in- 
dustry, and the upbuilding of nations, leading them out of 
darkness into light, freedom and usefulness, follow in the wake 
of the medical missionary. 

In Korea the beginning of the present forward movement 
dates from the time when Dr. Allen, a medical missionary, in- 
gratiated himself into the favor of the Emperor by curing his 
son of erysipelas, after all the native doctors had failed by their 
methods to give him relief. 

Sir Robert Hart, ex-Director of Maritime Customs for 
China, is at the present time in England endeavoring to raise 
$500,000 to endow a medical university in China ; for all this 
service nothing is asked, medical men give their time, ^ their 
talents, their money and even their lives for the cause of 
(humanity. 

All this is good and noble, but a thing which, at one stage 
of civilization, may be right and uplifting, becomes demoral- 
izing and reprehensible at another. When these heathen coun- 
tries take their places in the galaxy of nations and their sons 
and daughters become educated physicians, and their ]ieo]ile 
become efficient by the development of trades and the \'ariuus 
industries, they must be lifted to a higher ])lane than that of 
helpless mendicants. 

We care for our children when they are helpless, but insist 
on their becoming self-supporting as they arrive at maturity ; 
so the nation also fosters infant industries, but when they be- 
come trusts and can count their profits by fhe millions such 
protection should be removed. 

In civilized lands it is the duty of the individual, the State 
and the nation to help the indigent; hut it is little short of crim- 
inal to distrihute the bounty to those who do not need it, thereby 
encouraging them to become dependents on the commimity and 



114 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

tlius depriving many worthy persons of their just requests for 
aid. 

These conditions have reached such a stage here in Phihi- 
delphia that they menace the very existence of a body of men 
who have done more than any other in the work of saving 
humanity from the ravages of disease. 

Thousands of persons who, by all the principles of justice 
and honor, should call on physicians to treat their ailments ajid 
pay for them, are being treated at the free dispensaries of our 
city. How much surgery do we get to-day even of a minor 
character? Why, frequently we find our best-paying patients 
are being treated in the hospitals gratis, because the impression 
seems to be abroad that it is only there that they can receive 
the proper attention. 

I take it that the three principal causes for this state of 
affairs are: 

1. The desire on the part of the patient to save money — 
the prevalent spirit of wanting something for nothing. 

2. The desire to see the professor or the near-professor. 

3. Because the patient is recommended to go to the dis])en- 
saries by their physicians. 

1. The desire of the patient to save money. 

I have known of large families who have not engaged a 
physician until their children are wage earners, and then they 
only do so because it is now cheaper to go to the doctor's office 
in the evening than to the dispensary. Open the dispensaries 
from 7 to 9 p.m. and we will probably shut up shop and seek 
other and more remunerative fields. 

A child was brought to my office with a Colle's fracture. 
I treated the case and told them to bring her in the next day. 
They never came back, and when I w^ent to hunt up my splint, 
I found that the patient was being treated at the hospital. The 
excuse offered was that they could not afford to pay, altliough 
the father had a steady job at $18.00 a week. 

Last week a man came to me who had been receiving x-ray 
treatment for carcinoma in a hospital dispensary for a period 
of nearly a year. He became dissatisfied and wanted me to 



Oct.. inic THE HOSPITAL WORLD ^K, 

treat him. When I told him my ])riee he demurred, ^ayiiiii- he 
could not afford it. I reduced it. He said this was beyond his 
means. T made a still further concession, but he said he cr.uld 
not afford even this amount, so I advised him to continue treat- 
ment at the hospital, where he had already received service to 
the value of $500. 

I have learned since that he has a small store, an interest 
in a milk business and is the reputed owner of several houses. 
He wanted to save money, as he was losing some by being- 
absent from his place of business several hours each day. 

The public should he given to understcwd that to accept 
service to which they are not entitled is common robber i/. The 
institutions that have special clinics : the eye, the nose, the 
throat, nervous diseases, etc., are the ones that are most ])at- 
ronized by this class of mendicants. Those who have worked 
in these clinics will bear me out when I say that probably one- 
ihalf of all persons treated are able to ]uiy. These same peojde 
will accept the hospital glasses from the (»ptician for a dollar 
or two, and then order a pair for dress and pay $7 or $8 for 
them. I have seen a number of incidents like this and it is 
by this means that the o])tician is able to profit on the proposi- 
tion. Frecjuently patients attendimj special clinics icill hare 
two or three cards and iciJl r/o froii\ o)ic- clinic to anotlier. 

2, The desire to see the ])rofessor. 

This is probably due to the readiness with which the doctor 
in general practice calls in a consultant to tell him something 
he already knows, an<l introduces him as from such-and-such 
a hospital. The practice of calling in oui' neighboring brethren 
has been almost entirely abandoned. 

This practice should be revived and a better understanding 
and more brotherly feeling would exist, for I take it that, when 
the average intelligent physician does not li-now what ails a. 
patient tire professor is guessing, loo. Again, those of us who 
work in various clinics know that the assistants do all the work." 
and the chief only appears occasionally, and then only looks at, 
the most interesting cases. 

The chief of the clinic usually resists anv effoi-t to cut <lH\vn 



116 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

the size of the same. While working in the medical clinics of 
one of our prominent hospitals, a verj well-dressed woman came 
in and asked to see the professor. The chief was not there, so 
I gave her a card and sent her to ihis office. At the next clinic 
he called me down, and informed me that his repntation at 
the institution depended on the size of the clinic, and to treat 
all comers regardless of their appearance. 

3. Because they are recommended bi/ their 'physicians to go 
to the dispensary. 

This brings me to the most interesting part of the snbject. 
It seems almost incredible that a physician should recommend 
a good patient, who is willing to pay, to go to the dispensary; 
yet such is the case, as I can prove, and these are, I believe, 
the causes : 

1. Because the doctor has no knowledge of the conditions 
and has not instruments to treat the cases. This, to my mind, is 
a very poor excuse — he should have them. 

2. He is afraid of, or jealous of, his neighbor, who has the 
knowledge and appliances, and the down-town specialist charges 
too much. 

He may 'have good cause for this position, but when we get 
together and all try to act on the square this cause will dis- 
appear. 

3. He is asleep and is not cognizant of his opportunities, 
or is too lazy to study, or too mean to buy books and instruments, 
I am satisfied that we — and I include myself among this 
number— allow thousands of dollars' worth of work that we can 
do to slip through our hands. This is due to careless methods 
of examination and observation and an utter neglect of the 
taking of records. We can do surgical work, eye work, ear, 
nose, throat work, stomach washing, treat hemorrhoids, use 
massage, hydrotherapy, electricity. 11/'// not'.' The o])ticians 
are getting rich on the work sent them by physicians. A pro- 
minent optician soliciting my patronage showed me a list of 
physicians who sent him cases to be tested (mind you; and 
fitted with glasses, and the doctor who sent them received from 
$1 to $3 for each case. By doing this work liiuiself he could liold 



Oct., 1910 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 117 

his patients, give them better service, because he should kuow 
more about it, and at the same time make more money with 
little or no increased cost to the patient. Let us get busy. In 
order to satisfy myself as to the position taken by the hospitals, 
I wrote to the superintendents of twenty-five institutions in 
Philadelphia and asked them the following (piestions: 1. Do 
you now, or have you at any time, tried to limit your service 
to those unable to pay ? 2. Do you rJi •rge for medicines nr 
dressings? I have received replies from twenty, and am pleased, 
to sav that some effort in this direction is beina; made. I ha^e 
tabulated the replies, which are as follows : The hospitals who 
limit their service to those unable to pay are fourteen. The 
hospitals that make no special effort are six. Hospitals that 
make a definite charge for medicines are five out of twenty. 
Charge, but have no fixed sum, nine. Hospitals that make 
no charge for medicines are three out of twenty. Hospitals 
which give no medicine are two out of twenty. Hospital 
which makes no effort to limit its services and gives free medi- 
cine is one out of twenty. — Exchange. 



THE PASSING OF DR. FRANK HAMMETT HOLT 



Dn. Hoi.T, aged 47. is dead after a brief illness. Deceased was 
Su]ierintendent of ^lichael Ileese Hos])ital for a year or so 
])ast. He went to Chicago from Boston, where he graduated 
in 1809. At the Boston City Hospital he served as an assistant 
administrator under Dr. Rowe for many years. Following Dr. 
Rowe's retirement and Dr. McCallum's transfer. Dr. Holt was 
looked upon by his outside friends as the logical ap])ointee to 
the position in Boston. However. ^Funicipal ])olitics decided 
otherwise, and Dr. Holt was taken to Chicago, where he fully 
sustained the reputation he made in Boston as an efficient 
officer. 

Dr. Holt l)ecame known to hosi)ital people generally at the 
Boston meeting of the American Hospital Association, having 
had charge of the arrangements for the convention. His work in 
this connection was well done, and everyone ap])reciated his 
courteous attention and kindly assistance. Our i-epresontative 
on more than one occasion has been the recipient of Dr. Holt's 
generous hospitality, and the Hospifal World joins bis liosts 
of fricn<ls in oxteudiug to bis family and rcliitivcs its sincere 
sympathy. 



118 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

Canadian Hospitals 

No. 4 GENERAL HOSPITAL (TORONTO) 



The following letter from a member of the staif of Xo. 4 
General Hospital at Saloniki is most interesting, and gives 
some little idea of the work done by that splendid nnit : 

'' Xo donbt yon know all about the fact that we ha\e left 
our old ihome on the other side of the city and have said good- 
"bye to our tent hospital, for the time at least. 

" Our move was effected in a very orderly manner. About 
a mouth before the move was made, three or four of us sat 
down and tigurcd out just how it was to be done, and had prac- 
tically arranged each load so that when the orders came for us 
to pack u\) we were quite ])repare(l. and carried the thing 
tlirough in such a way that we were al)lc to immediately set uj) 
and e([uii) each ward ])ractically from one ti-uck load. By this 
means there was no delay at the uew site, aiul the handling of 
-our equij)ment was reduced to a minimuui. 

'" When we ihad occu]ned this new butted lio.^^pital. we found 
it in anything but a tit state for us !o carrv on oiii' hosjiital 
work. Since the buildings were available in a more or less 
incomplete state, l)ut only five per cent, of the water supply 
liad been installed, no sanitary or disinfectant arrangements for 
the patients or personnel. For the first week or ten days we 
liad all our own men very busy trying to rush along various 
necessary details to enable us to accept jiatients at the earliest 
date, and we lent every assistance in our power to the Engineers' 
Department in an effort to hurry along the work of the hospital, 
but there were other conditions developing that would not wait 
for the leisurely progress of the Engineers' Department in com- 
pleting the work here. 

" About this time the extremely hot weather began to niaui- 
iest its effect on the troops, and the medical staff otficers be- 
came so pressed for accommodation that they asked us to open 
ii|) to (Hir fidlest capacity and carry on the work as best we 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 119 

could under the existing circumstances. This we did, and inside 
of the first twentj-four hours we accepted about 700 cases. It 
was a most trying experience, especially for my Quartermas- 
ter's Department, in attempting to handle this sudden inrush 
of cases, as we were particularly anxious to thoroughly clean 
all the men and disinfect their kits before admitting them to 
the new hospital wards. As no facilities were yet available for 
carrying on this work, it meant that wt had the whole of the 
ground in the vicinity of the bathing establishment covered 
with the outfits of the men, and for a time wo were almost dis- 
couraged over our unavailing efforts to cope with the disin- 
fecting problem. 

'" Finally we succeeded in getting hold of two old thresh 
disinfectors at the ordnance. When we attcm,)ted to move 
these to our camp, a distance of some eight miles, both broke 
do\\m on the way, and one of them had to be hauled in with 
big beams doing duty for wheels. However, this gave us some- 
thing to go on with, and we gradually ate awpy at the tre- 
mendous accumulation of kits until we finally caugKt up. 

" Recently the D.D.]\LS. asked us to increase our ca])acity 
to 1,540 beds, and this was effected bv ])lacin<>' .')0 beds in each 
ward instead of the customary 24, and also taking over a group 
of buildings belonging to one of the adjacent hospital sites. 

'' When we first came to the hospital site we were very 
much bothered by the hosts of fiies, and our first move toward 
solving this problem was that of cleaning up the camp area. 
Having accomplished this, we screened the windows and doors 
everywhere with mosquito netting, and then went after the 
pests with traps, swatters and poison of various kinds until, 
in a comparatively short time, we were able to notice that the 
numbers were markedly diminishing, and this has improved 
until, at the present time, we are very little bothered in that 
regard. 

" Our hospital is really going to be a splendid institution 
when it is completed. We have 44 large wards, each 120 by 
20 feet. These are subdivided at one end into three or four 
rooms for the carrying on of the work in each building. There 
is a bathroom., a room for Avashing up the patients' disb(\s. 



120 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Oct., 1916 

with sink, running water, a sort of pantry with stove, and an 
administrative room for the use of the sister. The main ward 
itself is large, airy, bright, and has two large doors in each 
end and one on each side in the middle. ^Normally they are 
expected ito house two patients, and when we are operating 
at our unusual capacity of 1,000 beds, this will be the number 
that we will place in each one." 



OPENING OF THE NEW RECEPTION^HOSPITAL, 

BROCKVILLE 



The new Reception Hospital in connection with the Eastern 
Hospital, Brockville, was opened on i\.ugust 16th, 1916. This 
hospital, whidh is built of brick, three storeys biiih, is admirably 
situated about midwav between the Prescott Road and the 
main building of the institution. N'ature has supplied a beau- 
tiful setting for it, as it is placed in a grove of trees and has 
a splendid outlook on the St. Lawrence River. It is intended 
to accommodate sixty patients, thirty of each sex. Every com- 
fort and convenience known to the science of mental healing 
has been carefully considered in the planning of this structure. 
In addition to four solariums, four large verandas have been 
provided where the patients will be treated with nature's own 
healers, fresh air and sunshine. These verandas have been 
provided with closed windows for winter, so that they can be 
used at all seasons of the year. Beds have been supplied with 
special rollers so that nurses can move even the weakest of 
patients onto the verandas without any disturbance. 

The main floor of the hospital contains the doctor's office and 
dispensary, the head nurse's suite of rooms, the diet kitchens — 
which are fitted with everv modern and kbor-savine- device — 
and the wards and special bathrooms for patients. The bath- 
rooms and lavatories are all tiled and fitted up in the most 
modern manner. 

On the second floor are the Resident Physician's apartments 
(the Assistant Superintendent. Dr. Geo. C. Kidd), patients' 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 121 

wards and private rooms, attendants' quarters, also spray bath, 
bathrooms, etc. 

The third floor is fitted up with nurses' quarters, storage 
rooms for patients' clothing, and the operating room, which has 
in connection with it a sterilizing, anesthetic, doctors' and 
nurses' rooms. All the fittings are of the most modern type, and 
it is one of the best operating rooms to be found east of 
Toronto. 

The basement contains the boilers for heating water, elec- 
tric motors for the operation of the elevator — which works auto- 
matically by the key method — ^also, the electric ventilating sys- 
tem which is very complete, changing the air in the whole 
building in a very short time by the means of fans, one placed 
in the basement and the other at the top of the building. The 
hospital is to be heated from the central heating plant. 

An electric lift is provided for conveying food from the 
kitchens to the second floor, whore food wagons are i)rovided to 
transf.er it when required to the pleasant dining rooms located 
on this floor. 

A noticeable feature of this building is the homelike atmos- 
phere that permeates into every nook and corner. 

The grounds surrounding the hospital are being laid out in 
terraces and, in a short time, will be transformed into a bower 
of flowers and shrubbery. 

The building is intended to be used entirely for the treat- 
ment and care of recoverable patients. Continuous baths with 
other hydrotherapeutic equipment and massage tables are being 
provided, so that nothing will be left undone which will give 
tihe patient an opportunity to make a recovery. The entire 
equipment of the building, with few exceptions, has been manu- 
factured at the Ontario Reformatory, Guelph, Ont. 

The opening of this building was made the opportunity to 
hold a special meeting of the Leeds and Grenville IMedical As- 
sociation and all the doctors in the Eastern Hos])it;il District 
were invited to attend as guests of the Association and 
the Ontario Government. About fifty medical men responded 
to the invitation and sat down to a choice luncheon, provided by 
the hospital, at one o'clock. 



122 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

After the inner man had been satisfied, the meeting ad- 
journed to one of the spacious verandas, and at 2.30 the meet- 
ing was called to order by Dr. J. C. Mitchell, Medical Super- 
intendent of the Eastern Hospital, who is also President of 
the Medical Association. 

In a brief address, he spoke of the movements leading up to 
the erection of the building. He said the idea of this Reception 
Hospital was first conceived l).v Dr. J. M. Forster, who was 
Medical Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital for six months 
and who is now in the same capacity at the Hospital for the 
Insane in Toronto. Dr. Mitchell then gave a short history of 
the hospital and spoke of the great interest taken in it by the 
Honourable W. J. Hanna, Provincial Secretary, when the idea 
was first suggested to him. This gentleman came personally 
and selected the site for the building ancl. at the same time, 
made the purchase of the Hospital Farm which has proven so 
successful. He also referred to the work that is being done 
in the other Hospitals for the Insane in the Province, and of 
the special work it is intended shall be done in this hospital. 
He mentioned particularly that only those cases considered as 
curable would be admitted. He also gave a short sketch of 
the Leeds and Grenville Medical Association. 

The Secretary of the Association, Dr. F. S. Vrooman, now 
Superintendent of the new Military Hospital in Cobourg, then 
read the minutes of the inaugural meeting of the Association 
and tendered his resignation on account of change in residence. 
The meeting elected Dr. M. F. D. Graham. Assistant Physician 
of the Eastern Hospital, as his successor. 

Dr. T. F. Robertson, as Chairman of the Committee on 
Revision of the Tariff, then read the new tariff as applying to 
the counties of Leeds and Grenville. This was passed unani- 
mously by the members of the Association. 

S. A. i^rmstrong, Esq.. Assistant Provincial Secretary, was 
tihen called upon and gave the following address : 

" Perhaps you will appreciate my feelings appearing be- 
fore you as the sole and only layman at this Conference, but it 
gives me great pleasure to be able to express to you, on behalf 
of the Government, its appreciation of your attendance here. 



I 



Oct.. lOlG THE HOSPITAL WORLD 123 

"It is the policy of the Government to encourage confei-euces 
of this character at the different institutions in the Province in 
order that the medical men may be given an opportunity to 
judge of the work that is being done in these institutions. This 
hospital, which is being opened to-day, is a splendid example 
of the policy of the Department with respect to the hospital- 
ization of the public institutions in this Province. Public 
opinion seems to be that a patient sent to an hospital for the 
insane is sent in reality to a house of detention and not to a 
hospital for treatment. We have been endeavoring in the years 
past to correct this impression in order that no stigma mav 
attach to a patient admitted to an institution. To this end. 
the Government no longer uses the term '' Asylums." but our 
public institutions are known to-day as " Hospitals for the 
Insane,"' " Hospital for Feeble-^Minded," and " Hospital for 
Ej)ileptics," as the case may be. In addition to this, legisla- 
tion has been passed which enables a patient to enter a hospital 
for the insane as a voluntary patient. The patient may make 
application of his own accord, or it may be made by his friends, 
instead of ihis being admitted on two medical certificates, in 
the usual way. 

" Legislation has also been passed whereby municipalities 
having a certain population may have a Reception Hospital 
for the treatment of mental diseases. The cities of Toronto, 
Ottawa, and Hamilton, I believe, come under this class. 

•'* The magistrate may commit to this hospital for obser- 
vation, the medical practitioner may also make arrangements 
for the voluntary admission of a patient, or, his friends may 
make a])plication for him. The patient is held there for a 
limited time and if his symptoms necessitate it, he is trans- 
ferred to a hospital for the insane in the usual way. If not, 
he is discharged as "recovered" without having entered a 
hospital for the insane. 

'' We have one such hospital in the city of Torouto, and. the 
city contril)uted to it by providing the building and equipment 
and paying $7.00 per week for patients — the Pi'o\iiice assumes 
the remainder of the burden, if any. 

" The Reception Hosjutal which \vc have opened here to- 



124 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

day is of a somewhat different character, as it is a hospital for 
the admission of acute cases which would otherwise be sent to 
a hosjDital for insane in the usual way. Chronic cases will not 
be received here — only acute cases who will profit by treatment. 
The most modern plans necessary for a hospital of this character 
have been adopted in its erection. 

" Trainino- schools for nurses have been established through- 
out the Province, and all nurses who enter the hospitals for the 
insane must take the training, which consists of a three years' 
course, and examinations are conducted by an examining board 
appointed by the Provincial Secretary. Nurses who graduate 
from these training schools are equal in training, standing, etc., 
to those graduating from the general hospitals in the Province. 

" In connection with the Military Hospital at Orpington, 
England, I might state that a psychopathic section has been 
opened and we have twenty of our graduate nurses there who 
were chosen from the public institutions of this Province. They 
have shown up well in comparison with nurses from other hos- 
pitals and I am sure they are reflecting credit upon the training 
schools and upon the Province. 

'*At Cobourg we have established a Military Hos])ital for the 
reception of cases suffering from mental and shock troubles. 
This hospital is unique in the fact that the electric baths, hot 
air cabinets and much of the other treatment equipment were 
manufactured in the Province of Ontario for the first time. We 
take some credit for this because of the fact that medical men, 
architects, hospital su]ierintendents and others have always been 
of the opinion that it was necessary for them to go to the Tnited 
States to get this equipment, but it has been satisfactorily shown 
that no better equipment is to be had than that at Cobourg. I 
expect that this hospital will reflect some credit on the Province. 
Ours W'as the only Province asked to contribute such a hosjutal, 
which goes to show that the hospitals for the insane in this Pro- 
vince are well organized. 

" The President has requested me to speak of the new hos- 
pital for the insane at Whitby. In order that you have any idea 
of this hospital, it is necessary for you to see it, no words of 
mine can adequately describe it and the work we are doing there. 
It has been the aim of the Government, just as it was the aim of 



Oct., IDKi THE HOSPITAL WORLD 125 

the Government in the constniction of the lief orma tor v at 
Gnelph, to have the hest on the Continent of America, or any 
other Continent, and in that, I think, we are succeeding-. 

" The President has also asked me to mention the cases 
that are being received in the Keception Hospital. Toronto. 
We have about fifty cases per month and discharge as cured 
approximately 50 per cent. The remaining 50 per cent, mav, 
in time, be cured in a hospital for the insane, l)iit the actual 
discharges as cured amount to about 50 per cent. 

''T realize that you have a lot of business to transact, and will 
not take up vour time further. It has afforded me verv o-reat 
pleasnre to be here." 

Dr. T. L. Chabot then gave a very comprehensive paper on 
the " Importance of More Attention to Surgical Cases." He em- 
phasized the fact that physicians in diagnosing cases should 
lay greater emphasis on the family history of patients, includ- 
ing all forms of mental derangement. He spoke very strongly 
on making a careful and accurate diagnosis or each and every 
individual case, as many could be benefited b"' earlv surgical 
interference. 

Drs. D. O. Alguire of Cornwall. Hon. R. F. Preston, M.P.P., 
of Carleton Place, D. AVallace of Kemi)tville; I). T. Smith, R. 
ISr. Patterson, A. S. McElrov and Major J. Fenton Arffue, of 
Ottaw^a, discussed the paper very fully and in a most interest- 
ing manner and spoke in the highest terms of the points which 
had been brought out so clearly by the talented surgeon. 

Sir James Grant, with his usual eloquence, gave an address 
on the benefits to be derived from the use of the neurotone in 
nervous cases. His address was listened to with the deepest 
interest, and everyone was surprised with the wonderful vigor 
displayed by the veteran doctor. 

At the close of the meeting, the guests were conducted 
through the hospital and the various equipment and methods 
of treatment used in nervous and mental cases were exhibited. 

Everyone went away expressing themselves delighted with 
the meeting and entertainment, and greatly pleased to have such 
a hospital placed in this district. 



126 THE HOSPITAJ. WOKLD Oct.. li»lC» 

THE PRINCESS PATRICIA CANADIAN RED 
CROSS CONVALESCENT HOSPITAL 



The Canadian Red Cross Association are e(jnipi»iiiu a new 
hospital of one thonsand beds at Ramsgate, England, at an 
estimated cost of one hundred thonsand dollars. It is to be 
called the Princess Patricia Canadian Red Cross Cdiivalcscciit 
Hospital, and the beds are to be stibscribed for at the rate of 
fifty dollars each. It is intended that there will bo a tablet 
at the head of each cot oivinc the name of the donor. 



THE HOSPITALS COMMISSION REQUIRE 
FURTHER SANATARIA 



There were, a few weeks ago, 3P>1 returned Canadian soldiers 
under treatment for ])nhiioiiary disease in the various Saiiataria 
throughout Canada under the control of the Dominion Hos- 
pitals Comuiissioii. About ISO moic soldiers retnrued roeentlv 
to Canada who have contracted lung trouble while on active 
service, and before the war ends it is expected that the Com- 
mission will liave to look after several hundred more such cases. 
In order to jtrovide for the care of these men, the Hospitals 
Commission are very anxious to hear from patriotic citizens 
who will undertake to offer them the use of buildino-s suitable 
for this splendid work. Amongst the institutions already placed 
at the disposal of the Commission for this purpose are Deer 
Lodge, Winnipeg, ^fanitoba ; Ogden Hotel, Calgary, Alta. ; 
and the Haventide Inn. Ste. Agathe, Que. We trust that the 
need for further luiildings will l)e su]i])lied without delay. 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD A->\ 

Hospital Items 



The late Mrs. Martha A. Miller has left $1,400,000 for the 
establishment of a hospital for the poor of St. Paul. 

Robert Crozer, of Chester, Pa., has left $100,000 for a hos- 
pital. 

Mrs. T. H. Bnhl has donated $50,000 to Harper Hospital, 
Detroit. 

Columbia University is in receipt of $100,000 from Emil C. 
Bnndv. to be nsed in cancer research. 

The "Presbyterian."' Xew York, has been left $.^50,000 
by Chas. Harkness. 

John McDonald, of Montieello, la., has left $100,000 to 
be nsed in constrnctin,"' a hospital for the poor. 

Edwin McClellan, of Cambridge, l^ew York, will bnild a 
memorial hospital to his mother to cost $150,000. 

Mrs. Mary Osborne Graves has given $25,000 for a hos])ita] 
at Georgetown, Kv. 

J^nrses at the Alta Bate Sanitarinm, Berkley. California, 

had $200 stolen from them in the Xnrscs" Home l)y a snenk 
thief. 

Two hnndred Boston physicians are proposing to bnild a 
co-operative hospital at Stonghton. Members of the Associa- 
tion pay $10 ])er year which will entitle them to hospiral care. 

A nurse at Fabrola Hospital. Oakland, California, bnrned 
a patient with a hot-water bag. The patient sned the hospital, 
but lost the suit because the nurse was a ]n'ivate nurse, brought 
in by the patient's physician. 



128 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

Book Revie\vs 



Physiological Economy in Nutrition, with Special Reference to 
the Minimal Proteid Requirement of the Healthy Man. An 
Experimental Study. By Russell H. Chitteistdex, Ph.D., 
LL.D., Sc.D., Professor of Physiological Ohemistrv in Yale 
University. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 
1913. 

In opening his epoch-making volume, the anthor refers to 
the work of Voit on the subject of nutrition, whioh has for 
a good many years been considered as authoritative. Chitten- 
den's experiments have resulted in a new standard of requisite 
proteid intake. 

Experiments, covering months, were undertaken with a 
group of five university teachers, thirteen soldiers — both groups 
of varying ages — and of eight student athletes of Yale. 

The work undertaken — that of measuring the intake in pro- 
teid, fats and carbohydrates and also of the constituents of the 
fecal and urinary excretions — was one that required great care 
and painstaking effort. The students of physiological chemis- 
try will study with much interest the scores of tabulated re- 
sults ; while the medical fraternity will be satisfied with noting 
the conclusions reached, namely, that a much smaller amount 
of pro'teid food than is ordinarily consumed suffices for the 
daily needs of the body. 

While Chittenden's work is being alreadv utilized bv scien- 
title medical practitioners in their hospital work, notably in 
Boston, Baltimore and New York, and is being studied with 
advantage by hospital dietitians generally, its wider influence 
will not be felt until its principles are adopted in the hotel, the 
restaurant and the ihome. 

The influence of the woA of Chittenden is being felt 
thi'oughont tlie whole of America; and that of his German con- 
freres is having a decidedly practical demonstration in Germany 
during that nation's awful crisis. 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 129 

Homans AutonwhiJe Ihuidhnol: The gasoline motor car, with 
full description of the essential parts and anxiliaries and 
directions for its manag'ement, operation and care. Bj J. 
E. Homans, author of " Self-Propelled Vehicles," etc. ISTew 
York, Snlly & Kleinteich. 

Many i^hysicians arc natural mechanics. To them this 
book will be exceedingly interesting. To the balance of the pro- 
fession who, like the writer, do not profess to understand much 
about an engine, and when their car stalls leave it on the road, 
Mr. Homans' work will be most helpful and will many a time 
save the employing of a mechanic at eighty cents an hour, plus 
a liberal tip. 



Surgical and Gynecological Nursing. By Edwaed Mason 
Parker, M.D., F.A.C.S., Surgeon of Providence Hospital, 
Washington, D.C., and Scott Dudley Breckinridge, 
M.D., F.A.C.S., Gynecologist to Providence Hospital, 
Washington, D.O. The J. B. Lippencott Co., Philad-elphia. 
Price, $2.50. 

This excellent book displays a serious and successful effort to 
put a vast amount of important information to nurses into a 
reasonable compass. The work properly emphasizes the prim- 
ary factors underlying and complicating disease. The path- 
ology is sound. 

The chapter on observation by the nurse is very helpful, 
and that on measures to make the patient comfortable, valu- 
able. Every nurse should study the doctrines of Anoci- 
association so well outlined here. The chapter on instruments 
is well illustrated, though the shiny surfaces do not show up 
the half lig'hts on the black background as well as if it were 
white. The grouping of outfits for various operations iind the 
l^lace where they are to he used is very useful to the operating- 
room staff. 

I think future editions would be ini])roved by having speci- 
ally important details in heavy typo so they can be picked out 
quickly. The omission of Obstetrics as one of the branches 



130 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Oct., 191G 

of the surgical specialties is obviously a slip. Greater stress 
should be laid on the dangers of strong mercurial solutions, 
especially as douches, and caution against purgatives in per- 
ineorhaphy, es])ecially after delivery. The details of \n-c- 
venting the tongue falling into the throat in a patient under 
anesthesia returned to the wards are inadequate, nor should 
sterile instruments be handled by a nurse without a mask. 
These few errors but serve to contrast the general splendid 
outlook of the book. 



Lateral Curvature of the Sjnne and Round Shoulders. By 
EoBEKT W. LovETT, Bostou. Third Edition. P. Blakis- 
ton's Son & Co., Philadelphia. 

This excellent monograph has now appeared in its third 
edition, and the reviewer ventures to predict that it will go 
through many more editions before it is replaced by anything 
better in English. 

The features of the new edition include a chapter on the 
history of scoliosis, commencing with the coining of the word 
" scoliosis " by Hippocrates, and passing througih all the stages 
of mechanical and gymnastic treatments of the various eras. 
In addition, there is considerable space devoted to the recent 
revival of the forcible corrective treatment advocated by Abbott. 

But it is not upon new features that Lovett's work depends 
for its quality. From a scientific standpoint it would be hard 
to improve upon it. The chapters on the anatomy and patho- 
logy constitute the most authoritative and complete exposition 
of the subject in English. The chapters on treatment are com- 
plete, and while presenting most fully the personal views 
of the writer, they also present very fairly a description of the 
methods advocated and used by others. 

The illustrations are excellent and abundant, and the book 
comprising over two hundred pages, is a credit to the publishers. 



Oct., 191G THE HOSPITAL WORLD 131 

INTUSSUSCEPTION * 



CLARENCE L. STARR^ M.B.^ TORONTO. 



Intestinal obstruction in a child under one year of age means 
in nearly all instances an intussusception. About 60 per cent, 
of all cases of intussusception admitted into any large clinic, 
such as the Children's Hospital, die. This mortality could be 
easily cut in half with the careful co-operation of the practi- 
tioners who see these cases at the commencement of the illness. 

The average time of admission of all the cases of this sort 
during the past 15 years has been 57 hours, nearly two and one- 
half days after the onset of the trouble. 

The easiest time to diagiiose a case of intussusception is 
during the first 24 hours. 

Once a diagnosis is made, no other treatment should be 
attempted before submitting patient for opercttion, as it has 
been definitely shown that no other method of treatment is of 
any avail. 

The rather startling facts revealed by a record of the his- 
tories of these cases during a period covering the past 15 years 
is the basis for the conclusions drawn in this paper. 

The cases number 46, with 31 deaths and 15 recoveries. 
The earliest case admitted was three hours after onset of symp- 
toms, and the rest varied up to eight days. The average time 
of admission of the entire series was 57 hours, or nearly 2% 
days after onset of symptoms. 

The average admission time of the fatal cases was 74 hours, 
or a little over three days, ^and of the recovered cases 32 hours, 
or less than l^/^ days after onset. 

Etiology. 

This condition comes on in apparently healthy children. 
In our series 30 were males and 16 females, but there seems, 
no reason why one should be attacked more frequently than 
the other. The statistics of other clinics, however, show this same 
frequency in males, and there may be some difference in the 

*Read at The Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, June 1916. 



132 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Oct., 1916 

greater laxity of the mesentery in males. In no case wliioli 
came to autopsy or where the operation would disclose the fact, 
was there any sign of polypus growth or foreign body. It 
seems reasonable to assume that these might be the caiu=al 
factor, but, as a matter of fact, they are rarely found. 

In most of our cases there was a history of intestinal dis- 
turbance, either marked constipation or diarrhea. These con- 
ditions, producing a congestion of a normally lax mucous mem- 
brane, may easily be the starting point of an invagination, 
which by the increased vermicular action of the wall readily 
becomes increased. 

In support of the theory that intestinal congestion, especi- 
ally in the region of the lower ileum where the Peyer's patches 
lend themselves to such congestion, is a large factor in the 
etioloffv is the fact that three-fourths of all the cases occurred 
in the summer months, when intestinal infections are most 
frequent. 

Pathoi^ogy. 

The intussusception in the great majority of cases occurs 
at the ileocecal region. The large size of the colon, together 
with the greater degree of congestion from the swollen Peyer's 
patches and the great looseness of the mesentery and meso- 
colon, favors the possibility of telescoping in this region. 

The mucous surface invaginates itself through the ileo- 
cecal valve, and then the active peristalsis carries this knuckle 
on into the ascending colon. 

The ensheathing layer remains comparatively unchanged, 
even in the late stages, but this with the entering and returning 
layers form a mass which is the characteristic sausage-shaped 
tumor so often found. 

The mass is enlaro-ed bv congestion and edema as the case 
progresses. Between the entering and returning layers the 
mesentery is carried in, and as the intussusception advances 
the mesentery becomes more and more stretched and causes the 
.intussuscepted mass to curve on itself, with the concavity toward 
the spine. As a result of the stretching and pressure on the 
vessels of the mesentery, the circulation to the intussusception is 
gradually impaired. First the venous return is obstructed and 
engorgement and swelling take place, an exudate forms which 



Oct., 191G THE HOSPITAL WORLD 133 

tends to agglutinate the surfaces between the entering and 
returning layers. Blood and mucus is poured out -into the 
canal, and this is later passed by the anus, constituting the 
stools so characteristic of this affection. 

As early as the end of twenty-four hours, so much conges- 
tion and agglutination may take place as to make it impossible 
to separate the entering and returning layers, and the mass 
becomes irreducible. 

The longer this condition persists, \he less is 'the prospect 
of reducing the invagination. 

If the process continues, the arterial circulation is gradu- 
ally cut off, and the intussusception becomes gangrenous, the 
part becomes invaded with bacterial organisms and a peritonitis 
ensues. 

In some cases the intussusception has been known to slough 
off and pass by the anus, and the continuity of the canal be thus 
re-established. This must be exceedingly rare and has not yet 
happened in any of our cases, although a number of them have 
not been admitted until the seventh or eighth aay of illness. 

Symptoms. 

The sudden onset of acute symptoms in a child previously 
quite healthy is characteristic. The first clinical symptom is 
intense pain of a colicky nature, accompanied by signs of shock 
- — sometimes amounting almost to collapse — pallor, cold, clammy 
skin, small thready pulse, with pinched features. Vomiting 
starts at once, and is frequently repeated, but even in the late 
stage rarely becomes fecal. These are soon followed by one, 
or even* two, normal stools and within a couple of hours, during 
which time the pain has continued, accompanied by persistent 
straining or tenesmus, small frequent passages of blood-stained 
mucus take place. At this stage a tumor can usually be felt by 
palpation in the region of the hepatic flexure of the- colon. 

If the case is left, the other signs of intestinal obstruction 
follow, viz., gradually increasing distention and toxemia. . By 
the end of 4S hours the symptoms begin to be covered up by 
the increasing distension and toxemia. The tumor may be 
masked by the fullness of the abdomen, and is no longer palp- 
able. In some instances the apex of the intussusception may 



134 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Oct., 1916 

have progressed so far on its vermicular way to the anus that 
it can be felt by the finger in a rectal examination, and this 
should never be omitted in any suspected case. 

The increasing toxemia also dulls the sensibility of the 
ohild to pain, and this symptom largely disappears. The active 
straining or tenesmus gives way to a repeated series of grunts, 
not unlike the respiratory grunt of a case v^ith pneumonia, and 
the patient becomes somnolent and apathetic. 

Diagnosis. 

In a child under two years of age. the intensely acute onset, 
with pain, vomiting, collapse, one or two fecal stools, followed 
by straining and passage of blood and mucus, and possibly a 
palpable tumor, are characteristically diagnostic signs. 

An acute appendix will not give the bloody stools or tenes- 
mus, and any mass which forms will usually be later and found 
in the right iliac region, whereas in the tumor of intussuscep- 
tion, this region is palpably empty and the mass is up toward 
the liver or across the abdomen above the umbilicus. 

In ileo-colitis the symptoms are more gradual in onset, and 
even if there is diarrhea with blood-stained mucus stools, there 
is always some fecal content and always bile present, whereas 
in intussusception no bile or bowel content passes after the 
first one or two stools. 

With reasonable care the diagnosis can always be made 
within the first twelve hours, and with difficultv can it be made 
in the late stages, as the signs are gradually covered up. 

Treatment. 

Hitherto much valuable time has been wasted in attempting 
methods of treatment which obviously, from the nature of the 
condition, will be unavailing. 

It may be said in a general way that with every hour which 
elapses the chances of the child's recovery are to that extent 
lessened ; and the object of this paper is largely to impress the 
writer's conviction that a correct diagnosis should be made at 
the earliest possible moment, and at that time the child sub- 
mitted for operative treatment. 

If the patient is seen immediately after the acute onset of 



Oct., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 135 

the illness, there is no reason why an effort should not be made 
to disengage the telescoping portion of the intestine. It must 
be recognized, however, that this is only possible before any 
congestion and consequent edema of the intussusceptum has 
taken place. 

The writer has in mind one distinct case where the child 
was sent in within an hour of the onset of symptoms, and there 
was a very definite mass palpable abov 3 the right iliac region. 
Under the palpating finger, while attempting to demonstrate it 
to a class of students, the tumor suddenly disappeared and the 
other symptoms subsided. This same child came in later, and 
similar palliative methods were tried, but without avail. The 
child was sent to the operating room, and under an anesthetic 
the tumor again disappeared by manipulation. So far, there 
has not been a recurrence of the condition. This must be a 
very exceptional case, but it demonstrates that within the first 
two or three hours after the onset of the illness it may be pos- 
sil)le to undo the telescoping. 

The methods usually suggested are : First, the inverting of 
the child, raising the hips high and almost standing the child 
on its head ; second, the injections, per rectum, of water or 
salines. The old method of injecting metallic mercury is hardly 
to be advocated. In the same way the distension of the bowel 
with gas or air may be exceedingly dangerous. Again, I would 
like to emphasize that it is only within the first few hours that 
these methods sihould be attempted. When one has seen a 
number of these cases, it is apparent how readily the bowel 
can be perforated by any of these methods if adopted at other 
than the early stage. 

If the patient presents itself within the first twenty-four 
hours, and in some instances at the end of the second twenty- 
four hours, it is usually possible to reduce the intussusception. 
An incision amply long to admit the whole hand should be made 
in the right rectus about the level of the umbilicus. After 
opening the peritoneum, the abdomen is readily explored and 
the mass located, usually in the right hypochondriac region. 
This mass, if possible, is brought out on to the surface of the 
abdomen without removing the rest of the intestines from the 
abdomen. 



136 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Oct., 1916 

The reduction must be made with the utmost care, and 
should, for the most part, be squeezed back from above. Very 
little traction can be made on the entering bowel without the 
danger of tearing. Once the reduction is started, it is rapidly 
undone back to the last inch or two, and this must be patiently 
manipulated until it is completely straightened out. 

The thickening of the wall from congestion and edema is 
usually sufficient to prevent recurrence of the condition, and it 
is rarely, if ever, necessary to stitch the bowel to the abdominal 
wall. 

In case of failure to reduce the intussusception, the only 
thing that remains is to do a rapid re-section of the invaginated 
mass, and either bring the ends out of the abdominal wall, thus 
establishing an artificial anus, or close the ends and do a lateral 
anastamosis. 

In the writer's opinion, the only re-section which offers 
hope of success is the one in whicih the ensheathing layer is 
stitched to the entering layer by a serous to serous suture, and 
then a longitudinal slit made through the ensheathing layer 
beyond this, the intussusceptum withdrawn through this open- 
ing and cut across close to the point where it turns in. A 
through to through suture may be put through all of these 
walls to strengthen the primary suture, and the longitudinal 
opening in the ensheathing layer closed by an ordinary Lembert 
suture. This must be rapidly done — and the time element is a 
very important one in the success of the operation. 

Even in these cases, the patients frequently die of toxemia, 
unless some method can be devised of emptying the small bowel 
above the telescoped portion. 

If the patient's condition is very bad, it may be better to re- 
move the mass by a rapid re-section between intestinal clamps, 
and then bring both ends out on the wall by means of a Paul 
tube. 

The mortality of re-section in these cases is extremely high, 
and every case in our series of this character ultimately died. 

My thanks are due to Dr. E. A. McCowan, of the interne 
staff of the Hospital for Sick Children, for the details of the 
statistics from the hospital histories of the past fifteen years. 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



xvii 




Walk-Over Shoes 

Correct Foot Troubles in a 
Natural y Comfortable Way 

THE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP makes a specialty 
of fitting- shoes to deformed or abnormal feet . A wide range 
of over twenty lasts and at least 112 sizes in each last 
makes it possible for us to fit almost any foot, even though 
badly deformed, with a stylish and comfortable shoe. 

The doctor ii. charge of our Orthopedic Depart- 
ment is expert in the fitting of arch supports, 
made-to-order shoes, etc., and gladly gives free 
consultation and advice. 

Self-measuring FOOTOGRAPH charts will be 
mailed to out-of-town customers who do not find it 
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When writing advertisers, please nicnticni The Hospital World. 



xviii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 



NEW HOSPITAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 



The Radiator Humidifying Pan 

The attention of Hospital Superintendents is called to the page 
advt. of Wilson Specialties, 33 Melinda St., Toronto, appear- 
ing on page v of this issue. This firm manufacture The Radi- 
ator Humidifying Pan, an article that has been already proven 
to be of immense service in institutions. It is placed on the 
back of any steam or hot-water radiator, is filled with water 
and soon converts the dry, vitiated indoor air of a room or 
corridor into a moist, healthful atmosphere that nature requires 
and demands. The patients will at once feel the benefit of 
the change. Superintendents should look into the merits of 
these pans and give them a trial. They are quite inexpensive. 
The manufacturer's phone number is Adelaide 3089. 



The Tarbox Brand 

Institutions will bo glad to learn that Tarbox Bros., Toronto, 
are manufacturing a full line of Dry-Dusting Mops, which are 
exceedingly useful around large buildings. Many people real- 
ize too late the injury frequently caused to waxed floors and 
woodwork generally by the use of dusting mops that are satu- 
rated with non-drying oils. The majority of polishing oils are 
composed of nearly eighty per cent, mineral oil and are after- 
wards scented with some essential oil, that not only smears 
and stains furnishings, but are found to dissolve and remove 
the floor wax and thus destroy the highly polished finish. The 
use of such mops is in reality a mistake. A chemical com- 
pound has been discovered, which on being introduced into 
suitable fabrics jDroduces a dust absorbent that is much more 
suitable for this purpose than oil and is not greasy and will 
not smear. By the use of such mops the dust is absorbed or 
attached to the fabric and held there. It will therefore be seen ' 
that these mops are essentially suitable for use in Hospitals, 
and we would suggest that the housekeeper in such institutions 
get into touch with Tarbox Bros., Toronto, before purchasing 
such goods elsewhere. 



The Victor Electric Corporation 

The undersigned announce the sale of their properties and 
interests to " Victor Electric Corporation," a new corporation 
organized to continue the business as formerly conducted by the 
several concerns. 

The purpose and aim of the new " Victor Electric Corpora- 
tion " is to serve out customers more acceptably, improve the 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XIX 



r 



The cleanest, most convenient, 
most effective (from a thera- 
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applying Continuous Moist 
Heat, to an Inflammatory 
Area, is afforded by the 
original 




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MAIN OFFICE AND LABORATORIES 

THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. CO., NEW YORK, U.S.A. 

Branches : LONDON, SYDNEY. BERLIN, PARIS, BUENOS AIRES, BARCELONA, MONTREAL 
When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

qualitj of our various products, and minimize waste. It is 
confidently believed that these results can be attained through 
exchange of experience, ideas, skill and processes, and tlie 
development of co-operative spirit and mutual service. 

Our customers are assured that the sale of our properties 
and interests will not mean the loss of identity or individuality 
of any of the constituent concerns. Goods will be billed in 
the names of the separate concerns as heretofore, and customers' 
preferences for the product of any particular factory, or for 
any particular article produced by any individual factory will 
be respected. 

ISTot only will all of the service stations and sales offices of 
the present companies be maintained but others will be added 
so that our customers will receive service and be able to obtain 
parts of all products of the several concerns with no change in 
present policy. 

We trust your relations with these concerns have been 
pleasant and profitable, and we request that yoiv give us, as 
constituent parts of " Victor Electric Corporation," frequent 
opportunities of serving you. 

Victor Electric CoMPAisrY^ 
Cor. of Jackson Blvd. and Robey St., Chicago, 111. 
110 East 23rd Street, l^ew York. 

Scheidel-Western X-ray Co.^ 

Y37 West Van Buren St., Chicago, III 
110 East 23rd Street, New York. 

MacalasteR;, Wiggin Company^ 
66 Broadway, Cambridge, Mass. 
164 West Lake St., Chicago, 111. 
110 East 23rd Street, New York. 

Snook-Roentgen Mfg. Company^ 
1210 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
110 East 23rd Street, New York. 



Indispensable in a Hospital 

The fact that wool differs wholly from all other fabrics often 
causes it to fare ill in the wash. ' Wool is made up of fibres 
each one of which is covered with scales, like fish scales. When 
you rub or twist woolens in washing them these tiny scales 
interlock, the fibres draw up and the fabric "mats." Again, 
the sensitiveness of wool fabric to alkali, change of temperature 
and rubbins: are the causes of shrinkage. 

Now that woolens' are becoming so very expensive, it is 
worth while knowing that by using LUX, a preparation com- 
posed of tiny flalres of the purest soap, that woolens, blankets, 
underwear, sweater coats, etc., can be washed absolutely clean 
without rubbing or strain. The best method is to use say 2 or 3 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXI 



The Largest Hospitals 



Made 

in 
Canada 



have proved 
fULLNETwHoMT 

^" WAX 






Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
vv^ood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. 

Manufactured by 

COOKE & BOULTON, ^^|o''f^"o'nIo ^ 



rZTZSSS5SSJBSEIBIESEJEIBrSJlEjr{\ 




For the prevention and 
treatment of 

PYORRHEA 

(RIGGS' DISEASE) 

PYCRRHOCIDE removes mucoid 
deposits — retards the accumulation of 
salivary calculus (tartar), a principal 
cause of Pyorrhea. PYORRHOCIDE 
allays :oft, bLeding, spong\), receding 
gums. When habitually used as a 
dentifrice PYORRHOCIDE'S tooth 
cleansinii' and tissue healing proper- 
ties demonstrate its value as a pro- 
niottr of oral health and its efficiency 
as an agent in the prevention a d treat- 
ment of PYORRHEA. 

ThE DENTINOL & PYORRHOCIDE CO. Inc. 

110-112 West 40th Street - - New York 



LrBIRIETSSBTBTETSSETSSZTSTSSSJ 



An Energy Producing Food 



It is of vital importance in severe 
cases of marasmus and otlier malnutri- 
tion disorders in infants, that the food 
given be easily and completely assimi- 
lated, supplying at the same time 
sufficient Energy and Body Heat. 



^ct<£ r3cr9''e^<>nf 



BRAND 




II h«' 







CONDENSED 

MILK 

THt ORIGINAL 

by clinical trial in these usually discourag- 
ing conditions will prove its value pro- 
ducing prompt gain — thereby carrying your 
little patient over the critical period. 

Samples, Analysis, Feeding Charts in any language, and our 
52-page book,, ^'Baby's Weljare, " mailed upon request. 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - Montreal 

"LEADERS OF QUALITY" Kst. l^.s^ 

Branch Office : 2 Arcade Bldj., Vancouver, B.C. 



ff^»o.^«K)^^().^^()i^^(>^B»()«l»(>^^()^^(t<^()^^()«^<>^^<>^"»t''^^<**^'>**"*"^^"'^^"*"*"'^'*'* 



n-«r» <rr>('<t»>(t 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xxii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Oct., 1916 

spoonfuls of LUX to the gallon of hot water. Stir this about 
until a rich, abundant, creamy-like lather is produced. The 
woolens are placed in this liquid and gently stirred about, at 
first with a stick and then as the water cools the hands can be 
employed to gently lift the woolens up and down and from side 
to side. In this process the dirt will be seen to run out as the 
cleansing power of LUX is much greater than would be imag- 
ined, due to its purity and the fact that it dissolves com])letely 
in hot water. After rinsing carefully in 2 or 3 relays of fairly 
hot water, the water should be carefully squeezed out and the 
ffarments hung to drv when thev will be found to be clean, 
fluffy and quite new in appearance. 

LUX is obtainable at all grocers, 10 cents per package, and 
is highly recommended for washing everything calling for special 
care. Made bv Lever Brotheri^. Limited, Toronto. 



Absorbent Cotton for the Millions 

Over eighteen years ago, when little was known about Absorb- 
ent Cotton, and when its uses were largely confined to the medi- 
cal profession, the ^laplewood INIills were established in Fall 
River. At that time their plant was quite unpretentious, but 
with the popularizing of Absorbent Cotton came a tremendous 
increase in demand, and the Maplewood Mills had to grow 
correspondingly until they now are the largest manufacturers 
of these goods in the world, producing a goodly share of the 
total quantity of Absorbent Cotton made in America. 

This exceptional success has been achieved by sheer merit. 
All authorities recognize that the " Excelsior " brand produced 
bv these mills fullv measures up to the standard required bv 
the U. S. P. ' 



Dennisteel 

Hospitals should remember, in case of wishing to procure 
anything in steel, to write to The Dennis Wire and Iron Works 
Co., Limited, Loudon, Ontario. For instance, this firm manu- 
facture hospital wardrobe lockers, material cabinets, steel shelv- 
ing of the finest make and finish, and at prices that are exceed- 
ingly reasonable consistent with the best workmanship. The 
Dennis Wire and Iron Works have equipped some of the best and 
biggest institutions in Canada and invariably receive repeat 
orders. They also make a lawn fence that materially enhances 
the appearance of institution grounds, the fence being heavily 
galvanized, rustproof and made by the exclusive Dennisteel 
method. Let the Hospital Superintendent not forget that if 
he requires anything in the steel line, this firm can fill the bill 
and fill it well. 



Oct., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XXlll 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




GERHARD HEINTZMAN 

GRAND ) 

SELF-PLAYER PIANOS 
UPRIGHT j 

Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on any instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City HaH) 



41 West Queen St., Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



Oct., 1916 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Lo-w-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 
than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 different 
operations as oiir higher grades — sells ior 
less because made from short staple cotton 
which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 

Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Mapiewood Mills 

Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 




The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 



PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 




4jnwmjmf^ 





X-RAY AND HIGH FREQUENCY 
1V/-V A APPARATITC 



APPARATUS 



;ician 
Hospital 



Interrupterless 
X«Ray Transformer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 1915 




Model "E" 
Portable X-Riy 
and High Fre- 
quency Coil 



Highest Award to X-Ra\) and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass, 

Sales Agencies— Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 

Heating and Ventilating cannot be 
made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "Are///i/%an "is used. 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
economical on account of its service 
and durability. 

See OUT new Catalogue No. 55 

Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont. 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 

AGENTS : 

Mesara. Ross & Greig, 412 St. James St., Montreal, Que. 

Me««r«. Walkers Ltd., 261 Stanley St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Meaara. Gorman, CUncey & Grindley Ltd., Calgary and Edmonton, Alta. 

M«aara. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancourer B.C.. (Bank of Ottawa Bldg.) 




Save Money ^ 



Save money and raise efficiency at the same time. Correct diagnosis 
is the keystone of Hospital Efficiency. Paragon X-Ray Plates help 
wonderfully in making correct diagnosis, because of their speed, 
reliability, and perfect results in contrasts and shadings. Their use is an 
economy because every exposure results in a perfect diagnostic radiogram, 
saving extra exposures. They also conserve tubes. 



—- . ') 



PARAGON 
-X-RAY- 
POINTERS 



THIS IS FREE 

Here is a little book which puts in the reach of every X-Ray 
operator a technic that eliminates guesswork, improves 
results, saves tubes and plates, all through showing how to 
know in advance of exposure just what time and what 
quantity of X-Ray to use on any case with any apparatus. 




iiiiiiiiiiiitiiii 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiniiiiiiiiiMitiii 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIlllllllll 



^«%iiOiimili)ii////////////M^^^(^ 



SENT FREE ON REQUEST 

"The X-Ray Bulletin" fives up-to-the-minute information of 
interest to the Roentgenologist and his assistant. Send us the 
names of your staff, and we will send it to 
them regularly. It will show themeconomies. 

IIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIMIIIIIIIMIIIMIItltlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Illlllltlllllltlllllllilllin 

Geo. W. Brady & Company 

773 S. Western Avenue, CHICAGO 

Stock carried by Ingram & Bell, Limited, Toronto 



X-RA^ 



^w//////iii'iii"iiiiMm^'9^\\\^'f^!S!m 



1 



PHILLIPS' MILK OF MAGNESIA 

" The Perfect Antacid*' 

For Correcting Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylate*. 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 
Of Advantage in Neutralizing the Acid of Cows" Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

N on- Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

With Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To be relied upon \\ here 
a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS. H. PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO. 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Representatives : The Wingate Chemical Co.. Ltd., 545 Notre Dame W., 
Montreal, who will be pleased to send samples upon request. 



31f^ ©ffirtal ®rgan nf Q^l)t Olana&tan Ifnapttal AaBnrtattDn 



..jjim^ 



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THE 



' «~; t f 



^ PEF? 
COPY 



HOSPITAL WORLD 



, s-'.-in*/ 



Vol. X (XXI) 



Toronto, November, 1916 



-->.«. 



No. 5 



CONTENTS 



ESITORIAIiS. 

Page 
The Hospital and the Medical Pro- 
fession 137 

Hospital Employees 139 

ORIGINAi; CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Effects on Progno-is on the Manner 
of Administration of Anesthetics. 
By P. E. Doolittle, M.D., Toronto. 142 

The Worlv of the Staff. By Patience 
Eiseniers 144 

The Hospital Prom a Patient's Stand- 
point, By Patience Eiseniers .... 146 

Hospital Eats. By Patience Eiseniers 148 

SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS. 

American Hospital Association .... 151 



Page 

The Operating Room Building of the 
Henry Ford Hospital. By John N. 
E. Brown, Medical Superintendent, 
He.iry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. 157 

Why Nurses Grow Grey 161 

CANADIAN HOSFITAI.S. 

The Edith Cavell Memorial 163 

Opening of the Spadina Military 

Hospital 164 

Urges Changes in Canadian Military 

Hospitals 168 

A Deaconess Hc^pital for Toronto. . 169 

WAR HOSFITAI.S. 

Historic Place foi- Maimed — Clarence 
House a Hospital 171 



,f^sr^9tr-^T 



rr^r 



Fellows^ Compound Syrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 

For 50 Years The Standard 

^ Syr. Hypophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 

< Cheap and Inefficient SubstitutCB 
Preparations "Just as Good" 



^Swiiir.* •wart *««» T W^*-* « 



-'"- --'^z ^p?M4'.v/.rirs°eU°ir„f /,• iv'fcisr.,°"Lrs-vi=.%ir "^ "^ *"""• 



LISTERINE 



the well-proven and time-tried antiseptic solution, has been prescribed by the 
Medical Profession with very satisfactory results for 35 years in the treat- 
ment of Respiratory Diseases incident to Fall and Winter climatic conditions. 



LISTERINE 



one part, hot water three parts, is a useful gargle for sore throat. In 
mucous catarrhs, Listerine, suitably diluted, is most eiTectively applied by 
means of the spray apparatus or douche. 



LISTERINE 



is not only a vehicle for specially indicated alteratives, resolvents and 
astringents, but is itself an efficient, non-irritating antiseptic that is safe, 
pleasing to the taste and promptly effective. 

A treatise on Respiratory Diseases will be forwarded members of the medical 
profession on request. 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

TWENTY- FIRST AND LOCUST STREETS, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
66 GERRARD STREET E., TORONTO 




The Medical Profession 

Endorses the Wonderful 

Properties of 



"THERMOGENE" 



8 Million Packets Sold in 1914 



NOW BEING USED BY THE RED CROSS SOCIETY IN BELGIUM. 

For the alleviation of pain and the effecting of a speedy and certain cure in all cases 
of Rheumatism, Bronchitis, Lumbago, Colds on the Chest, Sprains, etc., etc., 
THERMOGENE is wonderfully efficacious. 

THERMOGENE is a curative absorbent, scientifically medicated and prepared, thus 
rendering it warming, curative and pain-dispelling in its effect. 

Ready for instant application, does not blister and can be worn day or night without 
the slightest discomfort. 

THERMOGENE has the endorsement of the highest medical authorities. A tree 
Package will be sent to any Doctor on request. 

THE THERMOGENE CO., LTD., Hayward's Heath, London, Eng. 

Canadian Afenti : HAROLD F. RITCHIE & CO., TORONTO 



Nov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 

This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 

A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPERIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J. F. HARTZ CO., LTD. 

Physicians* and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



11 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xov., 191(3 



Hospital Superintendents 

should instruct their Nurses and Domestics to use 

GILLETT'S LYE 

for disinfecting sinks, closets and drains. It is also ideal for the 
cleansing of urinals and bed pans — in fact any vessel that requires 
disinfecting. Gillett's Lye should always be used for scrubbing 
hospital bath tubs and operating room floors. 

For cleansing and disinfecting.dissolve one teaspoonful of Gillett's 
Lye in two gallons of water. 



^^U-ETri 




BEWARE OF IMITATIONS 



E. W. Gillett Co. Ltd. 

TORONTO, ONT. 



^\i.LErri 



Winnipeg 



Montreal 




DOCTOR 

In those cases where it is so necessary that the 
temperature of the sick room be kept equable, 
you will be consulting the best interests of your 
patient in suggesting that they have installed a 

Clark Temperature Booster 

It can be readily installed on any Hot Water 
Heating System, New or Old. 

It will increase heat with no additional fuel 
consumption. 

It will hold a more even temperature in the room. It is low in cost. Durable in 
construction. Cannot wear out or rust out. Fully guaranteed. Made only by 

W. E. Clark Limited, Toronto 

ALL RELIABLE STEAMFITTERS HANDLE IT 




:^®^: 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Nov., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



111 



Exact Knowledge vs. Guesswork 

Where Do You Stand? 

All Modern Experience Points to the Absolute Neces- 
sity of Scientific Treatment of Boiler Feed Waters 

Dearborn Treatment, by its remarkable results, has convinced the industrial 
world that the remedy for boiler feed water troubles lies in scientific analysis and 
special treatment for each individual case. 

Dearborn Treatment is to ordinary "boiler compounds" what eminent, scien- 
tific diagnosis and prescription is to quack nostrums and "cure-alls." 

Dearborn Treatment is based upon an expert, scientific analysis of a sample of 
the boiler feed water you are using. The analysis, tests and compounding of the 
correct remedy are conducted in the largest, most modern and elaborately equipped 
laboratories and manufacturing plant devoted to the science of water treatment 

in existence. 

Dearborn Treatment gives you the benefit of the world's largest existing fund 

of data and experience relating to water treatment. 

Dearborn Chemical Company of Canada, Limited 

General Offices, Laboratory and Works, 1220-1230 Dundas St., Toronto, Ont. 



ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGES 



of the 



I 



INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, Mass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 




Kjeld 
tills 



ah 



1 Bo 

Sh 



ttle 
akers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Pa 
Mi 



raffin 
crotomes 



Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Modern General Diagnostic Outfit 

This Outfit now weighs but 4H -pounds, and measures. 
3l4 X 7 X 15 inches, making it very convenient to carry. The 
instruments are equipped with tungsten lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tungsten lamps with which they arc now equipped, 
have greatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 
Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryngeal Specula 
Holmes Nasopharyngoscopes 
Tultle and Lynch Procto-Siffmoido$cope$ 
Braasch Cystoscopes 
Koch, Swinburne and Young Urethroscopes, etc 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELECTRO SURGICAL INSTRUMENT CO., Rochester, N.V 



ir 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xov.. 19 10 



INVALID STOUT 
For Weak Folks 




8 



0E1E10BXRENGTHENING 

nourishing qualities, com- 
bine d with a really 
acceptable flavor, make 

Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 

the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co., 

LIMITED - . TORONTO 




^nilllllllllMtlllMIIIIMIIItlltlMltlllMllt 



I III Mill Mini I inn Mil I II II I III II III III mil 





I No. 106. 

I Strong, substantial, heavily silver- 

i plated, highly polished. 

I 



•iniiiiiiiiiiiiMnininiMintinnii 



iinnninniiniininii 



PHYSICIANS KNOW 



that the days of the common Drinking Cup are passed 
and gone. One of the marked advances in Sanitation 
during the past year or two is the introduction of the 
Single Service Sanitary Drinking Cup as a guarantee 
against infection from many types of Communicable 
Disease. Not only Members of tne Profession, but 
all Public Institutions, including Hospitals, should 
acquaint themselves with the merits of 

The Vortex System 

which dispenses entirely with the washing and steriliz- 
ing of Glasses and Chinaware. The VORTEX SYSTEM 
is unquestionably the most Sanitary in exis*ence and has 
already the endorsement of a large number of Health 
Authorities. It may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that it meets the requirements of all Sanitary Laws 
in reference to the PREVENTION of THE SPREAD 
OF DISEASE. 

The cups are made of pure white rice paper, paraf- 
fined, and the initial cost is trifling. Once installed in 
an institution, the System will never be substituted. 
The cups are made for either hot or cold drinks and 
once used are immediately discarded. 

You are asked to write for particulars. 

Canadian 
Wm. A. Rogers Limited 

570 King Street West - - Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Xov.. I'.nri 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Hospital 

Superintendents 

Know 

that nothing is so detrimental to the 
health of patients as the lack of the 
normal percentage of moisture in the 
air they breathe. How often it has been 
demonstrated beyond question that the 
moment the air of the sleeping room 
becomes too dry, just so soon will the 
inmate of that room suffer from sore 
throat, headache, sleeplessness and gen- 
eral malaise, a condition that is at once 
changed on returning to normal con- 
ditions. The attention of Hospitals, therefore, is 
particularly called to 

The Radiator Humidifying Pan 




(ORMSBY PATENT) 




This is a strongly made metal device so 
shaped that it snugly fits any standard 
steam or hot water radiator, out of sight, 
between the radiator and the wall. This 
pan is filled with water, which evaporates 
very rapidly, converting the air of the 
room or corridor into moist, wholesome, 
healthful atmosphere that Nature's good 
health demands. This is the very thing 
needed in all Institutions, not only Hos- 
pitals, but Asylums, Sanatoria, arid 
Public Charitable Institutions as well. 
One Radiator Humidifying Pan to each 
steam or hot water Radiator gives ample 
humidity to any room. 
The first cost is the only cost, and they 
will last a lifetime. 

$1.30 each. 

Superintendents should at once look into 
the merits of this device. Full particulars 
can be oDtained from 

Wilson Specialties 

33 Melinda Street, Toronto 

Manchester Building :. 

Phone Adehiide 3089 ' 

Many Insurance Companies, Banks, 

and other Institutions have installed 

these Radiator HumiUifyintr Pans. 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Nov., 1916 



r 





ROLLING 

RECLINING 

AND CARRYING 

VS/RITE FOR 

G R AD E^C'C'^"^^^^^^^ 
CONTAINING 

FULL LINE 

^^ 
_ ■fO^'^JP 

GENDRONMFG.CO. Can^ 

LIMITE.D- 




COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are 
maintained. 



THE COWAN CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



TF you are particular about true quality as distinguished 
-^ from mere contrast, you will use 

SEED X-RAY PLATES 

They have no rival at showing the separation of the 
most delicate tissue densities which are lost in a plate 
of extreme contrast. 

They have adequate speed and density — brilliance. 
Because they are Canadian-made they cost you less than 
imported brands, and they are identical with the plate 
that has won the lead in the United States. 

Write us for new Hydrochinon formula. 
Your supply house can furnish the plates. 

CANADIAN KODAK CO., Limited 



TORONTO 



CANADA 



Wh©n writing advertisers, please mention Tiie Hospital World. 



^o\\, ItllO 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Vll 



AN ODORLESS HOSPITAL 

The particular attention of Hospital Superintendents is called to 

ROSEALENE Odorless Disinfectant 

It is an ideal preparation for use in Institutions or the private sick room, as will he seen from the 

following letter received by the manufacturers : 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 
Chas. J. Hastings, M.D., Medical Officer of Health 

RIVERDALE ISOLATION HOSPITAL 
M. B. Whyte, B.A., M.B., Medical Superintendent 

Roseahne Product! Limited, City. TORONTO, July 7tli, 1916. 

GENTLEMEN : 

It affords me pleasure to testify to the value of Roseaiene as a deodorant, particularly for Hospital 
use. I have used Roseaiene -with success as a deodorant ^vKere other disinfectants have not proved satis- 
factory. For bathrooms and bathroom utensils, sinks, etc., -t is ideal, having the advantage of being 
odorless and perfectly harmless, as well as most effective. Yours truly, 

KATE MATHIESON, Supt. of Nunc. 
ROSEALENE is not only absoEutely odorless, but stainless. 

Roseaiene Odorless Disinfectant will keep an odor suppressed twenty times as long as 
the old Coal Tar Disinfectant, with its obnoxious odor, hence the saving of disinfectant and labor. 
Roseaiene Odorless Disinfectant will keep the odor from an ordinary toilet suppressed 
for twenty-four hours or longer, w^hile the coal tar disinfectant destroys the odor only about one 
hour, -when the odor of the toilet and the coal tar disinfectant are both to be contended w^ith as 
separate odors, proving lack of efficiency. 

We are ready and willing to supply any Hospital with more than sufficient ROSEALENE to 
thoroughly test it and unless it is, in every >vay, as represented, -we expect no sale. Under such 
circumstances, is it not worthy of a trial? 

ROSEALENE PRODUCTS LIMITED V^oRONT^ociNlDA 

Telephone Adelaide 3659 



CEND your Christmas 
^ parcels for overseas 
early this year — there'll 
be a rush later. 

To give a lot of pleasure, 
include 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

A box holds five different 
flavors, securely wrapped. 
This is good to remember 
and to suggest to your friends. 



PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 




FLAT 
WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE 

• DUSTPROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

Elastica '^'^^ Perfect Floor Finish 
- Send for Sample Paper 



i-mw 



fiWA 




MK1I 



e 



TORONTO 



ONTARIO 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



nil 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Xov., 1910 



The Alexandra 

University Avenue 
TORONTO 

Offers many advantages in 
its unequalled location, ex- 
cellent cuisine, quietness and 
solid comfort. The accom- 
modation offered ranges from 
one Bedroom with Bath to 
Suites of one and two Bed- 
rooms with Bath and Parlor 

For further information write the Manager 

The Alexandra • 

University Avenue 
TORONTO 



A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and find 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble like that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt delivery is an ab- 
solute rule with us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



. 



RETAIL PRICES 

No. 1-$1.50, No. 2-$2 
Quantities- 




This is the most efifec- 
tive style for Institu- 
tional uses. The fabric 
spreads in use, No. 1 
to 19", No. 2 to 23". 
Every trial results in 
repeat orders. 



Floor-Polisher 



DUSTING 



MOP 



CHEMICALLY TREATED 

Two Sizes 

No. 1—10" 
No. 2— 14" 

Head 
(Blocks) 



Address — 




TARBOX BROS. 

Rear 274 Dundas St., TORONTO 

When writing- advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



^^;)\-., r,»ii; 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



IX 



A Reliable Disinfectant 

Piatt s Cnloriaes has a record of 
over thirty-six years, and has tlie 
endorsement or tKe medical pro- 
fession. 

A powerful disinfectant and de- 
odorant wnicn destroys germs and 
bad odors. 

Is absolutely Odorless and does 
not cover one odor witli another. 

T ^latt's 
i^ hlorides 

Tl\G Odoi^lGss 
lDisjTirGc-tan.-b 

Two Sizes — 25c. and 50c. 

Sola every"«'liere. 

Write for booklet to the manufacturer 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 



A Pleased Patient 

is a sure result whenever or 
wherever PLUTO WATER 
has been recommended for con- 
stipation, obstinate gastro-intes- 
tinal disturbances and dyspepsia. 

The Evidence 

consists of thou- 
sands of patients 
who have enjoyed 
the remarkably 
beneficial results 
from a therapeutic 
imen including the daily use 
of'PLUTO WATER. 
Samples, clinical data, and m- 
teresting literature describing the 
hygienic methods employed in 
bottling PLUTO WATER 
mailed on request. 

PLUTO 

BottleJ by tKe FRENCH LICK SPRINGS HOTEL CO. 

French Lick, Indiana 




LIABILITY of 



PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS, DENTISTS 
and DRUGGISTS 

LIABILITY on account of 

Automobile Accidents 

involving injury to PERSONS or PROPERTY (includinp: Owner's) 

INSURANCE for LOSS OF INCOME 
by reason of ACCIDENT and SICKNESS 



UNDERTAKEN BY 

The General Accident Assurance Company of Canada 

Continental Life Building, Toronto, Ontario 
Represented in all important parts of Canada. Enquiries respectfully solicited 

JOHN J. DURANCE, Manager 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



:N'ov., 1916 



Canada 

Has 

No 

Pure 

Bedding 

Laws: 

We 

Have" 



HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT when in the market for beds, mattresses or 

— kindred hospital equipment, ask us to quote 

prices. Many Canadian hospitals use Alaska beds and Ostermoor mattresses. 

,gj^^^^ THE PARKHILL MANUFACTURING CO., Limited 

fJ ^^gSE 3| Successors to The Alaska Feather & Down Co., Limited 




WINNIPEG 



MONTREAL 



VANCOUVER 



GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use, the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions (no weighing, measuring 

or waste). 
For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 
For cleansing wounds (bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 
For disinfecting surface lesions. 
For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not affect nickel 

or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital. 
Our word and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample with descripthe literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS CS, CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot — 118 St. Paul Street W., Montreal, Quebec. 



When writing advertisers, please merit'on The Hospital World. 



Nov., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XI 



Rennet Ferment in its 
Purest Form 

Physicians, nurses and those in charge of hospitals, 
sanitariums, etc., were quick to recognizethc value 
of Junket for the sick and convalescsnt, because of 
its being rennet ferment of absolutely uniform 
purity and in a definite quantity of known 
strength. -_ ^ ^ 

Junket 

^^ MADE \A/ITH MILK 



is a food digestible even in 
cases where raw milk is not. 
The rennet action in coagu- 
lating the milk makes it 
less susceptible to injurious 
effects of acids, such as fruit 
juices, etc. It is an ideal 
food, especially for chil- 
dren, and most palatable in 
any one of many forms. 

Sold by grocers and druggists or 
direct by us to tbe profession at 
75c. per 100 tablets. 

Send for interesting treatise, 
"Junket in Dietetics," and free 
sample. 

CHR.HANSEN'S 
LABORATORY 

Helen St.. Little Falls. N.Y. 

Illiiilllilllllllliillllllllllllllllllllllllillli 




■■I 



Physicians With 
Autos — Attention! 

HOSPITAL FOR 
AUTO TOPS 

Your auto top is as essential in bad 
weather as your top coat. 

If it is leaky or shabby, we repair it — 
WATERPROOF it and guarantee it not 
to leak, rot or mildew ; you can put it 
down directly after a shower. If it is 
new we PRESERVE it indefinitely. 

^'^e replace broken celluloid, repair 
envelopes, side curtains, etc. 

Old tops made good and serviceable. 

The T. Hopkins Auto Top 
Renew Company 

200 Gerrard Street East 
(Cor. Sherbourne) 
Office 
M. 4426 



TORONTO 



Res. 

N.3162 



Tke Soap 
for health 



Better to be 

safe than 

sorry — 

^7ash with 

LIFEBUOY 
SOAP 

ITS choice oils 
give a smooth 
velvety lather 
that soothes while 
it cleanses the skin 
— Its mild carbolic 
solution means no 
germs. The odor 
does not cling, but 
vanishes a few 
seconds after use. 

Grocers sell Lifebuoy 
Health Soap 



lbl4 



> 



o=^ ^^^ 



..^^' 



^ 



S7a^' 



Wl 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tiie Hospital World. 



Xll 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD Xov., 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfully 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of " Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to Lysol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydal Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 

POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS CO. OF CANADA 

Toronto, Ont. 



IHEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMSl 
AND EQUIPMENT FOR 
ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Design and Fit at Reasonable Prices] 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

44-46 YORK STREET - .- TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Uniform Contractors to the Dominion and Imperial Governments. 

When Enquiring be sure to Specify what you are Particularly Interested'in. 



When writins advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Nov., 1010 



THE HOSPITAL WOIUJ) 



Xll; 



Ingram 

& 

Bell 

LIM ITED 

TORONTO 

Our Sundry Catalog 
awaitsyour request 


H 


ospitai Supplies 




Sole Ajs;e?ifs for 

BRAMHALL DEANE 

HIGH PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

WAPPLER TRANSFORMERS 

HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS 






Our Specialties : 






Manufacturers of 

HYPODERMIC TABLETS 

COMPRESSED TABLETS 

ELIXIRS, OINTMENTS, Etc. 

FULL LINE OF DRUGS 






A postal requesting quotations will receive 
immediate attention. 





La Deesse 
Corsets 

Excel in Style 

Comfort 

Satisfaction 




Try them and be 
convinced. 



^ASTROGEI 
TABLETS 

Correct 




Sample On Kequest 

Bristol' Myers Co. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



TABLETS 






Eoaaai 




When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



XIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Nov., 1916 



CALYDOR SANATORIUM ON LAKE MUSKOKA 

Dr. C. D. PARFITT, Medical Director. 




A new and especially constructed sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis in a climate 
that is fine, sunny and invigorating both summer and winter. W^ith the facilities afforded 
the out-of-door life in winter will be found entirely agreeable as well as highly beneficial. 

Accommodation for twenty-one patients. Convenience and comfort most carefully 
studied. Every room has private sleeping porch to whicli bed may be readily rolled through 
French windows. Several pairs of rooms en suite, with bath. Elevator. Excellent heatine 
system. 

Efficient nursing service. Thoroughly modern laboratory and X-ray room. 

Particular attention given laryngeal cases. Collapse of the lung, tuberculin and 
specially prepared vaccines used when indicated. 

Moderate Bates. Dr. D. W. Crombie, Resident. Physician. 

Tor information address: Calydor Sanatorium Limited, Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada. 




Prominent physicians and 
gynecologists everywhere 
recommend the MARVEL 
Syringe in cases of Leu- 
corrhea, Vaginitis and other 
Vaginal diseases. It al- 
ways gives satisfaction. 



All Druggists and Dealers 
in Surgical Instruments sell 
it. For literature, address 

MARVEL COMPANY 

44 E. 23rd Street, NEW YORK 




The Peculiar Advantage 

of the 

Marvel "Whirling 
Spray" Syringe 

is that The Marvel, by its 
Centrifugal action, dilates 
and flushes the vaginal passage 
with a volume of whirling 
fluid, which smooths out the 
folds and permits the injec- 
tion to come in contact with 

its entire sur- 
face. 

The Marvel Company 
was awarded the Gold 
Medal, Diploma and 
Certificate of Appro- 
bation by the Societe 
D'Hyg^iene de France, 
atParis,Oct. 9, 1902. 




When writing advertisers, please mention Tl:e Hospital World. 



Nov., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XV 




ARTIFICIAL EYE AID 

If it were not for the Eyeglass, the Spectacle 
and the combination of lenses, Scientists and the 
world would be laboring in darkness. 

TORONTO OPTICIANS, Limited 

(PERCY THE OPTICIAN) 

6 BLOOR STREET EAST - Corner of Yonge Street 

PHONE NORTH 2824- TORONTO 

Oculists' Prescriptions Filled 

LENSES GROUND ON THE PREMISES 



SANITARY WASHING APPL lANCES 

Manufactured by 

CANADA WIRE AND IRON GOODS CO., HAMILTON 




Illustrating our HOLDER AND BASKETS for Sterilizing Glasses and Silverware 

This type of equipment is in use at the Guelph Agricultural College. INQUIRIES SCLICITf.l) 

We Manufacture METAL LOCKERS and HOSPITAL TABLES 



Metal Garages 
for Doctors 

in view of the need by Physicians 
of a suitable Watertight Building for 
their Cars, the Profession should 
remember that I make a specialty of 
Metal Clad Garages, the equal of 
which, at the price, cannot be found 
anywhere in Canada. These build- 
ings are absolutely watertight. They 
can be equipped with or without 
flooring, and can be erected ready 
for service on short notice. If you 
need a Garage, Doctor, don't forget 
to see me. 

JAMES GOW 

Sheet Metal Worker 

177 Dundas Street, Toronto 

Office Phone - Park. 3587 
Residence Phone Coll. 6315 



For Hospital Sun Rooms 

A.F 5 M A L L'S.'^-^;|c^ AQ U A R I A 

IMPROVED /''^'"f'. -fe^^^^^^^s^ 




114 O'HARA AVE. TORONTO 



The Ideal 
Saline 

Elinainiainit 

In 

Rheumatic 
Conditions 

Bristol' Myers Co. 
New York 





XVI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xov., 1916 



WHEN ORDERING 

Hospital Sheeting 
Hot Water Bottles 
Rubber Tubing 
Surgeon's 

Bandages 
Umbilical Belts 

SPECIFY OUR BRANDS 

We are the only Makers of these Goods lin Canada 

CANADIAN CONSOLIDATED RUBBER CO. 

D omTnTo iJ) '^"^'^^^ 

^I^ YiiM i M i Li i^il/ MONTREAL - - P.Q. 

28 " Service " Branches Throughout Canada 



Ice Bags 


Ice Caps 


Atomizers 


Syringes 


Breast Pumps 


Catheters 


Invalid Cushions 


Colon 


Operating 


Tubes 


Cushions 


Pessaries 


Vaginal Douches 


Urinals 



?^jj MgiiJBa 



T T T? A ^ A T Granular 
^ rvXYO-ri-J^ Effervescent 

Urotropin, Piperazine, Benzo- Citrate** of Lithia 

The contmual mcreasmg demand demonstrates the 
results Physicians derive from the use of this Salt in 
Rheumatism, or where the medicants are indicated. 

Free Sample on Request. 



Frank W. Horner, Limited 

Manufacturing Chemists 

142 St. Urbain Street -:- Montreal 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



(Incorporating The Journal of Preventive Medicine and Sociology) 

©ornnto, Olanaba 

A Journal published in the interests of Hospitals, Sanatoria, Asylums, and 
Public Charitable Institutions throughout the British Empire. 



lEbitnra : 



3fin&nct " 



C.J. CO. HASTINGS, Medical Health 
Officer, City of Toronto; HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY. B.A., M.D., Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals, Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES. late Secy., Royal Free 
Hospital. London. England. 

A;ipUaHrpa " 

N. A. POWELL. M.D.. CM., Senior 
Assistant Surgeon in charge Shields" Emerg- 
ency Hospital. Professor Medical Jurisprudence, 
Medical Department. University of Toronto. 

Mebitint " 
J. W. S. McCULLOUGH. M.D.. Chief 

Officer oi Health for the Province of Ontario. 

J. H. ELLIOTT. M.p.. Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Toronto. 

p. H. BRYCE. M.D., Chief Medical Officer. 
Dept. of The Interior, Otta^^-a. 



" Nuraittg Sppartment " 

MISS MARGARET CONROY. Boston 
Mass. 

" ?l^aBV>ttal (Cnnatrurltan " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES. M.D.. Cincin- 
nati. Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH. 
M.D.. M.VO.. Medical Superintendent. 
Western Infirmary, Glasgow, 

" illp&iral Q^rganizatiiin " 

HERBERT A. BRU'lE. M.D.. F.R.S.C, 

Surgeon, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE, M.D., Kingston, Ont. ; H. 
E. WEBSTER. Esq.. Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal. P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG, M.D., L.R.C.P.. London. 
Consultant. Toronto Hospital for Incurahles, 
Toronto. 

J. T. GILMOUR. M.D.. Warden. Central 
Prison. Guelph, Ont. 

" SubprruIoBiH Siaualaria " 

GEORGE D. PORTER. M.D.. Toronto ; 
J. H. HOLBROOK, M.B.. Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium, Hamilton. Ont. 



All Communications, Correspondence, and Matter regarding Subscriptions and 

Advertisements TO BE ADDRESSED TO "THE HOSPITAL 

WORLD," 145 COLLEGE ST., TORONTO, ONT. 

Reprints, including HaH-tones, etc.. Supplied Authors at Net Cost. 



VoL X. 



TORONTO, NOVEMBER, 1916 



No. 5 



Editorials 



THE HOSPITAL AND THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 



It is high time the hospitals and the medical profes- 
sion began to do something in respect to their rela- 
tionship. For many years would-be leaders in the 



138 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Is^ov., 191G 

profession have jostled one another in order to secure 
appointments on some hospital staff. Hospitals 
have chosen men for their ability as practitioners, 
and men at the same time who would bring wealthy 
members of their clientele to the private wards of 
the hospital. 

That class of patients whose payments for ser- 
vices rendered visibly swells the hospital income are 
welcomed by the hospital management as an offset 
to the loss sustained in caring for the patients who 
pay less than the per capita daily cost. The doctor 
who is able to bring the former class to the hospital 
to any extent is too quite often given a staff appoint- 
ment in preference to a better man. 

It is most unfortunate that many hospitals are 
not able to choose first-class men without regard to 
anything except professional skill and standing. 

The time is arriving when the qualified man will 
no longer give his services gratis to the hospital ; the 
lawyer does not ; the butcher does not ; nor does any- 
one else except, possibly, the chaplain, whose duties 
are very light. 

Hospitals should give their physicians and sur- 
geons a qiiid pro quo for services rendered, and it is 
time medical societies considered the question of 
remuneration and that the profession decided 
unitedly to demand pay for its work. It is only fair 
to themselves and their families. 

The majority of medical men earn only a moder- 
ate income. They are obliged to keep up appear- 
ances; have a good house; well-appointed offices; 



Xov.. 1U16 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 139 

and complete modern equipment (which alone means 
a large expense). They need vacations, and regular 
trips to large medical centres for post-graduate work 
are absolutely essential. 

All these things cost money, and the community 
the doctor serves should prope^'ly remunerate him 
for the service he gives. 

House officers have always worked hitherto for 
the experience gained. We are glad to note they are 
coming slowly to their own in the matter of remun- 
eration. A number of hospitals are alloving internes 
$200 and $300 a year in addition to living expenses. 
This is inadequate. After five years of heavy expen- 
diture in securing his medical education an interne 
needs money and deserves a fair salary. His case 
should be considered together with that of his senior 
by the medical associations when this important and 
vital subject shall be considered by them. 



HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES 



Hospital employees should not be permanently en- 
gaged until they have been examined physically by a 
competent member of the medical staff. A report of 
the examiner should be filed. 

The head of the department should send to the 
superintendent a slip containing the candidate's 
name, the department in which employed, date of 
commencement of work, address, place of last em- 
ployment, whether previously employed in the hos- 



140 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Kov., 1010 

pital, rate of pay, age, whether married or single or 
divorced, number of dependants and financial status. 

The employee should be well paid, have his work 
definitely assigned, be properly supervised and 
kindly treated. He should be informed that he will 
be promoted in rank or given an increase in pay if 
his work is satisfactory." 

It is pleasing to learn that certain hospitals are 
providing pensions for employees who have given 
long and faithful service. In the majority of hos- 
pitals the transient tenure of office of the average 
orderly or cleaner is painfully short. Small pay, in- 
considerate usage, and general restlessness are the 
main causes. Such a condition of affairs is bad for 
the hospital and bad for the worker. 

Since the work in a hospital carries a peculiar 
strain, employees should be encouraged in every pos- 
sible way. In addition to good pay, they should be 
provided with comfortable quarters, recreation 
rooms, eight hours of work daily, at least three 
weeks' vacation yearly, and considerate treatment 
generally from their superiors. 

In case an employee is discharged or asks for his 
discharge a slip should be handed in containing the 
date, name, department, rate, statement as to 
whether services were good, medium or poor, and the 
reason for the retirement. 

It is desirable that every head of department 
carefully consider the matter of discharging any 
employee under his jurisdiction. Before doing so it 
would be well for him to give the employee every 



iSTov., 1916 THE, HOSPITAL WORLD . 141 

opportunity to make good. If he finds the individ- 
ual inefficient, or careless, or incompatible he should 
endeavor in a firm and kindly manner to teach him 
to do better. That failing, he might recommend his 
transfer to another department for which perhaps 
he has expressed preference or where he will come 
into a changed environment in the matter of fellow- 
workers or chief. This is often a successful move. 

The head of a department should remember that 
the worker is his brother. He cannot go far wrong 
if, in dealing with a subordinate, he always keeps in 
mind the Golden Rule. 



142 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Xov.. lOlG 

Original Contributions 



EFFECTS ON PROGNOSIS ON THE MANNER OF 
ADMINISTRATION OF ANESTHETICS* 



p. E. DOOLITTLE, M.D.^ TOKONTO. 



" The operation was successful, but the patient died." 
This dig at the surgeon is sometimes misdirected, and occasion- 
ally it might be changed to. '' The surgeon was iskilt'ul, but the 
anesthetist was not, and the patient died.'" In grave operations 
on patients already weakened through ])rolonged illness or 
septic absorption the shock of the anesthetic may be the deter- 
mining factor that turns tihe tide against the patient. The 
patient with a short, thick neck who, under ether, chokes up 
under the coml)ined effects of abundant mucus secretion and 
a. nearly closed glottis, suffers from ])artial asphyxiation, 
which in a prolonged operation adds greatly to the chances 
against recovery. So also the same patient who is alternately 
asphyxiated and resusci'tated gets a series of shocks that add 
to the danger, while the delay to the surgeon by these alternat- 
ing conditions further ])rolongs the operation and adds to the 
danger. When such a condition arises, the change to chloro- 
form will usually promptly check the secretions and permit the 
surgeon to quickly com])lete his work, to the great advantage 
of the patient's chance of recovery. 

And not only is it a case of danger to the life of the patient, 
l>ut in some o]ierations Ithe behavior of the patient subsequent 
to the o]>eration determines its success or failure. As an ex- 
ample, take an old standing umbilical hernia. Here there 
is often not only a large space to close u]\ but frequently 
atrojdiy of the adjacent abdominal walls renders a good strong 
adaptation a matter of great difficulty. Frequently the com- 
]ileted o]ieration leaves an abdominal wound under extreme ten- 
sion, and with the stitches holding in very insecure tissue. 
Violent retching, straining and deliriuui in coming out of 



*i-^ 



* Read before The Academy of Medicine, Toronto. 



Nov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 143 

the anesthetic frequently undo the good work of the surgeon, 
and the last state of the patient is far worse than the first, 
with the chances of a subsequent operation being successful 
being much less likelv than before. The patient who is sud- 
denly dosed with an overpowering amount of ether or chloro- 
form becomes frigiitened, struggles, and frequently has to be 
held on the table till the anesthetic is pushed to unconsciousness. 
Tender these conditions the patient's first conscious moments will 
be in terror and fright, and straining is bound to result. Such a 
patient should be quietly talked to by the anesthetist, who is 
frequently a total stranger to him, and a feeling of perfect 
confidence and understanding be arrived at before beginning 
the anesthetic, and a few minutes spent in this way is of im- 
mense value in a favorable prognosis. "When the patient's con- 
fidence and trust are fully established, a few drops of chloro- 
form or a little ethel-chloride should be placed on the mask, 
and, still keeping the patient's attention fully, pleasantly occu- 
pied (if you find he has a hobby talk' that), hold the mask far 
eneugli away from his face that he first only faintly gets the 
vapor. Then gradually lower it, adding small quantities of 
the anesthetic till the patient gets drowsy and fails to answer 
questions, when the mask can be applied and the ether cau- 
tiously begun without the patient being aware of the change. 
Under this method the ]:)atient wakes after his operation in a 
quiet frame of mind and without delirium. 

Lastly, always remember that your part of the work is of 
the utmost importance, and not even second to that of the sur- 
geon. Concentrate your whole attention on the patient, only 
being sufficientlv conscious of what the surgeon is doing to 
enable you to lessen or increase the depth of the anesthetic ac- 
cording to the surgeon's needs and the patient's safety, but never 
let the patient become sensitive to the operator, which would 
add to the shock ; and give the least possible amount of the 
anesthetic that will give the desired result, 

010 Sherbourne St. 



144 THE HOSPITxVL WORLD Xov., 1916 

THE WORK OF THE STAFF ^ 



BY PATIENCE EISEjSTIERS. 



For the benefit of either lazy or industrious people who may 
be thinking of taking up hospital work, some information about 
the duties of various positions may be of interest. 

The superintendent's are quite weighty. He need not nec- 
essarily be a doctor; but, layman or physician, he must have 
a keen eye, not for bacteria, iDut for mazuma. Any superinten- 
dent who can wash enough sterile gauze to make one yard do 
the work of two is the well-beloved of the trustees. He has an 
'^eagle eye for the absence of rubber heels and can see at a 
glance if the door of the ice-box is tightly closed, or whether 
the flies have found a new port of entry. 

In financial matters he is expected to be as tight as a wet 
clothesline. He must see that no employee puts anything over 
on him, and that no patient escapes to the open without the 
O.K. of the bookkeeper. The principal of the Nurses Training 
School acts as a prophylactic against Cupid's darts. She sees 
to it that loitering internes are promptly put to flight. All good 
looking nurses must have their curly locks slicked down till 
they resemble skinned rabbits. By thus putting promptly all 
rivals out of business, this lady often secures the most desirable 
staff doctor for herself. 

' The duty of a nurse, either pupil or graduate, is to let 
patients know where they get off at. To the trained mind all 
patients are as nutty as a fruit cake. They must be ruled with 
an iron hand, and no attention should be paid to their whims 
or desires. Nurses do not like patients who whine, patients who 
are nervous or hysterical, patients who are helpless or who 
require a great deal of waiting on, in fact, it would seem as 
if a number of them do not like any kind of a patient at all. 

There is no use arguing with a nurse. In a contest between 
a helpless patient and able-bodied nurse, the nurse always wins 
out. 

The duty of the house doctor is to act as maid of honor to 
some Big Chief and imitate, to the best of his histrionic ability, 
the chief's supernatural dignity. His face must be a faithful 

* Written specially for The Hospital World. 



Nov., 1916 THE HOSriTA]. WOKLD 14:5 

reflex of the chief's emotions. To smile or laugh when the 
chief's face registers concentrated thought or deep concern is a 
fatal blunder. 

The interne usually begins as an ambulance surgeon at 
which stage his duty is to see that he keeps the muscles of his 
back and arms in a supple condition. In those hospitals which 
own the cap worn by the ambulance surgeon, it is believed that 
candidates whose heads fit the hat are preferred above the 
other applicants. 

All house doctors are natural born collectors. In their 
rounds they collect sandwiches, candy, magazines, liquid re- 
freshments, and, in fact, they will collect anything that is not 
nailed down. 

The dutv of the driver of the ambulance is to deliver the 
patients at their own door in a state of delirious joy that their 
break-neck journey over chickens, men, holes, torn-up streets, 
dogs and pedestrians has not ended fatally. At the end of the 
journey it is the duty of the driver and the surgeon to beat 
each other to the easiest end of the stretcher. The relations 
between these two are always genial and pleasant, .somewhat 
like those between the burglar and a Pinkerton. 

An orderly owes no duty to am'one but himself. His duty 
to himself requires him to hunt up a snug retreat in which to 
while away his time. Should some sleuth root him out of his 
lair in the basement, he can instantly find a better one. Some 
sixth sense warns him when his services are required, and ho 
immediately steps over into the fourth dimpnsion. 

A chambermaid acts as the official '" Who's Who," for the 
benefit of the patient's curiosity. She can tell what is the 
matter with the mysterious man in ISTo. 1, and the latest eccen- 
tricity of the old lady in No. 2. The first thing in the morning 
you learn about who has died in the night. Her ambition is 
to see if she can spend three-quarters of her time gossiping 
with the patients and get away with it. 

Finally we come to the duty of the patient. Dead easy. 
Any hospital superintendent can show you in black and white 
that the institution is losing from six cents to two dollars and 
nineteen and one-half cents per diem off of each patient. 

It stands to reason that the only favor a patient can do a 



146 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Nov., 191 G 

hospital is to i)ay his bill aiid '' beat it " as fast as an ambulance, 
a taxi, or a street car can take him. 

The duty of the hall man is to work upon and so perfect 
his schedule that his dust-raising- duties will exactly synchronize 
with the passing of meal trays. He is always on friendly 
terms with the chambermaid, their mutual dislike of the nurses 
forming a close bond of sympathy between them. 



THE HOSPITAL FROM A PATIENT'S 
STANDPOINT* 



BY PATIENCE EISENIEES. 



Why is a hos])ital 'h What is the cause of so many complaints 
and so much dissatisfaction among the patients in a hospital — 
not any particular hospital, but just any and every old hospital. 
It requires but the chance encounter of two patients in any 
conveniently isolated spot to start an immediate session of 
the knocker's club. It is all duB to their misconception of the 
functions of a hospital. A hospital is not a place for a sick 
person to be comfortable in, any more than the inside of a 
casket or the unyielding top of an operating table. Only the 
well and strong can force their way to comfort. The most a 
sick person can hope for is a minimum of discomfort. 

A great deal of irritation could be avoided if patients would 
wait patiently for their sentences to expire, and stop ex]iecting 
what never was and never will be. How can one expect a nurse 
when she has anywhere from four to ten people to look after, 
to spend her time massaging the jjunctures in your ears so they 
won't gro^V shut while your diamond earrings are reposing in 
the office safe. Be thankful, rather, during a busy day, if you 
get your face washed when the night nurse comes on duty. 
Don't expect a nurse to read to you, or amuse you in any way. 
as you can always amuse yourself by watching the antics of the 
mouse in your room. Every hospital room contains at least one 
thoroughly domesticated mouse, who lives back of the steam 

* Written specially for The Hospital World. 



l^ov., 191G THE HOSPITAL WORLD 147 

pipes and appears to be learning the plumbing trade in a night 
school, or, you can close your eyes and refurnish your room. 

A private room in a hospital, furnished by a donor will not 
be likely to contain more than six square inches of floor space, 
unobstructed by some kind of flub-dubs. The price of the room 
varies directly as the heft of the furniture, you will not have 
much of a view, as some kind of hospital psycholog}^ always 
locates the bed in the lonesomest part of the room. 

If you are in one of the ultra-modern type, exemplifying 
the last word in cubist hospital architecture, you can gaze at 
the futurist doors and fire-places and anemic color scheme and 
console yourself that well — anyway — it looks as if it might be 
fireproof. They certainly all have acoustic properties, carried 
to the nth degree. If the managers of Billy Sunday's campaign 
wish to improve on his wonderful sounding board they could 
do it by renting an abandoned hospital. Nowhere else will a 
hall clock tick so loudly through a night of insommia or falling 
dishes spin around so many times on a tiled floor ; nowhere else 
are scrubbing brushes plied with such unbelicable polish en- 
thusiasm at daybreak ; nowhere else w^ould a nurse's cot squeak 
so poignantly or the whispered flirtation at the nurses' table 
between some interne and the night nurse reach your ear so 
piercingly. Of course, you would not mind this so much if you 
could only hear quite clearly just what they were saying to 
each other. , 

Should you require the services of a house doctor, you can 
save much time by knowing the location of the prettiest nurse, 
and sending for him there directly — flirting, eating and sleep- 
ing, in the order mentioned, being an interne's favorite methods 
of diverting his mind during the tedious hours before the 
arrival of his day off duty. It is hard to get them to do any- 
thing really useful, such as swatting flies, or lending a hand 
here and there on a heavy lift. The only load they ever carry 
cheerfully is sometimes aeciuired from the private stock of some 
patient, whose physician allows him a supply- of the stuff that 
made Milwaukee and St. Louis famous. Internes are respon- 
sible for many caustic comments of patients on the sharky tricks 
of purveyors of grape juice, champagne and other H(]uids who 
give such amazingly short measure, as short, to a patient's point 



148 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Nov., 191G 

of view, as the comfort-iiurchasing ability of what he is taxed 
for his board and room in the hospital. 

It can be proved in actual figures that the hospital gives you 
as much, if not more, than you are paying for, but it is hard to 
make a patient believe that his dollars purchase so little. Any- 
one paying $25 per week or more, in a hospital, expects the 
nursing service of Dr. Bull's $100 per w^eek sanatorium, the 
accommodations of the Waldorf-Astoria, and the cuisine of the 
Ritz-Carleton. Visit him at the end of a week and he will 
tell you confidentially, that in his opinion, he is getting the 
nursino; service of the Bel2;ian trenches, the accommodations of 
a Mills hotel, and the bill-of-fare of a McGregor mission. He 
has a vague idea that the government ought to be seeing about 
such things. 

However, he is wrong, you can get anything you want in a 
hospital — on one condition — you must be careful not to want 
anything. 



HOSPITAL EATS* 



BY PATIEKCE EISEXIERS. 



My son, hear the instruction of thy Uncle Fuller, and permit 
him to wise thee up in hospital cookery, that it mayest go well 
with thee as chef, and that thou wastest nix from the hospital's, 
substance. ' ■ 

For food — these days — is more precious than rubies and 
must be paid for with fine gold and silver and much hidden 
treasure. 

Be ye, therefore, a tight-wad in all thou dolest out, and 
attend carefully to the attenuation of all liquids on thy bill- 
of-fare. 

Make thou frequent journeys to thy cistern and spare not 
in drawing from thy well in the corner. 

For on thy watery additions to thy soup, milk, tea and coffee 
kettles dependeth their ability to hold out even unto the setting 
of the last table. 



* Written specially for The Hospital World. 



^Tov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD UU 

That tliou mayest forestall their kicks and comi^laints, which 
are as a thorn in thy side, serve thou th& first attenuation to 
those knockers who occupy the private rooms. 

Weary not in thy dumping-in from thy water bucket and 
serve thy next attenuation to the barbarians within the walls 
of thy weirds. 

Discretion shall })reserve thee that thou servest thy attenua- 
tions to the house staff in the proper order of social precedence, 
the principal of the training school, the resident physician, the 
internes, the nurses, the orderlies — even to the thirtieth attenua- 
tion thou servest the helps' table in the basement. 

Regard not their scorn and revilings, for is not any grub 
good enough for the sustenance of these rough-necks ? 

He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack band, theref ore- 
be not too flossy in dealing with thy hospital's chickens. 

For on thy discretion dependeth the ability of one lonesome 
chicken to lend a spurious flavor to many dishes. 

Waste not thy chicklet's strength within the soup pot ; rather 
encase his legs in rubber boots and walk him swiftly through 
thy kettle. 

Cast out the mocker who revileth thee with the name of 
" cheap skate," he who claimeth there is no chicken flavor to 
thy bouillon. 

Even as a precious jewel in a pig's snout are those slanderers, 
they who say all hospital chickens have atrophy of the breast 
muscles and hypertrophy of the neck. 

Sharpen, therefore, thy hatchet like a two-edged sword, that 
each receiveth his molecule of chicken, and gather ye up the 
remnants even to the tiniest subluxation. 

For of such mayest thou bring forth the next day thy chicken 
pot-pie, in ramekins. 

Even here thou canst confound the sceptics who believe not 
in the presence of thy long gone, but not forgotten, chicklet. 

Thou canst insert beneath each upper crust a tiny chicken- 
feather. 

Thus wilt thou have thine enemy upon the hip ; he can prove 
nothing. What carest thou for the revilings of the gluttonous ; 
it is their favorite indoor sport. They are like the horse leech's 
daughter, crying, " Give, give." 



ir.O THE HOSPITAL WORLD Nov.. 1916 

And, further, mj son, bv these be admonished, of the com- 
binations of hospital sahids there is no end ; and much study 
in their construction is a weariness to the flesh. Therefore, 
store wp thine odds and ends of vegetables, fruits and animals 
into the making- of a perfect " Review of Reviews." Thou 
shouldst worry as to harmonies of taste and subtle flavors. 
Rather evolved lobskosh weirdly composed of oranges and 
onions, dill pickles, cheese and wienerwurst. And that it may 
not seem too raw a handout, doll up the top with whipped 
cream and a cherry. 

The sun ariseth and the sun goeth down; but this recipe foi 
lobster salad remaineth on the job. 

Let the proportion l)e 8 to 1. Eight large, round heads 
of cabbage, finely chojiped, to one of lobsters, smallest size. 

In thy discretion should this seem too many lobsters, split 
the can — fifty, fifty. 

For why encourage this set of pikers to develop costly tastes. 
Should thy whole day be spent in serving lobsters ? 

Verily, from the first breakfast to the last supper it seemeth 
like doing nothing else. As for thy salt and pepper shakers^ 
steer no middle course. 

Either put thou in none at all, or go thou the limit, even 
unto the sky. They to whom thou caterest be a perverse and 
stiff-necked bunch. They love to bawl thee out and say thy 
food hath in it no savor of spikenard and saffron, calamus, cin- 
namon and all the chief spices. What need be there of extra 
seasoning when penetrating all is the sub-acute flavor of the 
chemical refrigerator ? 

My son, be not afraid of the desolation of the fault-finders. 
Thev cannot s'et thv number. 

vSo that thou standest well with him who pavetdi the o-rnb 
bills, thou shalt find favor and good understanding in the sight 
of God and man. Selah, 



IsTov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 151 

Society Proceedings 



AMERICAN HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION 



The Philadelphia meeting, liehl duri.ig the last week in Sep- 
tember, was a great success — over 1,000 being present on the 
first day. The East was well represented, the Middle-west 
fairly, a handful from the South, and scarce a soul from the 
Far-w^est. 

Eight hundred lunched at the Pennsylvania Hospital, the 
guests of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Test. Beside the luncheon, 
there were auto drives to points of interest, a trip to Valley 
Forge and a complimentary vaudeville entertainment at Keith's 
theatre. !N^ever were the members better looked after. 

The next meeting will be in Cleveland, and Dr. AV. J. Wilson^ 
Superintendent of the Wellard Parker Hospital, will preside. 
Dr. Wilson has taken a live interest in the Association for some 
years, contributing on several occasions papers on every aspect 
of work in contagious hosj)itals. He contributed one at the 
Philadelphia meeting. 

While, the hos]iital world has been getting away from the 
old ideas of fumigating with sulphur and formaldehyde, he 
comes out in his paper, endorsing their use. 

Here is wdiat he sa%'s : 

"• Determine cubic area of room. Fill all cracks, crevices^ 
and openings of every kind by pasting paper over them, so as to 
make the room as near gas-tight as possible. 

" If sulphur is used as the disinfectant, 4 pounds of finely 
cracked brimstone for every 1,000 cubic feet of area to be dis- 
infected is put in an iron pan or pot. This sulphur receptacle 
should be placed on a brick in a dish pan containing water two 
inches in depth. The dish pan is placed on a nnmlier of bricks 
on the floor to ensure protection against fire. The w^ater not 
only serves as a protection against fire, but gives the moisture 
necessary to produce the disinfection. To start the sulphur 
burning, a little of it on the top and in the centre of the ]ian 



]r,2 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Is^ov., loiG 

is luaJe tinelv grauulai' and a little wood alcohol poured on it 
and ignited. 

''This method is applicable not only for killing bacteria, but 
is especially useful in getting rid of lice, bedbugs and other 
insects. 

'' If formaldehyde is chosen as a disinfectant, it may be 
generated as follows, using 10 ounces of a forty per cent, solu- 
tion for every 1,000 cubic feet of area to be disinfected. Im- 
mediately before using, add 1 ounce of commercial sulphuric 
acid to 10 ounces of 40 per cent, formaldehyde solution, and 
pour this mixture on 1 pound of unslaked lime. The gas will 
be immediately evolved. Care must be taken in handling the 
sulphuric acid, as careless handling may result in a serious 
burn." 

Dr. Wilson maintains that these formula will do the work. 

Miss Emma Anderson presented the report of the committee 
on the grading and classification of nurses. The report is a 
comprehensive study of the nursing problem, with especial 
reference to the need of more nurses trained to care for 
certain specific diseases, to the need of maintaining proper and 
reasonable standards and to the care of the sick in the homes 
of families of moderate and small incomes. But " divil a word " 
does it say about the grading of nurses. . 

The ])ussyfooters did not want to stir up a hornets' nest. 
The damp blanket was effectually used to quench the incipient 
flames, and all is harmony. 

An attempt was made to make the Modern. Hospital the 
organ of the Association. Dr. R. R. Ross, of Buffalo, brought 
in the recommendation. Dr. Howell Wright supported the 
idea. Miss C. A. .Viken, editor of the Trained Nurse, averred 
that the Association should not have any official organ unless 
the Association controlled the policy of the organ. 

Trustee Borden, of Fall River, said, " It seems to me that 
no business concern would go into a proposition of this kind 
without ascertaining very distinctly what the party of the 
second part was willing to do." 

The matter was referred to the new Board of Trustees, 
Dr. Winford Smith, Miss Mary Keith and Mr. Borden, of 



Soy., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 153 

Fall Kiver, together with President Wilson, Treasurer Asa 
Balm. 

The new secretary is Dr. Walsh, late of the Contagious 
Hospital, Philadelphia. His opponent was Mr. Wright of Cleve- 
land, secretary of the Ohio Hospital Association. Wright's 
candidature had been planned, but Walsh had done yeoman 
service for the Philadelphia meeting and won out. 

A permanent headquarters is to bo established on or before 
July 1st, 19 lY. It is up to Walsh. The commercial exhibit 
brought in some $3,000. If this record can be kept up it will 
be possible to maintain a headquarters and a permanent secre- 
tary. 

The constitution and by-laws have been amended. 

Besides the formation of a Board of Trustees, and the re- 
commendation of the establishment of permanent headquarters, 
heads of departments are admitted as associates and assistant 
superintendents may become active members. A committee 
on necrology has been arranged for. 

The annual address was given by Dr. Winford H. Smith. He 
was not surprised that the Association had not grown as rapidly 
as was expected, following the eligibility of trustees and super- 
intendents of nurses to membership. Trustees were too busy 
and superintendents of nurses had organizations of their own. 
Many superintendents were unable to attend on account of the 
expense. It might be well to have an Eastern, a Western, a 
Central, a Southern and a Canadian Association, each meeting 
every two years on its own territory; the American Hospital 
Association to meet on the alternate years. Dr. Smith had 
another suggestion, that the American Hospital Association, 
the American Public Health Association, the National Associa- 
tion for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, the Ameri- 
can Sanitarium Association, and similar associations, unite as a 
large American Public Health Association — each association 
to preserve its bwn identity as a section of the larger body. 

Dr. Smith recommended the discontinuance of the com- 
mittee on hospital progress, which includes eight sub-committees. 
The number of committee reports, in his opinion, interferes with 
the preparation of a well-balanced programme. He endorsed 



154 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Xuv., ItHG 

the proposal of Ex-President Howell, that a Couucil of a 
House of Delegates be aj)pointed. 

The essayist regretted that so many hospitals had been es- 
tablished as a result of misguided enthusiasm, without proper 
financial backing. A high standard was being exacted, neces- 
sitating better nursing, more refined methods of diagnosis, and 
larger medical and surgical services. xVs a result of this mush- 
room growth of hospitals, salaries and wages paid were alto- 
gether too small. Trustees seemed to forget that a cheap man 
was the most expensive in the end. So standards of decorum 
and morals are often so low as to amount to scandal. 

As to medical staft" appointments, the continuous system was 
much more satisfactory than the rotating, but difiicult to estab- 
lish in small community hospitals. Merit should be the only 
basis of appointment or advancement. 

Modern medicine and surgerv demanded "reater laboratorv 
facilities than most hospitals were providing. Too little atten- 
tion is paid to autopsy findings. 

Stress was laid by Dr. Smith on the giving of anesthetics 
by a well-trained person. In too many hospitals this procedure 
was faulty. 

Hospitals were becoming to be more than repair shops — ■ 
with their social service, their pay clinics, they were having 
a broader relationship to the community. 

Dr. Smith strongly emphasized the importance of making the 
superintendent the one avenue of communication between the 
sub-departments and the Board of Trustees. 

In j^rojecting new hospitals, greater attention should be 
paid to community needs. There should be some agency to 
co-relate hospital development and community needs. 

Mr. Michael Davis recommends a hospital for each 100,000 
of the population. 

Emphasis was laid on the importance of better municipal 
hospitals. They should be entirely divorced from the evils of 
political domination. 

These city institutions should have branches in the country 
for convalescents. This would make for economy. 

Hospitals owed a duty to the physically handicapped. Dr. 
Hall, at Marblehead, and the Burke Foundation were leading the 



^ov., 1!)1G THE HOSPITAL WOKLl) 155 

way. We Avoiild learn luiu-li ahout what was best to do by ob- 
serving how tlie various militant countries handled the problem 
of the disabled soldier. 

Hospitals, from beino- places of resort for the indigent only, 
now are found to l)c the best place for the wealthy. As a con- 
sequence, more attention must be paid to furnishings. 

One of the great needs of to-day is a hospital service for the 
middle class. The American Association ought to show how 
this need can be met. 

Dr. Smith pleaded for the higher and broader education of 
nurses, and quoted Dr. Walsh as ^advocating that the philan- 
thropically inclined might well give large endowments for that 
13urpose. The luirsing profession was intertwined with the 
medical, stood by its side and was not subservient to it. 

In too many hospitals the out-patient department was too 
often considered as a side issue — the patient did not get fair 
play — examinations of him were too cursory and " skimpy." 
This service demanded the highest grade of woi'k. 

Clinics should lie established for venereai diseases, and 
much attention should be given to the matter of preventing 
their spread. 

Hospitals should not counrenance the separation of the 
mother from her illegitimate child. Ninety per cent, of such 
children died. 

Miss Mary Riddle, of the J^ewton Hospital, holds that the 
smaller hospitals in the United States are in dire need of ex- 
pert business men and efficient executive organization, and that 
the average physician superintendent of the smaller hospitals 
lacks the necessary business instinct. 

The average small hospital, it was pointed out, fails in its 
curative purposes of disease, infection and the general illness 
of humanity owing to the lack of proper scientific instruments, 
poor laboratories and the absence of hygienic kitchen and diet- 
ary cuisine. The hospital, whether large or small, she declared, 
should be one of the leading educational infiuences of any 
community, but it is a well-established fact that some of the 
smaller institutions are often so poor that they do not even 
possess a copy of any pathological literature and sometimes are 
even in need of an unabridged dictionary. 

Dr. J. M. Baldv, of 2219 Delancey Street, who said that 



156 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Xov., 1916 

while he was not a member of the association, he deplored the 
present condition of the smaller hospitals. He declared that 
the salvation of those institutions rested with the joung mem- 
bers of the staff. 

Bad teeth cause a large percentage of heart disease, liver 
trouble, kidney disease, ulcers of the stomach and eye trouble, 
according to Dr. Thomas B. Hartzell, of the University Hos- 
pital in Minneapolis. Dr. Hartzell gave an illustrated lecture 
on Dental Clinics in General Hospitals before the American 
Hospital Association on the roof of the Bellevue. 

" Seventy-five per cent, of all heart disease and a large 
l^roportion of kidney disease are due to streptococci viridens," 
said Dr. Hartzell. '' A large proportion of these streptococci 
come from the teeth and are swept into the stomach by the food 
or get into the blood from ulceration." • . 

The speaker defined "" proper care " as a scrubbing vigorous 
enough to leave the teeth shining like porcelain and a rubbing 
of the gums with dry cotton, following by rinsing with warm 
water. He recommended that every general hospital employ 
at least one dental interne, aided by one trained nurse, and 
j)rovide a special room for the work. 

" The human mouth is the great gateway for infection to the 
body. Human teeth scrapings from healthy mouths show from 
six to eight million bacteria per milligram, and the 2:)ercentage 
from diseased mouths rises to a hundred million. In some 
cases the bacteria double in numbers within thirtv minutes, 
and gather on from twenty to thirty square inches of tooth 
surface. 

" Bad teeth may aft'ect the heart, joints, brain, kidneys 
and stomach. Abscessed teeth have caused inflammatory rheu- 
matism symptoms, and in one instance a man with a healthy 
heart who refused to have his teeth treated was found some 
months later to have a distinct heart ' murmur ' and ulcers." 

The convention meets next year in Cleveland, Ohio. Most 
of the forenoon session was taken up with changes in constitu- 
tion and by-laws. Richard P. Borden, trustee of the Union 
Hospital, Fall River, Mass., recommended the appointment of 
a permanent paid secretary, to establish a bureau of hospital 
information and a headquarters. This suggestion was adopted, 
the headquarters to open not later than July 1, 1917. 

(To he continued.) 



Xov., 1016 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 157 

Selected Articles 



THE OPERATING ROOM BUILDING OF THE 
HENRY FORD HOSPITAL 



BY JOHN N. E. BEOWN^ 
Medical Superintendent, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. 



The operating building of the Henry Ford Hospital is a brick 
building of one story in height and 125 feet long. It has four 
complete operating suites and also a dark operating room. One 
of the suites contains an operating room (30 ft. x 27 ft. x IS ft.) 
capable of seating sixty spectators. 

A corridor runs the whole length of the building, on one 
side of which are the operating suites; on the other side are 
surgeons' offices, lockers, shower rooms, examining .room, an 
instrument room, telephone booth, and a laboratory for making 
quick sections. This corridor serves as a line beyond which 
the public is not allowed to go in the direction of the operating 
suites. 

One end of this long corridor is cut off for the reception of 
emergency cases. From this cut-oif portion of the corridor 
entry is made by two doors into two preparation rooms, re- 
spectively. 

Four of the operating suites lie side by side, except that 
between each of the two end suites, there is a sterilizing room, 
in which are sterilized dressings, utensils, instruments and 
gloves — a separate sterilizer being used for each of these. 

The water sterilization is carried out in the attic in two 
sterilizers of 250 gallons' capacity each. In the same room in 
the attic there is a still. The sterilized water is conveyed 
down in pipes to a lavatory in each operating room and also tO' 
a lavatory in each sterilizing room. Each of these lavatories 
is provided with an elbow valve, by the swinging of which eitlicr 
cold or hot water, or a mixture of both, may be secured. Ade- 



158 THE HOSPITAL WOULD Is^ov., 1910 

quate provision is made for the sterilization by steam of pipes 
and faucets. 

Eacli operating suite consists of three rooms — two of the 
rooms lie adjacent to the long corridor, being connected with 
it by doors. One of these rooms is used for the administration 
of the anesthetic (10 ft. x 12 ft.) and is provided with a blanket 
warmer and a lavatory room. The other room (7 ft. x 12 ft.) 
is a surgeon's scrub-up and connected hx doorway without a 
door with the operating-room. It has three lavatories, thus 
enabling .the surgeon-in-chief, his assistant, and interne to wash 
up at the same time. The soap used iu these scrub-up rooms 
is liquid in character, and is contained in a metallic box, the 
surface of which is flush with the wall. A projecting faucet is 
provided with a valve which is controlled by action of the knee. 
The surgeon, by pressure of the knee, can secure the desired 
amount of soaj) in his outspread hands and upon relaxation of 
the pressure, the valve closes automatically. The control of 
this soa]) apparatus is electrical in character. 

The third room of each suite is the operating room. All the 
o})erating rooms have tile w^alls and ceilings throughout. The 
floors of the operating rooms, as well as the whole building, are 
of tile — vitrified. In three of the operating rooms the tile walls 
are moss green in color up to a height of about ten feet. Above 
this they are Mdiite. The walls of the fourth general operating 
room and of the two accessory rooms — the anesthetic room and 
scrub-up room — are of graj' tile. 

The operating rooms are lighted by means of windows in 
the north wall and in the ceiling. The wall window occupies 
about half of the north wall space of the room, while the roof 
and ceiling lights correspond to about four-fifths of the ceiling. 
The ceiling lights arc of glass as are also the roof lights. In the 
space between them a sufficient number of nitrogen lamps arc 
suspended which, when lighted, afford ample light for operating 
at night. In all the operating rooms, sockets are left to enable 
operators to secure lights for local work. 

The gynecological operating room is provided with a trench 
iu which three or four onlookers may stand to peer over the 
sitting operator, who may be performing operations by the 
lower route. 



]S^v., 1916 TlIK HOSPITAL WORLD 159 

The nurses are provided wiMi four rooms. The head nurse 
is given an office at the entrance near the surgeon's offices ; and 
three other rooms are provided en suite directly in the centre 
of the working portion of the building — that is, in the operating 
portion. The largest room is the nurses' work-room, which has 
cabinets in the wall and on tihe floor for supplies. In this room 
is a reservoir for distilling water, connected by pipe wntli the 
still in the attic. In an alcove off this room is an autoclave 
whose doors are flush with the wall. In this autoclave the 
flasks containing salt solutions are kept at a little above body 
temperature, the temperature being automatically controlled. 
Oft" this large room is a nurse's retiring room in which she may 
dress, or rest, if necessary. It is provided with the necessary 
lavatory and toilet accommodations. 

The largest operating room has seats arranged in amphi- 
theatre style which are made of cement, excepting the seat pro- 
per, w^hich is made of cork. At the back of the amphitheatre is 
a door from the outside through wdiich the students have access 
down to the basement where their lockers are, and up to a room 
at the back of the top row of seats where they may gown before 
descending to their places around the arena. At the opposite 
side of the same circular seats is a door through which visiting 
doctors enter the amphitheatre, and here there is a correspond- 
ing room to that used by the students, where these visitors may 
gown. 

The three other day operating rooms are 21 ft. x 17 ft. All 
arc IS feet high. 

Electrically controlled clocks are provided in all operating 
rooms, except the dark operating room. Washed warmed air is 
forced at a slow rate into the building through openings near 
the floor, and sucked out by means of fans in the attic through 
<ij)eniugs near the ceiling. 

The cost of this operating room building was approximately 
$100,000. — The Trained Kiirse. 



100 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Xov., 191(> 

THE NEED FOR PROPERLY TRAINED 
ROENTGENOLOGISTS 



The activity of the various instrument makers in iilliug the 
demand for X-raj apparatus to equip the numerous new hos- 
pitals throughout this land, has created a large number of open- 
ings for comj)etent roentgen workers. Scores and scores of 
hospitals have gone ahead with the purchase and installation of 
expensive roentgen equipment without serious consideration 
of the question as to who should make use of the attractive in- 
struments. AVhen one comes to realize it, it is a strange thing' 
that no more mature thought is given the selection of the roent- 
genologist himself. Many hospital authorities seem to feel that 
the filling of this position will be simple enough provided the 
equipment installed is of the latest type and highest kilowatt 
rating, and if it includes a transformer of the open or closed core 
type, according to the persuasiveness of the salesman who finally 
landed the contract. 

The real practice of roentgenology begins when the roent- 
genogram or the roentgenoscopic image has been produced. No' 
matter how expert one may be in the technical side of the pro- 
duction of the plate or screen image, once that image has been 
produced he is still helpless as far as the practice of roentgen- 
ology is concerned unless he has had a certain training, and a 
certain amount of experience, the more the better. This work 
can no more be performed by the non-medical individual than 
can stethoscopy or percussion of the chest by one not medically 
trained. And the medical training even is not sufficient : there 
must be special training in the interpretation of roentgen 
shadows. 

There is a real field and a rare opportunity for medical men 
with proper clinical training to enter the field of roentgen diag- 
nostics. Every medical man engaged in X-ray w^ork is receiv- 
ing just that amount of recognition and respect from his 
colleagues which his abilities have carved out for him. The 
trouble is that there are so many attempting this work who are 
inadequately equipped for the task. For each available com- 
petent roentgenologist, there are at least five hospitals clamoring 



^ov., lOlG THE HOSPITAL WORLD 161 

for proper X-ray work, of the kind done in our best-known 
medical centres where roentgenology has been given its proper 
place among the other major medical sciences. The result is 
that the four hospitals for whom there is not available a com- 
petent man, do what in their opinion is the next best thing — 
they put in an incompetent, and invest him with an authority 
which he has not earned and which does not really belong to 
him. Does he not operate the same k'nd of X-ray apparatus 
as the well-known Dr. Blank, of the University Hospital ? Does 
he not have a Coolidge tube, just like Dr. So and So, of the 
Chirurgical Clinic ? And does he not use the same kind of 
plates as ]3r. Whoze, of the Somewhere Roentgen Institute ? 

The medical profession must come to realize that roentgenol- 
ogy is not a photogTaphic science, but that when certain means 
somewhat remotely allied to photography have been utilized to- 
secure visualization of certain internal organs or parts, there 
is still absolutely essential the aid of an experienced medically- 
trained individual in order to secure reliable interpretation of 
the shadow findings. — American Journal of Roentgenology. 



WHY NURSES GROW GREY 



In a recent letter home a young Canadian Lance-Corporal thus 
explains " Why Nurses Grow Grey." 

" The next time a well-meaning stretcher bearer tries to- 
interrupt my groans by his cheerful ' Buck up, old man, think 
of the swell nurses you'll have buzzing around you in the morn- 
ing,' I shall either ignore him or present him with something 
which will be the direct cause of his being introduced to a bevy 
of these doctorettes. 

" I'm not kicking or anything like that, in fact, I honestly 
think they mean well; but after a man has served his King 
and Country faithfully for twenty-one months and fina.lly 
reached that haven of rest, the Canadian General Hospital, he 
naturally expects a little peace and quietness. 



162 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD A^ov., 1910 

"But does lie get it ^ Xo; most decidedlj not. If the 
sister isn't taking your temperature, she's taking your shirt ; if 
it's a clean shirt she will purloin a sheet; and it is while she 
is juggling this from under you that her eagle eye will alight 
on the COSY hollow that your manlv form has made in the 
mattress. She groans and seeks the assistance of an accomplice. 
A tug-of-war follows, and your little nest is given place to an 
iceberg. Even in the night time, the sister wall steal from her 
l)oky little desk, and if you so much as hat an eyelid she will 
pounce on you, thermometer in one hand and a glass of water 
and a pill in the other. 

'' I am probably the very first person to discover the real 
cause of premature greyness which accompanies the nursing 
profession. Most people imagine that a nurse ages in appear- 
ance through seeing so many terrilde wounds ; but that is not the 
case. She sizes up a case as a shingler would a roof. He 
would sav so manv shingles, while she estimates in vards of 
gauze and bandages. 

'' Xow what reallv l)vings nurses to an earlv urave are the 
beds or cots. From sunny uiorn to dewy eve they tuck, stroke, 
massage and caress the beds. Their one ambition in life appears 
to be that of making a long row of beds look as though they 
contained no legs and bodies beneath the clothes ; giving the 
heads and shoulders which rest on the pillows the appearance 
of belonging to people who have had their bodies run over by 
a steam roller. 

"' Just to show to what extent a nurse will go to get this 
<lc'sirefl eftVct in her ward, I might mention the case of a young 
fellow who used to have bed Xo. 11. He had a very bad leg 
which necessitated the installation of a contrivance to support 
the weight of the bedclothes. Struggle as they might, the sisters 
could not ii'et that bed down to the level of ours. We all ex- 
pected something would happen sooner or later, and sure enough 
one cold clear dawn we noticed Xo. 11 missing. At the solemn 
hour of midnight he had been either kidnapped or spirited 
away. It is now freely rumored around the ward that as a 
punishment for requiring a clothes support, Xo, 11 has been 
banished to England. 

" Cruel world." — Toronto Evening Telegram. 



Xov.. 1016 THE HOSPITAL WORLD im 

Canadian Hospitals 

THE EDITH CAVELL MEMORIAL 



A xuMBEii of ladies, iiicludiiiii' Dr. Stowe Giillen, as Presi- 
dent, and ]Mr>. W. -T. Wilkinson, as Ohairman of the Finance 
Committee of Mie Ladies' -Board of the Western Hospital, are 
seriously interesting themselves and the public generally in the 
proposed erection of the Edith Cavell Memorial, which will 
take the form of a Xurses' Home, to he erected in the grounds 
of Toronto Western Hospital. 

" A year ago the Ladies' Board of the Toronto Western Hos- 
pital had under consideration the advisability of raising funds 
i"or the erection of a Xurses' Home on the grounds of the 
Western Hos^ntal, as a memorial to Edith Cavell. This desire 
has now taken definite shape and a vigorous campaign will be 
launched in a few days. 

" Tt may be well at once to set all doubts at rest. regarding 
the object of the home. It is hoped and expected that enough 
money will be forthcoming to enable the Western Hospital 
Board to erect a building large enough for the needs of the 
nurses in trainine;, and also for such other nurses as care to 
make use of it as a residence. 

" Under any circumstance the idea of furnishing general 
accommodation for all nurses will not be lost sight of. It will, 
in this way, be truly a ' Xurses' Home.' It has been felt that 
this would be by far the most appropriate memorial that could 
be erected to the memory of the martyred nurse. This is in 
keeping with the wisih of Miss Cavell's mother. 

'' One could hardly imagine a more suitable memorial than 
a home in which a nurse visiting Toronto, or a nurse resident 
in Toronto, requiring rest, or who might not be on duty, could 
find comfortable accommodation. To such an efl:*ort no one .can 
find any objection. Indeed, one would expect that everyone 
would be eager to help. 

" The site of the Western Hospital is very centrally located, 
and is favored bv a verv excellent street car service, so that 



164 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Xov.. 191G 

nurses can reach it readily from all parts of tlie city. In addi- 
tion the new pavilions for the accommodation of patients are 
the most modern, sanitary, and 'best equipped in the Province. 
From this standpoint it would he an honor to have the Edith 
Cavell IsTurses' Home connected with so deserving an institution. 
" If the requisite amount is obtainable no efforts will be 
spared to make the home a credit to the city, and worthy of the 
memory of the noble woman whose name it is to bear. - It is 
the aim of the ladies to raise $100,000 ; this would be about one 
dollar for each family in Toronto. There are many families 
in the city who could readily contribute liberally, and make up 
for those who are less able. The chief thing to fear is the feel- 
ing of indiiference or unwillingness to assist on the part of some. 
Wihen one recalls what nurses have done in this great war and 
the splendid life and tragic death of Edith Cavell, the person 
must be very lacking in the sense of appreciation, who will not 
contribute to such a memorial to the noblest of all nurses of all 
time." 



OPENING OF THE SPADINA MILITARY 

HOSPITAL 



" We all cannot go to war. Some of us must remain at home 
and prosecute the important work that is necessary for the 
proper care and treatment of wounded Canadian heroes who 
are compelled to abandon their duties on the field of battle. 
Therefore, it is our duty to endeavor in every possible way/ 
infinitesimal as our efforts may be, to afford them all the com- 
fort and assistance that they demand by reason of the invalu- 
able service rendered by the Canadian Expeditionary Forces on 
the field of battle. The wounded men for whom we must 
adequately provide have made supreme sacrifices for their 
country. They placed their lives in jeopardy so that we at 
home may continue to enjoy liberty and freedom. We cannot 
give them too great recognition." 

The foregoing remarks, made on Wednesday afternoon, 
October 4th, by Sir James Lougheed, Chairman of the Dominion 



^ov., 191G THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 165 

Military Hospital Commission, sent a wave of entliusiasm and 
loyalty through a large and representative assemblage of citizens 
who w^ere present at the formal opening of the Spadina Military 
Hospital, formerly the old Knox College. Sir Henry Pellatt, 
Chairman of the Toronto Division of the Dominion Military 
Hospitals Commission, occupied the chair. Among those on 
the platform were : Sir James Lougheed ; his Honor the 
Lieut.-Governor Sir John S. Hendr'e; Mr. W. K. George, 
Chairman of the Voluntary Aid Committee ; his Worship Mayor 
Church; Mr. W. D. McPherson, M.P.P., ChairiAan of the 
Ontario Soldiers' Aid Commission; Lieut.-Col. Alexander 
Fraser, Major W. J. Munn, and Controller Cameron. Repre- 
sentatives were present from the various fraternal societies and 
other organizations which have given much <-ime and labor 
to tTie cause of assisting in preparing comforts for returned 
wounded soldiers. The invocation was pronounced by Col. 
Canon Dixon of Trinity Church. 

Sir John S. Hendrie, in formally declaring the building 
open for the reception of wounded and disabled soldiers, said 
that as a citizen he believed he voiced public sentiment in 
declaring that such institutions had not come any too quickly. 
He thought the Ottawa Government should bear the expense of 
such hospitals. 

" Our sympathy goes out to those who have lost loved ones 
on the field of battle. Many of the men who have been through 
the tortures of war and disabled, I am sorry to say, will never 
again be able to return to the theatre of war. We gladly wel- 
come our wounded heroes upon their return to Canada, and we 
are glad to be able to provide for them comfortably and render 
them every assistance possible. They are deserving of all that 
we can do for them." 

Sir John urged that invalided soldiers who have no chance 
of ffoino" back to the trenches should be sent home to their 
relatives as soon as possible. 

" The Federal and Provincial Governments should not err 
on the side of economy in providing the best accommodation 
possible for the care of the sick, disabled and wounded soldiers, 
who have attained noble achievements with the different con- 
tin2;ents sent from Canada. This can only b(^ done by more 



166 THE HOSPITxVL WOKLD Nov., 191G 

funds, the generosity of tlie citizens and by having more hos- 
pitals of this character. The citizens have given money freely, 
and will continue to do so until the great struggle is brought 
to a close. The building is well equipped and our thanks go 
out to the various organizations, fraternal societies, the public 
school teachers and children, the clergymen, the Loyal Orange 
Association, the Ladies' Orange lienevolent Association, the 
Masonic Order and other kindred societies which have fur- 
nished the building, it is ju-t an evidence of the loyalty of 
patriotic Toronto.''- 

Following a brief outline of the relation of the Dominion 
Government to the work which is being accomplished by the 
Dominion Hos})itals Connnission, Sir James Lougheed said 
that while Canada had sent her forces to the war, it was equally 
important that those at home should co-operate with the Gov- 
ernment in making adequate provision for the caring of the 
wounded soldiers invalided home. Military hospitals had been 
established throughout the Dominion. The poli-ey ot the Gov- 
ernment and the Commission prox'ides for the establishment of 
such institutions as required from time to time during the 
progress of the war and afterwards. These hospitals are l)eing 
administered by the Government and the Hospitals Commission 
in conjunction with the many jiatriotic associations which 
have rendered invaluable aid. 

" I have the greatest confidence in saving that when woundeil 
and disaliled soldiers are assigned to these hospitals they wnll 
find that the most adequate provision has been made for their 
comfort," continued Sir James. '' The question of providing 
employment for returned soldiers is one of the most difiicult 
problems that faces the Government and the people of the 
Dominion. It is a problem that will have to be solved by the 
Federal and Provincial Governments. It is a matter of pro- 
found satisfaction to say that there has been a most enthusi- 
astic response on the part of the Ontario Government, and lead- 
ing citizens of mercantile and financial circles have expressed 
a willingness to assume their full share and resi)onsibility in 
working out this very complex question. 

" The Commission has been glad to note that the business 
community of Ontario has done much to better the position of 



Xov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD KiT 

the returned soldier, and tliere are many eases of soldiers who 
are able to work for their livelihood having been placed in 
better positions than they occupied before they enlisted. ISTo 
Provincial Government in the Dominion has responded with 
the same enthusiasm as the Province of Ontario. It has ren- 
dered invaluable services in every line of patriotic endeavor, 
has given money freely and with a will, and sent more men than 
any otlier Province in the Dominion." 

In tendering the thanks of the Dominion Hospitals Com- 
mission to the various organizations which so generously 
equipped the Spadina Military Hospital, Sir James Lougheed 
stated that he desired to especially thank the medical profession 
of Toronto for the splendid services the}' have rendered and 
gratuitously placed at the disposal of the differei^.t military hos- 
pitals and convalescent homes. Sir James added that the cor- 
poration of Toronto had demonstrated to the Dominion that 
she was ready to generously render financial assistance when 
called upon by the various funds and military units preparing 



to go overseas. 



Sir James Loiigheed further stated that over 6,000'wounded 
and disabled soldiers had already been distributed among the 
different military hospitals in the Dominion. Sir James also 
briefly touched upon the educational features of the work under- 
taken by the Commission in the matter of apprenticing soldiers 
who have recovered to different trades in order that they will 
be able to provide for themselves in the future instead of 
being a burden upon the country. 



MOWAT HOSPITAL LEASED 



MowAT Memorial Hospital of Kingston has been leased by 
the Canadian Military Hospitals Commission from October 1 
till three vears after the war. Additions will be made to tiie 



buildings. 



168 THE HOSPITAL WOULD Nov., 1916 

URGES CHANGES IN CANADIAN HOSPITALS 



A COPY of the report of the iuvestigation of Canadian hos- 
pitals in England by Col. Bruce, of Toronto, was recently handed 
to Surgeon-General Jones, Director of Canadian Medical Ser- 
vices. It is understood the report is a somewhat severe arraign- 
ment of the methods employed by the Canadian hospitals. 
Among other things, it is believed the report deprecates the fact 
that Canadians are not sent more to Canadian hospitals. The 
tabulation of statistics of the wounded is not satisfactory, 
V.A.D. hosjjitals unduly detaining wounded men fit for service. 

Defenders of the system declare the doctors at the front are 
too busy trying to save lives, and have no time at the edge of 
the battlefield to write histories of patients to senu back with 
them. These are sent later. 

.Apparently impartial critics state that a number of <'hanges 
are desirable in the Canadian system, but that those in authority 
in the Canadian Medical Services are not to blame, but are 
merely following out the rules laid down. The fault lies with 
the Canadian system itself. 

Among other recommendations, Colonel Bruce advises the 
taking over of the whole administration of Canadian Red Cross 
hospitals by the military, like the Ontario Hosjiital at Orj)ing- 
ton. The rej^ort declares that the Red Cross administration is 
costing forty-eight cents per man a day, while that in the mili- 
tary hospitals is thirty-two to forty-three cents daily. He also 
states that there have been difficulties in administration between 
the Canadian military services and the Red Cross, and he ad- 
vises closing the Buxton Springs Hospital for Rheumatism, say- 
ing that Canadians so afflicted are useless for service and had 
better be sent to Canada. 

We understand that Col. Bruce recommends outside the re- 
port, the establishment in Canada of five hospitals of 1,000 beds 
each at five different places for our sick and wounded. 

It is understood the Red Cross defence is that the slightly 
greater cost of Red Cross hospitals is more than compensated 
for by the comforts and accommodation given ; that there is no 
friction with the military, and that the hosj^itals are running 



Xcv., 1910 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 169 

most satisfactorily; that, fiirtihermore, the Canadian Eed Cross 
hospitals are not supported by the Government, but by private 
subscription, therefore Red Cross officials trust the Canadian 
public, whose consent is necessary to any change, and the Cana- 
dian supporters, in such event, must be compensated for any 
losses. 



A DEACONESS HOSPITAL FOR TORONTO 



That Toronto ougdit to have a Deaconess Hospital was the con- 
viction voiced by the Rev. Dr. \V. T. Perrin, President of the 
ISTew England Deaconess Association, in addressing an open 
meeting of the Methodist Deaconess Aid Society in the ISTational 
Training School the other day. 

In the United States, Dr. Perrin said, the Methodist Epis- 
copal \Church has 870 licensed deaconesses, or, with probation- 
ers, abcmt 1,000, compared with 70.000 sisters of charity in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

The deaconesses there have fifty-five homes, twenty-five hos- 
pitals, twelve training schools and five schools for general edu- 
cational purposes. 

The Xew Ena'land Deaconess Association has fiftv-three 
deaconesses in its home in Boston, has a fresh-air home in 
Haverhill, a rest home for working girls, a training school in 
Boston, a training school in Concord, and a home for aged 
Methodist women in Concord. 

But of all phases of deaconess work. Dr. Perrin spoke par- 
ticularly of the hospitals. The one started in Boston in 1890 
in a residence, has secured the support of the l)est physicians 
of that city, and now has seventy beds, while one in Concord 
has twenty beds. Last year these two 'hospitals cared for 1,462 
patients, and gave $8,467 worth of free service. It was inter- 
esting to hear that 184 of these patients were natives of Canada. 
Following the description of the work in Boston, Dr. Perrin 
made some strong representations in favor of starting a Dea- 
coness Hospital in Toronto. He spoke of the increasing demand 



170 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Nov., 1916 

for hosi3ital service everywhere, this being partly due to the 
realization that the hospital is the hest place for the average 
person to he sick in. As apartment houses multiply this realiza- 
tion spreads. 

Dr. Perrin went on to the opportunity for evangelization 
and the possibility of making the hospital a centre from which 
to send -out district nurses, and finally suggested that the estate 
of the late Mrs. Massev-Treble on Jarvis Street would make an 
ideal home for such a w^ork, and moreover it had been left in 
such a way that it could be had for such a purpose if desired. 
While Mr. Chester Massey had expressed himself as being quite 
in sympathy with such a movement, the speaker felt that the 
initiative should come from the outside, and that a peculiar 
responsibility rested on the people of Toronto. 

Such a Hospital would pay its own ^vay. Dr. Perrin 
said, and it would be possible to do much work free, as well. 

" Many people," he declared, '^ if you render the best i^os- 
sible service, will prefer your Hospital to any other, and pay 
your top prices for what many a person of means desires more 
than anything else, the Christian sympathy of such an 
institution." 

Douglas S. Robertsox. 



Among those from Canada who attended the meeting of the 
American Hospital Association in Philadelphia, a few weeks 
ago, were Mr. Webster, of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Mont- 
real ; Mr. Parke, of the Montreal General Hospital ; Dr. Robert- 
son, of the Ottawa General Hospital ; Dr. Clarke, of the Toronto 
General Hospital; Miss Florence Potts, Superintendent of 
Nurses at the Sick Children's Hospital, Toronto; Mr. John 
Ross Robertson, Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the Sick 
Children's Hospital, Toronto; Dr. Whyte, of the Isolation 
Hospital, Toronto ; Miss Grav, of Winnipeg General Hospital ; 
and Dr. Walker, of St. John,"^ N.B. 



l^ov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 171 

War Hospitals 



HISTORIC PLACE FOR MAIMED-CLARENCE 
HOUSE A HOSPITAL 



Ere this appears in j)rint a little contingent of Canada's sons^ 
non-coms, and privates, sick and wounded, some bereft of limbs 

in the war, and waiting the adjustment of artificial arms or legs 
will be comfortably lodged in spacious old Clarence House, lat- 
est addition to the Canadian Hospitals. 

Walking up a leafy lane through the charming suburb of 
Roehampton on the great city's outskirts, one enters a gate 
wherefrom a gravelled path leads to a solidly-'built mansion. 
Under the pillared portico at its front door royalty has often 
alighted from a coach-and-four, or, tossing the bridle to a groom, 

slipped from the saddle of a horse. For here, in days long gone 
by, lived ]\lrs. Jordan, the celebrated English beauty and actress, 
morganatic wife of William IV. 

'Tis said that still, in the dead of night, the spirit of its fair, 

former mistress sometimes appears, gliding about the hallways 
and the lofty reception rooms of the house wherein she once 

reigned. Her wraith, they say, is arrayed in a gray dress, and 
those perfect features which captivated a King of England 
still smile serenely. 

However, when the writer called a few days ago, none of 
the Canadian V.A.D.'s had seen the ghost. Sound asleep are 
these young ladies at such spooky hours, tired out with their 
work. Indeed, Miss Lewis and her staff have had a strenuous 
time getting the Hospital ready for the reception of their 
wounded countrymen. 

Situated In a finely-wooded park of several acres, and sur- 
rounded by the open spaces of other estates, Clarence House 
might well be right in the country, so fresih and healthful is the 
air. High ceilings and many windows make lighting and ven- 
tilation easy, and the various large rooms are rapidly being- 
transformed into pleasant wards. Indeed, many a wounded 



172 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Xov., 19 IG 

Canadian will say that he has never been so comfortably housed 
as in this suburban home. 

A Toronto boy, Pte. Weddin2:ton, was the first orderly to 
arrive, and, oddly enough, it devolved upon him to repair the 
fire-escape already on the building — a fire-escai^e invented by his 
own father. 

Clarence House is auxiliary to the King's Canadian Red 
Cross Hospital at Bushey Park. Opening with fifty patients 
the Hospital will shortly be ready to accommodate seventy-five 
or even one hundred. The staff of eleven comes mostly from 
Ottawa, ]\[iss Winnifred Lewis being in charge, with Mrs. H. 
Pinhey looking after the housekeeping arrangements, and ^liss 
H. Hughson, honorary secretary. Of V.A.D.'s there are: Miss 
June Allen, Toronto, and the Misses Mildred Goodeve, Marjorie 
Jones, Lillian Monk and Jessie McLachin (chauffeur), all of 
Ottawa, Ont. 



Nov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 173 

Personals 



Dk. F. a. Ayleswokth, who practiced for some years at Rose- 
neath, sailed the first week of October from Boston for London. 
Dr. Aylesworth expects to he identified with the Eye Department 
in the Howard University Base Hospital Unit. 



Major (Dr.) Munn. who was recently appointed Chief Medi- 
cal Director of the new Military Hospitals Unit, took up his 
new duties a few weeks ago and his office is at 1 Queen's Park, 
Toronto, the old Riordan residence. 



Caj)tain (Dr.) Ogden is now in charge of the Central Hos- 
pital on College Street, Toronto, with Capt. Ley in ^charge of 
the new Spadina Hospital. The latter hospital will be kept 
entirely for men who do not require constant medical treatment. 



Command of the Bramshott Hospital has been given to Col. 
R. C. McLeod, of the camp of the St. Francois Xavier unit 
which has been increased to the strength of a general hospital. 



Dr. W. S. Verrall, orthopedic surgeon, of Vancouver, B.C., 
has been appointed to succeed the late Dr. B. E. McKenzie as 
Superintendent of the Toronto Orthopedic Hospital. Doctor 
Verrall was a former member of the staff of the Toronto Ortho- 
pedic Hospital and an associate of Doctor McKenzie in his 
private practice. The hospital work will, of course, be carried 
on as usual. 



174 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Xov., 1916 

Book Reviews 



Physics and Chemistry for Nurses. By Amy Elizabeth Pope, 
Illustrated. New York and London : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
1916. 

With the marked advance in nursing educational standards 
comes the necessity for suitable text-books. We are pleased to 
recommend this little work on physics and chemistry, because 
of its practical character. The subjects discussed are easily 
grasped by the nurse of average intelligence. The chapters on 
cooking, cleaning and disinfection give examples of the eminent 
practicality of the work. Hundreds of interesting experiments 
are described. 

The book should meet with a kindly reception from nurses 
in training as well as from graduates. 



Practical Points in Nursing] By Emily M. A. Stoney, late 
Superintendent of Training School for I^urses, Carney 
Hospital, Boston, Mass. Fifth edition, revised by Lucy C. 
Catlin, R.IsT., of the Youngstown Hospital, Ohio. 12mo of 
511 pages, containing 102 illustrations. Philadelphia and 
London: W. B. Saunders Company. 1916. Cloth, $1.75 
net. 

The publishers of this book, now in its fifth edition, have 
very wisely had a nurse revise on this occasion. Since one of 
the strong points of the book is that it gives very definite direc- 
tions for actual nursing, it is fitting that they should come from 
a nurse. 

The book is written for nurses in private practice and is 
particularly valuable for them, as it contains in a comparatively 
small space much ready information on numerous subjects, 
commencing with the nurse herself, then the sick room, patient, 
appliances, food and different treatments. It cannot be recom- 



Nov., 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 175 

mended, however, as a text for use in a training school or as a 
book of reference. 

The chapter on Nervous Diseases, added in this edition, is 
somewhat elementary, hut nevertheless will he found helpful. 

This book has a definite field of usefulness. It will be found 
valuable by the nurse who has been engaged in private practice 
for some years, or by the recent graduate less familiar with the 
conditions as thev exist in the home. 

E. G. F. 



Burdett's Hospitals and Charities, 1916. Being the year book 
of philanthropy and the hospital annual. Containing a 
review of the position and requirements, and chapters on the 
management, revenue and cost of the charities. An exhaus- 
tive record of hospital work for the year. The most useful 
and reliable guide to British, American and Colonial hos- 
j)itals and asylums, medical schools and colleges, nursing 
and convalescent institutions, consumption sanatoria, relig- 
ious and benevolent institutions and dispensaries. By Sie 
Hei^ey Buedeti\ K.C.B., K.C.V.O. 27th year. ' London: 
The Scientific Press, Limited, 28 Southampton Street, 
Strand, W.C. 

Sir Henry Burdett, in his foreword, draws attention to the 
approaching vacancy which must in the ordinary course of 
events occur in the editorship of this annual — Sir Henry being 
now nearly three score and ten and having championed the 
voluntary hospital system for half a century. 

He states that if the book is to continue, it is essential that 

some competent and authoritative person with knowledge and a 

keen interest in the voluntary system should come forward and 

offer his services as a successor to Sir Henry in the editorship. 

The Annual, as usual, contains a statement of the volume 
of charity; a report on the King's fund and the League of 
Mercy ; on the nursing department, hospital Saturday and Siin- 
day, Missions, Orphanages, Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylums, 
and convalescent institutions. ' 



170 Til K HOSPITAL AVORLD Xov.. Iuk; 

Chapters are devoted to hospital construction, hospital 
finance and hospital conditions in United States, Candida, Aus- 
tralasia and India. 

The customary directory of institutions occupies the major 
part of the book. 

Every Canadian hospital should have a copy in its library. 



Radiography, X-Eai/ Therapeutics and Badium Therapy. Bv 
Robert Knox, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. With 64 plates 
and 246 illustrations in the text, and a frontispiece in color. 
London: A. & C. Black, Limited. 1915. 

This is a practical work, giving particular attention to the 
practical working of apparatus, hence of great value to the be- 
ginner in X-ray work. A goodly number of pathological dia- 
grams have been incorporated in the text. 

Of special interest are chapters on the localization of foreign 
bodies, radiography of normal bones and joints, diseases of 
bones and joints, examination of the thorax, alimentary system 
and urinary tract. 

The treatment of diseases of the skin, lymph glands, rodent 
ulcers, sarcomata, carcinomata, enlargement of the prostate, 
exophthalmic goitre, uterine fibromata and of diseases of the 
blood, lungs and mediastinum is given. 

Mr. C. E. S. Phillips writes the section on radium therapy. 

Dr. Knox has made a fine contribution to this new and 
engrossing subject. 



^uv., lUlO 



THE HOSPITAL WOULD 



x\n 




Walk-Over Shoes 

Correct Foot Troubles in a 
Natural, Comfortable Way 

THE WALK-OVER BOOT SHOP makes a specialty 
of fitting- shoes to deformed or abnormal feet . A wide range 
of over twenty lasts and at least 112 sizes in each last 
makes it possible for us to fit almost any foot, even though 
badly deformed, with a stylish and comfortable shoe. 

The doctor in charge of our Orthopedic Depart- 
ment is expert in the fitting of arch supports, 
made-to-order shoes, etc., and gladly gives free 
consultation and advice. 

Self-measuring FOOTOGRAPH charts will be 
mailed to out-of-town customers who do not find it 
convenient to visit the store. Full directions with 
each chart. 

WALK- OVER 
BOOT SHOP 



290 YONGE STREET - 

Also at 521 St. Catherine St. 



TORONTO 

Montreal 



[71 .o-^^(i«^i)<«a»()-^^o-^^<>-^^()'^^()-^^<i^^o^^i)-lH»<t^^<>-^^o-^^(i^^(>^^(>«^o-^^(>^H»f>-^^(i^^i}.«^(i'^^<)-^^(>^^ i-«^:i«^0'^».r71 

' j 

To make a good cup of cocoa \ 

Begin Right | 
Choose "BAKER'S" ! 




Prepare it carefully, following the direc- 
tions on the package, and you will find 
that every member of the family will 
thoroughly enjoy this delicious and whole- 
some beverage. Its healthfulness is assured 
by its purity and high quality. 

Made only by 

WALTER BAKER & CO. Limited 



Registered 
Trade-Mark 



I 

i 

I MONTREAL, CAN. 



Established 1780 



DORCHKSTER, MASS. 



Q]^^(^ j9»-{)^^(}-«^»o«^<>'«iM-o-«i»'<)'^^'i^^o-^a»<>-^^>>^^<>-^^' 



)^ii»(>-^i»(>^^(>« 



»(>4^»<)^^(»«^(>« 



I 

i 



vA'^he- -vritingr advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xviii THE HOSPITAL WOULD Is^ov., 1916 

NEW HOSPITAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 



Antiphlogistine in Foreign Lands 

" I TAKE pleasure iu informing you that both in the garrison 
Infirmaries where I was stationed, as well as when I was wath 
the troops in the interior, I have had every reason to congratu- 
late myself with respect to the good effects derived from 
iintiphlogistine. I regret that my time -is so occupied that I am 
unable to jot down a few succinct abbreviations, but I can assure 
you that I have obtained excellent results in cases of contusions 
and sprains, as well as in certain ulcerations and wounds affect- 
ing the lower limbs during the marches. To sum up — I havf 
obtained good results in every case in which a permanent warm 
dressing was indicated." 

Dr. Champxois^ 

First Assistant Physician, 
First Battalion Zouaves, 

Charon Garrison, Algiers. 



The Physician's Duty 

Physiciaxs are becoming more and more impressed with the 
value of prophylactic measures. Therefore to instruct patients 
of the gentler sex in hygienic and sanitary principles and pro- 
cedures is both a duty and a privilege. 

It is a fact, often not entirely appreciated, even by physicians, 
that the vaginal douche, properly employed, should be used fre- 
quently even in the absence of any abnormal condition. Despite 
the' opinions sometimes expressed that frequent douching is not 
advisable, that the natural secretions being sufficiently germi- 
cidal should be allowed to remain, etc., it is a matter of common 
knowledge and experience among women of any degree of 
refinement that proper toilet of the vaginal tract is as valuable, 
necessary and indispensable as the use of the toothbrush. 

This being true of women wdiose genital tract is in a normal 
and healthy condition, it applies with augmented force to the 
vast proportion of cases in which there is some abnormal con- 
dition present, such as excessive mucous secretions, leucorrhea, 
vaginitis, endocervicitis, endometritis, congestion, irritation, etc. 

It is indeed a matter of common and daily experience that 

women who are nervous, irritable, easily worried, cross, peevish, 

moody, etc., are often greatly benefited by the use of warm or 

hot vaginal douches, properly employed by means of a suitable 

apparatus or syringe. 

Cleanliness of the genital tract is for women not only a valu- 
able sanitary and hygienic measure, but also in many instances 
an absolute necessity, in order to prevent physical irritation or 
discomfort, as well as mental unrest. 



Nov., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XIX 



f 



Pneumonia, Pleurisy, 
Bronchitis, Quinsy, 
Laryngitis, Etc. 

increase with the coming of Winter, 
and suggest, to the Physician of wide 
experience and success, the important 
role played in these diseases, of 



1 EE r. D Y T 1 li Illi N V E R CW^j* 
WJDER, THE 1-oop AND •»■., 






ON 



Ll«^ DENVER CHEMICAL MFft^fl 

I'ttior. "SW YORK CITY. U. »■ *' ^fl^ 







SVPKXV _ 

erV'ALt. ^ 

-PBICE. BOCENTS 

"'iiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiMMTn""' 



Directions: — Always heat 
in the original container by 
placing in hot water. 
Needless exposure to the 
air, impairs its osmotic 
properties — on which its 
therapeutic action largely 
depends. 




"Antiphlogistine does not inter- 
fere with, or antagonize in any 
way, the internal medication in 
vogue by the several schools of 
medical practice. Its applica- 
tion IS external and its Chemical 
composition being known to the 



practitioner, he is- proceeding 
along scientific lines when he 
uses this safe, non-irntating, 
hygroscopic, depleting, blood- 
saving expedient, in the treat- 
ment of pneumonia and allied 
diseases." 



SEND FOR COPY OF "PNEUMONIA" BOOKLET 



By ordering Antiphlogistine in full and original packages : Small, <^edium, 
Large, or Hospital Size, "a perfect poultice" is assured. 



Physicians should WRITE '•Antiphlogistine" to AVOID "substitutes. " 



"There's Only One Antiphlogistine. " 



THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. COMP.ANY, MONTREAL 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD Nov., 1916 



The proper use of tlie Marvel Whirling Spray Syringe is 
not only instnmiental in the treatment of diseased conditions, 
but is also of great value as a prophylactic measure. 



Canadian Made Seed X-Ray Plates 

Patriotism is so often synonymous with a demand on the 
exchequer that it may surprise many a Hospital Superintendent 

to learn that at least in purchasing X-Ray Plates there need be 
no patriotic penalty of high prices, for the Canadian-made Seed 
X-Ray Plates — because it is made in Canada — can be purchased 
at most reasonable figures in comparison with foreign-made 
brands. 

These plates have been made at Toronto for the last couple 

of years, and are identical in quality with the Seed X-Ray 
Plate, made at R()chester, X.Y., which dias attracted so much 
favorable attention at the various conventions and association 
meetings across the line. Our readers are referred to the 

advertisement on page vi. 



A Powerful Antiseptic 

As hospital superintendents are aware, they have had consider- 
able difficulty for many years past in finding a really satisfac- 
tory disinfectant for use in institutions, particularly so now in 
view of the very high jU'ice of carbolic acid. Hosjutal authori- 
ties should look into the claims made for Polusterine, a new 
antiseptic and most effective germicide and disinfectant. 
Polusterine is soluble in water and is also non-poisonous and 
non-corrosive. Tr will be found to have a most pleasant odor 
for use in the sick room, the proportion for such use being a 
tablespoonful in a basin of water. For use in contagious disease 
cases, three tablespoonfuls of Polusterine placed m the slop jar 
or basin of water will be found most effective. The patient's 
linen should be wrung out in this solution before being moved 
from the room, and all night vessels should be kept one-third 
full of the solutiou at this strength. All discharges should be 
disinfected in this way, before being disposed of. This will be 
found i^articularly important in tyi:»hoid and Other contagious 
fevers. Polusterine used in the proportion of two to ten drops 
in a tumbler of water makes a most effective and pleasant mouth- 
wash. One tablespoonful in a pail or basin of hot water acts 
as a quick deodorant, and for spraying purposes one tablespoon- 
ful in half a pail of water. Polusterine can also be used for 
washing cuts, sores, ulcers, etc., in the proportion of two to three 
teaspoonfuls in one gallon of water. This preparation is manu- 
factured by the Polusterine Products Co. of Canada, whose head 
office is in Toronto. 



now, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELi) 



XXI 



The Largest Hospitals 



Made 

in 
Canada 



have proved 



^ULL NET WEIGHT 



iiSB' 



FLOOR 
. . WAX, 

5iSPKE4B0ULT0N."^ 



Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
wood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. 

Manufactured by 

COOKE & BOULTON, ^«|o''f^"o'nto ^ 



ISJgjHjajgjgj-gj^jgj-p r? rp r? r? r 




For soft, bleeding, spongy, re- 
ceding gums. Removes mucoid 
deposits and the daily accumulation 
of salivary calculus — an oral 
prophylactic of high efficiency in 
tooth cleansing- and tissue healing 
properties — for the prevention and 
treatment of 

PYORRHEA 

NOTE.— Ask for our latest booklet 
on Pyorrhea and Oral Hygiene. 
Mailed upon request. 



The 
Dentinol & Pyorrhocide Co. 

Incorporated 
110-112 West 40th Street NEW YORK 



jj-arajEJ"2LrsrajBJ"EjHraraj"arEJsr 



An Energy Producing Food 



It is of vital importance in severe 
cases of marasmus and other malnutri- 
tion disorders in infants, that the food 
given be easily and completely assimi- 
lated, supplying at the same time 
sufficient Energy and Body Heat. 



-^C*^ y3crrr^<>^ 



BRAND 














Condensed 
MILK 

THt ORIGINAL 

by clinical trial in these usually discourag- 
ing conditions will prove its value — pro- 
ducing prompt gain — thereby carrying your 
little patient over the critical period. 

Samples, Analysis, Feeding Charts in any language, and our 
52-page book, "Babxi's Welfare, " mailed upon request. 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - Montreal 

"LEADERS OF QUALITY" Kst. 1S57 

Branch Office : 2 Arcade Bldf ., Vancouver, B.C. 



.!_ 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



xxii THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Nov., 1916 

*' Chiclets " on Active Service 

Miss Myra Goodeve writes from Saloniki that the soldiers 
in the Hospital there have to take quinine in solution, and that 
the Chiclets sent them are greatly treasured '^ to take after their 
medicine." 



Headquarters for Hospital Gowns 

SurERiNTENDENTS,. wheu Ordering' new gowns for the 
theatre, should remember that The Miller Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 44 York Street, Toronto, make a specialty of such gar- 
ments. They have for years furnished many of our largest in- 
stitutions and are in a position to quote the lowest prices con- 
sistent with highest quality of materials and workmanship. 
They also supply hospital linen. They will gladly refer pur- 
chasers to other hospitals who have found their goods Al. 



Stewart's Duplex Safety Pins 

How often in the day duties of the hospital nurse is trouble 
experienced with certain makes of safety pins, through the head 
of the pin or the coil being unprotected and catching in the. 
bandage or gauze. We would hardly venture an answer to 
this. Surgeons land nurses will welcome for use in the hospital 
or in their obstetric bag Stewart's Duplex Safety Pins. They 
are made of a superior quality of brass wire and will not bend 
or unfasten easily. Both the head and the roil are ahsolutely 
protected by guards, so cannot catch in the clothing. They are 
also rust proof, and therefore particularly suited for wet dress- 
ings. They are packed, specially for hospital use, in five gross 
boxes. 



Electric Centrifuges 

The International Instrument Co., of Cambridge, Mass., have 
ha'd the honor of equipping the laboratories of some of the 
largest and most modern hospitals of both Canada and the 
United States. This firm manufactures Electric Centrifuges 
that have few equals, so satisfactory have they proved. Hos- 
pitals that have so far not placed an order for this line should 
do so promptly, las they will be found to be all that the manu- 
facturers claim for them. 



Nov., 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



XXlll 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




GERHARD HEINTZMAN 

GRAND ] 

SELF-PLAYER [ PIANOS 
UPRIGHT J 

Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on any instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City Hall) 



41 West Queen St., Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



/ 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Xov., 1910 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

^■^ ^^ WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Low-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 

than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 different 
operations as our higher grades — sells ior 
less because made from short staple cotton 
which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 
Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Mapiewood Mills 




Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 



The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 



PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 




4MM«JM{& 





XR A Y^N^ HIGH FREQUENCY 



APPARATUS 



iician 
Hospital 



Interrupterless 
X"Ray I'ransiormer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 1915 




Model "E" 

Portable X-Ray 

and High Fie- 

quency Coll 



Highest Araard to X-Ra^ and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass. 

Sales Agrencies— Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 

Heating and Ventilating cannot be 
made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "/vei7/i Fan "is uscd- 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
economical on account of its service 
- * and durability. 

See our new Catalogue No. 55 

Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont. 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 
AGENTS : 
Messrs. Ross & Greie. 412 St. James St., Montreal, Que. 
Messrs. Walkers Ltd., 261 Stanley St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Messrs. Gorman, Clancey & Grindley Ltd.. Calsrary and Edmonton, Alt*. 
Messrs. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancourer B.C., (Bank of Ottawa Bld».) 




Save Money m 



Save money and raise efficiency at the same time. Correct diagnosis 
is the keystone of Hospital Efficiency. Paragon X-Ray Plates help 
wonderfully in making correct diagnosis, because of their speed, 
reliability, and perfect results in contrasts and shadings. Their use is an 
economy because every exposure results in a perfect diagnostic radiogram, 
saving extra exposures. They also conserve tubes. 

THIS IS FREE 

Here is a little book which puts in the reach of every X-Ray 
operator a technic that eliminates guesswork, improves 
results, saves tubes and jilates, all through showing- how to 
know in advance of exposure just what time and what 
quantity of X-Ray to use on any case with any apparatus. 



PARAGON 
-X-RAY- 

POrNTERS 



n 



PLATES 




SENT FREE ON REQUEST 

"The X-Ray Bulletin" jives up-to-the-minute information of 
interest to the Roentgenologfist and his assistant. Send us the 
names of your staff, and we will send it to 
them regularly. It will show them economies. 



Geo. W. Brady & Company 

CHICAGO 



^/////mmin'iimn\mm\\\\\^^^ 




PHILLIPS' MILK OF MAGNESIA 

" The Perfect Antacid " 

For Correcting Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylate*, 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 

Of Advantage in Neutralizing the Acid of Cows' Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

Non-Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

^Vith Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To be relied upon where 
a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS. H. PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO, 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Representatives : The Wingate Chemical Co., Ltd., 545 Notre Dame W^., 
Montreal, who will be pleased to send samples upon request. 



Oft OPffirial (irgan nf ®l)e (Eanafitan Ifnaptlal AaHnrtattDti 



$3.00 
PER 

kmrn 



;(ferr<wi\fv. 



*V-«<pfl^-:. 




THE 



5o:c 

PEP 
COPY 



HOSPITAL WORLD 



Vol. X (XXI) Toronto, December, 1916 



No. 6 



CONTENTS 



EDZTOBIAIiS. 

Page 
The Canadian Hospital Situation 

Overseas 177 

OBIGINAI. CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Little Journeys. By Dr. J. N. E. 
Brown, Superintendent of Henry 
Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich... 183 

WAR HOSFITAI.S. 

The Canadian Army Medical Service 

Under the Searchlight 190 

Western University Hospital Unit. . 197 
Minnewaska Sanitarium, Gravenhurst 200 

Bramshott Military Hospital 201 

Base Hospital Takes Fire Precau- 
tions 201 



Page 

Another Canadian Convalescent 
Home for Officers at Dieppe, 
France 202 

The Duche.ss of Connaught Canadian 

Hospital at Cliveden 202 

War Hospital Kun Entirely by 

Women 203 

Queen's Hospital to Move From 

Treport 205 

CANADIAN HOSFITAI.S. 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital at Farnha-n, 

Quebec, iJurned 206 

Needs New W'ng 207 

Double Ontario Hospital 20S 

$51,000 Raised by the University 

Hospital Supply Association . . 208 
Hospital Items 213 



;-wr^rr^=s? f 5-^-fr- -rf 



'fj-^fr 



iS?y— .p; 



r«— sj^r— %»! 



Fellows^ Compound S3nrup 
of Hypophosphites 

1866-1916 

Not a new-born prodigy or an untried 
experiment, but a remedy whose useful- 
ness has been fully demonstrated during 
half a century of clinical application. 

For 50 Years The Standard 

5 Syr. Hypophos. Comp. FELLOWS' 

_ . ^ Cheap and Inefficient Substitute* 

Keiect^ Preparation! "Ju«t as Good" 






Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand nine hundred and twelv* 
by the Publlshars at the Department of Agriculture. All rights reserved. 



LISTERINE 



the well-proven and time-tried antiseptic solution, has been prescribed by the 
Medical Profession with very satisfactory results for 35 j^ears in the treat- 
ment of Respiratory Diseases incident to Fall and Winter climatic conditions. 



LISTERINE 



one part, hot water three parts, is a useful gargle for sore throat. In 
mucous catarrhs, Listerine, suitably diluted, is most effectively applied by 
means of the spray apparatus or douche. 



LISTERINE 



is not only a vehicle for specially indicated alteratives, resolvents and 
astringents, but is itself an efficient, non-irritating antiseptic that is safe, 
pleasing to the taste and promptly effective. 

A treatise on Respiratory Diseases will be forwarded members of the medical 
profession on request. 

LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY 

TWENTY -FIRST AND LOCUST STREETS, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
66 GERRARD STREET E., TORONTO 



ORDER YOUR THERMOGENE NOW 



Last season Thermogene was first put on 
the Canadian market with great success. 

Thermogene is displayed more in drug- 
gists' windows throughout the British 
Isles than any other proprietary article. 
It is also used extensively in the trenches, 
over 1,250,000 boxes being sold in France 
last year. 



Thermogene simply supersedes the old- 
fashioned poultices and plasters. It is 
British-made, from the inven'ion of Van- 
denbroeck, the great Belgian chemist. 
Being a scientifically prepared form of 
absorbent cotton, medicinally treated, 
possessing strong curative and heat gen- 
erating properties. 



^ CURATIVE WADDING ^ 

The approaching Fall and Winter Months mean a big trade 
in Thermogene for you, as a large demand will be created by 
our advertising in the daily papers and magazines through- 
out Canada. Send in an order for Thermogene to-day. 

Order from Your Wholesaler or Direct from 

Harold F. Ritchie Co., Limited 

10-12-14 McCaul Street Toronto, Can. 




Hec. !!)](; THE HOSPITAL WOELD 



Ether for Anaesthesia 

HARTZ 

AN ETHER SPECIALLY PREPARED 
AND PURIFIED FOR ANAESTHESIA 

By a new process invented by 
PROF. G. MICHAELIS 







This new process enables us to place with the 
Profession an Ether far superior to any Ether hereto- 
fore sold. By it, impurities, which have up to the 
present been found in small quantities in the best 
ethers, have been entirely eliminated. 

A SIMPLE TEST MAY BE APPLIED TO 
PROVE THE SUPERIORITY OF OUR ETHER 

If 10-CC of our Ether be shaken with 1-CC of Nessler's 
reagent, the reagent will not show more than a faint 
opalescence ; while if the same test is applied to other 
ethers the reagent will at once turn dark, due to the 
impurities which they contain. 

We Guarantee the Quality of Our Ether 
and Solicit Your Trial Order 

SPECIAL HOSPITAL PRICES FOR QUANTITY 

THE J. F. HARTZ CO., LTD, 

Physicians* and Hospital Supplies 

TORONTO CANADA 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



n 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 1016 



DOCTOR 



In those cases where it is so necessary that the 
temperature of the sick room be kept equable, 
you will be consulting the best interests of your 
patient in suggesting that they have installed a 

Clark Temperature Booster 

It can be readily installed on any Hot Water 
Heating System, New or Old. 

It will increase heat with no additional fuel 
consumption. 

It will hold a more even temperature in the room. It is low in cost. Durable in 
construction. Cannot wear out or rust ou . Fully guaranteed. Made only by 

W. E. Clark Limited, Toronto 

ALL RELIABLE STEAMFITTERS HANDLE IT 




J. S. GILES 



LICENSED VENDOR UNDER 
ONTARIO TEMPERANCE ACT 

WINES AND I.IQUOBS OF ALL KINDS. 

I am now in a position to fill orders for Wines, L,iquors. Spirits 
for use in the profession of Physicians and Hospitals, and to 
fill prescriptions in accordance with the Act. 



PRICE LIST 

Gin, Holland, Three Star. 
Rum, Jamaica, One Star. . 

Three Star 
Rye, Whiskey, One Star . . 

Three Star 



$2.00 
1.50 
2.00 
1.25 



Qt., $1.50 
1.50 



2.00 
1.00 
1.25 



GIX — CASE GOODS. 

London Dry $1.25 Qt. Bot. 

Plymouth ; 1.35 

Booth's Old Tom 1.35 

Canadian Dry Gins 1.00 

,$1.50, $1.75, $2.00 bot. 



BULK GOODS. 

Alcohol. 65 O.P Qt 

Brandv, Cognac, One Star. . . " 

Three Star. " 

Gin, Holland. One Star. " 

BRANDY — CASE GOODS. 

Hennessy's One Star Qt., $2.00 

Three Star '• 2.50 

V.O " 2.75 

RUM— CASE GOODS— $1.75 Qt. 
RYE WHISKEY — CASE GOODS. 
$1.00 to $1.20 Qt. Bot. 
Imported Scotch and Irish Whiskies, bottled by distillers. 

Canadian Port Wine 35c. and 50c. bot. 

Imported Port Wine.. $1.00, $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2.00 bot. Champagne, Qt., $4.50 
Imported Sherry "Wine. .$1.00, $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2.00 bot. " Pt., 2.75 

Vin St. Michel, Invalid Port.. $1.25 bot. Champagne, Louis Duvau, Qts., 2.75 

Guinness Stout, Qts., $3.75 doz.; Pts., $2.50 doz. " " " Pts., 1.75 

Ale, Beer, Porter, large bottles $1.80 dozen, including bottles. 

half bottles 1.25 

Refund of 3c, each on large bottles and 2c. on half-size bottles. The above 
prices include war stamps on wine. 

SHIPPING BY EXPRESS. 
Extra charge of 15c. will be made for crating one single bottle of Spirits, 
and 20c, extra for crating 12 bottles of Ale, Beer or Porter. 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 
Other prices and order forms mailed to any address upon appli- 
cation anywhere in the Province of Ontario. 

J. S. GILES, 110-112 CHURCH ST., TORONTO 



Dec, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 



111 



Exact Knowledge vs. Guesswork 

Where Do You Stand? 

All Modern Experience Points to the Absolute Neces- 
sity of Scientific Treatment of Boiler Feed Waters 

Dearborn Treatment, by its remarkable results, has convinced the industrial 
world that the remedy for boiler feed water troubles lies in scientific analysis and 
special treatment for each individual case. 

Dearborn Treatment is to ordinary "boiler compounds" what eminent, scien- 
tific diagnosis and prescription is to quack nostrums and "cure-alls." 

Dearborn Treatment is based upon an expert, scientific analysis of a sample of 

the boiler feed water you are using. The analysis, tests and compounding of the 
correct remedy are conducted in the largest, most modern and elaborately equipped 
laboratories and manufacturing plant devoted to the science of water treatment 
in existence. 

Dearborn Treatment gives you the benefit of the world's largest existing fund 

of data and experience relating to water treatment. 

Dearborn Chemical Company of Canada, Limited 

General Offices, Laboratory and Works, 1220-1230 Dundas St., Toronto, Ont. 






ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGES 
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

Are used in the Laboratories of the Leading 

Hospitals of Canada and the United States 

23 Church St. Cambridge, Mass. 

Send for Catalog Ca. 




Electrically Lighted 
Surgical Instruments 




Kjeldahl 
Stills 



Bottle 
Shakers 



Minot 
Rotary 



Paraffin 
Microtomes 



Modern General Diagnostic Outfit 

This Outfit now weighs but 4'/4 pounds, and measures 
3}4 X 7 X 15 inches, makine it very convenient to carry. The 
instmiments arc equipped with tuncrstcn lamps. 

Price : Case with battery and instruments, complete, 
$40.00. 

The more brilliant illumination and lower temperature 
of the tunesten lamps with which they are now equipped, 
have ETtatly increased the usefulness of E. S. I. Co. instru- 
ments, such as 

Jackson Bronchoscopes and Laryng^eal Specula 

Holmes Nasopharynx oscopes 

Tutlle and Lynch Procto-Sig'moidoscopes 

Braasch Cystoscopet 

Koch, Swinburne and Young Urethroscopes, etc 

Eighth Edition of our Catalogue upon request. 

ELECTRO SUBGICAMNSTRUMENT CO.. Rochester. N.V 



IV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 1916 



INVALID STOUT 

For Weak Folks 



f^'^QTRENGTHENING 
iiC ! nourishing qualities, conm- 
l3 i bined witti a really 
B0QO1H acceptable flavor, make 
Dominion Brewery's Invalid Stout 
the ideal beverage for convales- 
cents and bilious people. It is 
digestible and non-gassy. 

Order at any of the dealers 

Dominion Brewery Co., 



LIMITED 



TORONTO 




iiniiiiitiiiPiMiiiiiiii 



iitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiimiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiii 




No. 106. 

Strong, substantial, heavily silver- 
plated, highly polished. 



r*iiiliiMllllliini 



lliiiniiiliiiiiiii 



PHYSICIANS KNOW 



that the days of the common Drinkinc Cup arc passed 
and gone. One of the marked advances in Sanitation 
during the past year or two is the introduction of the 
Single Service Sanitary Drinking Cup as a guarantee 
against infection from many types of Communicable 
Disease. Not only Members of trie Profession, but 
all Public Institutions, including Hospitals, should 
acquaint themselves with the merits of 

The Vortex System 

which dispenses entirely with the washing and steriliz- 
ing of Glasses and Chinawarc, The VORTEX SYSTEM 
is unquestionably the most Sanitary in exis'ence and has 
already the endorsement of a large number of Health 
Authorities. It may be said without fear of contradic- 
tion that it meets the requirements of all Sanitary Laws 
in reference to the PREVENTION of THE SPREAD 
OF DISEASE. 

The cups are made of pure white rice paper, paraf- 
fined, and the initial cost is trifling. Once installed in 
an institution, the System will never be substitute'd. 
The cups are made for either hot or cold drinks and 
once used are immediately discarded. 

You are asked to write for particulars. 

Canadian 
Wm. A. Rogers Limited 

570 King Street West - - Toronto 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Dec, .1916 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 




U1M>M|A' 





XP A Y ^ND HIGH FREQUENCY 



APPARATUS 



iician 
Hospital 



Interrupterless 
X-Ray Transformer 



MEDAL OF HONOR 

Panama Pacific International 
Exposition 

San Francisco - 19i5 




Model "E" 
Portable X-Ray 
and High Fre- 
quency Coil 



Highest Award to X-Rap and High Frequency Apparatus 

CAMPBELL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Lynn, Mass. 

Sales Agencies— Principal Cities 



HOSPITAL EFFICIENCY 



Heating and Ventilating cannot be 
made an entire success in the Hospital 
unless the efficient "Keith Fan"h used- 

This Fan is made to meet the 
severest requirements of operation, 
producing a constant temperature and 
varied air volume according to your 
needs. It is built and constructed under 
the latest and most approved plan and 
in addition commends itself to the 
economical on account of its service 
and durability. 

See our new Catalogue No. 55 . 




~~»n«aSfi4>^ 



Sheldons Limited, Gait, Ont, 

TORONTO OFFICE, 609 KENT BUILDING 
AGENTS : 
Mesarc. Ross & Greie, 412 St. James St., Montreal, Que. 
Messrs. Walkers Ltd., 261 Stanley St., Winnipeg. Man. 

Messrs. Gorman, Clancey & Grindley Ltd., Calgary and' Edmonton, Alta. 
Messrs. Robt Hamilton & Co , Ltd., Vancouver B.C., (Bank of Ottawa Bldg.) 



When wiiiint; adverliser.s, please mention The Hospital World. 



VI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 1916 



CATALOGUE "C" 

jil write: for it,» 



^^^ write: Ft>i-c ii,« 

FOR^POMESOR HOSPITALS 

FOR CARRYING PATIENTS UP OR DOWN STAIRS. 
CAN ALSO BE USED ON THE LEVEL 
BY DETACHING CARRYING BARS, 
MAKES A FIRST CLASS 

LIBRARY VERANDAH 
ORSMOKINGROOMCHAIR. 

THE n 

Gendron 

MFG. CO. 

LIMITED 







COWAN'S COCOA 

IS ABSOLUTELY PURE 



As a sick-room beverage 
Cowan's Cocoa is highly 
recommended on account 
of its high quality and 
absolute purity. It is made 
of the best selected cocoa 
beans, scientifically blend- 
ed, and contains no for- 
eign elements. And it is 
prepared in a large modern 
factory where the most 
sanitary conditions are' 
maintained. 



THE COWAK CO., LIMITED 

TORONTO 



Hospital Superintendents 

should be glad to know that there's no pseudo-patriotic penalty 
of long price involved in the use of 

MADE-IN-CANADA 

SEED X-RAY PLATES 

In quality they are the same as the plate that has won the 
lead in the United States, and are offered at the same price as 
in the United States. 

Quality first, price next — you can have them both in home- 
made goods. It is economy to patronize home industry. De- 
scriptive Leaflet and Price List sent on request. 

CANADIAN KODAK CO. 

LIMITED 

TORONTO, CANADA 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tne Hospital 'World. 



Dec, IWIG 



THE HOSPITAL WOiiLD 



vn 



AN ODORLESS HOSPITAL 

The particular attention of Hospital Superintendents is called to 

ROSEALENE Odorless Disinfectant 

It is an ideal preparation for use in Institutions or the private sick room, as will be seen from the 
follo\ving letter received by the manufacturers : 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 
Chas. J. Hastings, M.D., Medical Officer of Health 

RIVERDALE ISOLATION HOSPITAL 
M. B. Whyte, B.A., M.S., Medical Superintendent 

Rosealene Products Limited, City. TORONTO, July 7tl>. 1916. 

GENTLEMEN : 

It affords me pleasure to testify to the value of Rosealene as a deodorant, particularly for Hospital 
use. I have used Rosealene with success as a deodorant where other c'isinfectants have not proved satis- 
factory. For bathrooms and bathroom utensils, sinks, e :.. it is ideal, having the advantage of being 
odorless and perfectly harmless, as \vell as most effective. Yours truly. 

KATE MATHIESON. Supi. of Sunt,. 
ROSEALENE is not only absolutely odorless, but stainless. 

Rosealene Odorless Disinfectant will , keep an odor suppressed twenty times as long as 
the old Coal Tar Disinfectant, %vith its obnoxious odor, hence the saving of disinfectant and labor. 
Rosealene Odorless Disinfectant will keep the odor from an ordinary toilet suppressed 
for twenty-four hours or longer, while the coal tar disinfectant destroys the odor only about one 
hour, when the odor of the toilet and the coal tar disinfectant "re both to be contended ■with as 
separate odors, proving lack of efficiency. 

We are ready and willing to supply any Hospital with more than sufficient ROSEALENE to 
thoroughly test it and unless it is, in every way, as represented ^ve expect no sale. Under such 
circumstances, is it not worthy of a trial 7 

ROSEALENE PRODUCTS LIMITED ^^'oRON%°ciNADk* 

Telephone Adelaide 3659 



CEND your Christmas 
^ parcels for overseas 
early this year — there'll 
be a rush later. 

To give a lot of pleasure, 
include 

Adams' 

Tutti Frutti 

Gum 

A box holds five different 
flavors, securely wrapped. 
This is good to remember 
and to suggest to your friends. 



PHYSICIANS PREFER 



GLOSS 



d 



G/ r FLAT 

WHITE ENAMEL 

SANITARY 

WASHABLE 



-DUSTPROOF 



ARTISTIC 

Will Not Turn Yellow 

Elastica ^'^*^ Perfect Floor Finish 
— Send lor Sample Paper 



TORONTO 



ON FARIO 



When wiitinj; advertise, s. ple.ise mention Tlis Hospital WorUl. 



vm 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 1916 



The Alexandra 

University Avenue 
TORONTO 



Offers many advantages in 
its unequalled location, ex- 
cellent cuisine, quietness and 
solid comfort. The accom- 
modation offered ranges from 
one Bedroom with Bath to 
Suites of one and two Bed- 
rooms with Bath and Parlor 

FoTJurther injormaiion write the Manager 

The Alexandra 

University Avenue 
TORONTO 



A Strictly 
Sanitary Laundry 

Two of our strong points are: 

1st. We will not accept laundry 
from any place where there 
is contagious disease. 

2nd. Our prompt delivery. 

Ever go to dress and find 
that CLEAN LINEN you 
counted on hadn't come ? 

No trouble like that with 
the Yorkville Laundry 
Prompt delivery is an ab- 
solute rule with us. 

Yorkville Laundry 

45 Elm St., Toronto Phone M. 1589 



RETAIL PRICES 

No. 1-$1.50, No. 2-$2 
Quantities- 



Floor-Polisher 




DUSTING 



MOP 



CHEMICALLY TREATED 
Two Sizes 




This is the most effec- 
tive style for Institu- 
tional uses. The fabric 
spreads in use, No. 1 
to 19", No. 2 to 23". 
Every trial results in 
repeat orders. 

Address — 

TARBOX BROS. 

Rear 274 Dundas St., TORONTO 

When writing- advertisers, please mention The Hospital "World. 



Dee., 1916 



THE IIOSriTAL WOIUA) 



IX 



Protect Your Health 

OPHE various contagious diseases 
•*■ that have existed the past year 
should be sufficient warning to all 
householders to insure good health. 

The constant daily use of a Reliable 
Odorless disinfectant will prevent the 
spread of disease germs and leave a 
clean, healthy atmosphere. 

CU hlorides 

1^1,3 inrGc-tan-b 

Sold everywhere in two sizes — 25c. 
and 50c. 

Safe, efficient and economical. 

Does not stain it diluted. 

HENRY B. PLATT, 51 Cliff St. 

NEW YORK CITY 




A POPULAR PHYSICIAN 

The >.ommon-sense treatment 
of uric acid diathesis, gout, and 
other therapeutically trouble- 
some stages of rheumatism, by 
recommending the dail.y use of 
PLUTO WATER has helped to 
build many a physician's repu- 
tation. 

Clinical data, pubstantiating 
the claims made for PLUTO 
WATER mailed on request. 

PLUTO 

Bottled by the FRENCH LICK SPRINGS HOTEL CO., 
French Lick, Indiana. 




LIABILITY of 



PHYSICIANS, SURGEONS, DENTISTS 
and DRUGGISTS 

LIABILITY on account of 

Automobile Accidents 

involving injury to PERSONS or PROPERTY (including Owner's) 

INSURANCE for LOSS OF INCOME 
by reason of ACCIDENT and SICKNESS 



UNDERTAKEN BY 



The General Accident Assurance Company of Canada 

Continental Life Building, Toronto, Ontario 
Represented in aU important parts of Canada. Enquiries respectfuHy solicited 

JOHN J. DURANCE, Mananer 



When writing- advertisers, please niention The Hospital World. 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec. 1916 



Canada 

Has 

No 

Pure 

Bedding 

Laws: 

We 

Have" 



HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT ^^'hen in the market for beds, mattresses or 

1 kindred hospital equipment, ask us to quote 

prices. Many Canadian hospitals use Alaska beds and Ostermoor mattresses. 

THE PARKHILL MANUFACTURING CO.. Limited 

Successors to The Alaska Feather & Down Co., Limited 
WINNIPEG MONTREAL VANCOUVER 





GERMICIDAL SOAP 

For Hospital use. the Soap par excellence. 

For preparing antiseptic solutions ' no weighing, measuring 
or waste . 

For sterilizing hands, instruments and site of operation. 

For cleansing wounds ( bruises, abrasions, ulcers, etc.). 

For disinfecting surface lesions. 

For lubricating sounds and specula. It does not affect nickel 
or steel instruments, but acts on silver or aluminum. 

Germicidal Soap lends itself to a hundred uses in the Hospital. 
Our w^ord and reputation are back of its worth. 

Sample with descriptive literature sent on request. 

PARKE, DAVIS Ch CO. 

WALKERVILLE ONTARIO 

Eastern Depot — US St. Paul Street \V'.. Montreal. Quebec. 



"SVlien ■nTitin? advertisers, please mention Ti:e Hospital Worli. 



Dec. IfMO 



THE irOSriTAL \V(Jl{Ll) 



XI 




TW^^^TT^^rnTTTTT 



^nwnT^TTTffWTTW 



■ ■ IIMIIIHtliMMIMMiMIMMf UiHIIIIMMtlMMMHIII 



Physician's Scale. 

Designed especially for use in Hospitals, 
in offices of physicians. Something that is 
essential in connection with every private 
bathroom. 

Scale is ordinarily finished black, with bronze 
ornamentation, but is also furnished in ligrht colors, 
elaborately ornamented, with nicWel-plated beam 
Scale is furnished with or without measurinK rod 
as desired. Write (or prices. 

GURNEY SCALE CO. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 




'Tes--my dear 

Lifebuoy Health 
Soap is most re- 
freshing, cleansing 
and healthful after 
the day's work. " 

The cream of oils 
it contains is sooth- 
ing and healing as 
well as cleansing, 
while its mild car- 
bolic solution means 
no germs. The odor 
proclaims Lifebuoy 
an honest Soap — it 
vanishes immediate- 
ly after use. 



11 All grocers sell 



LIFEBUOY 

HEALTH 



5 DAP 



Ibll 



'HH" l !" 'l " :l' " i " l H |l i l,| M ,|||li ll| l ii||| i| 



When writing advertisers, please mtrniiuii Tl.e Hut>i>ltal Worl<i. 



xii THE HOSPITAL WOELD Dec, 1916 



To Lysol Buyers 



THE attention of the Hospitals is respectfully 
called to this FACT, that when in need 
of the above they can procure an article 
identical to Lysol, under the name of " Solyol," 
which is manufactured in Canada and is guaranteed 
by Bacteriological and all other tests to be identical 
to Lysol. 

They also manufacture Polusterine, the only non-poisonous 
disinfectant on the market with the same Rydal Walker co- 
efficient as the above. This is a medicinal article prepared 
from the essential oil of the pine (Pinus Palustris) with 
Eucalyptol, Oil of Thyme, etc.; is miscible in water to any 
strength desired and has the pleasant odor of the pine. Will 
dry up Poison Ivy and Scaly Eczema in from four to eight 
days. Contains neither Soap nor Rosin. Ideal for bathing 
patients recovering from contagious diseases. 

SAMPLES AND LITERATURE WILL CHEERFULLY 
BE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO THE 

POLUSTERINE PRODUCTS CO. OF CANADA 

Toronto, Ont. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

OFFICERS' KHAKI UNIFORMS 

AND EQUIPMENT FOR 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

WARRANTED Correct in Dasij.i aad Fit at Raasonable Prices 



DOCTOR'S HOSPITAL SUITS 
HOSPITAL LINEN 



THE MILLER MANUFACTURING, LIMITED, 

44-46 YORK STREET - - TORONTO, ONTARIO 

Uniform Contractors to the Dominion and Imperial Governments. 

When Enquiring be sure to Specify what you are Particularly Interested in. 



"When writing- advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



Dec. 19] G 



THE HOSPITAL WUKLJ) 



Xlll 



Ingram 

& 

Bell 

LIMITED 

TORONTO 



OurSundry Catalog 
awaitsyour request 



Hospital Supplies 



Sole Agents for 

BR AM HALL DEANE 

HIGH PRESSURE STERH.IZERS 

WAPPLER TRANSFORMERS 

and 

HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS 



Our Specialties : 



Manufacturer's of 

HYPODERMIC TABLETS 

COMPRESSED TABLETS 

ELIXIRS, OINTMENTS, Etc. 

FULL LINE OF DRUGS 



A postal requesting quotations will receive 
imm:diate attention. 



La Deesse 
Corsets 

Excel in Style 

Comfort 

Satisfaction 




Try them and be 
convinced. 



GASTROGEN 

TABLETS 

Correct 
• v. 

lYPERACIDITY 

Sample On Request 
Bristol' Myers Co. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 




I 






^^STRO(r£•;Vi 
TABLETS 



A NcuTuia M Ow Jtnc I 



msssssasoi, 



n»*.'i,:i.^*tn»> 




When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 191(> 



CALYDOR SANATORIUM ON LAKE MUSKOKA 

Dr. G. D. PARFITT, Medical Director. 




A new and especially constructed sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis in a climate 
that is fine, sunny and invigorating both summer and winter. With the facilities afforded 
the out-of-door life in winter will be found entirely agreeable as well as highly beneficial. 

Accommodation for twenty-one patients. Convenience and comfort most carefully 
studied. Every room has private sleeping porch to which bed may be readily rolled through 
French windows. Several pairs of rooms en suite, with bath. Elevator. Excellent heatine: 
system. 

Efficient nursing service. Thoroughly modern laboratory and X-ray room. 

Particular attention given laryngeal cases. Collapse of the lung, tuberculin and 
specially prepared vaccines used when indicated. 

Moderate Rates. Dr. D. W. Crombie, Resident Physician. 

For information address: Calydor Sanatorium Iiimited, Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada. 



"r\OCTOR : — In this age the critical and progressive 
■*^ Doctor has a keen appreciation for that which is 
giving quick results. 

JAMUN COMPOUND IN DIABETES 

IS SPECIFIC I IM ACTION 

A modern product, strictly ethical. Literature will 
be sent to members of the Medical Profession upon 
application. 

The National Drug and Chemical Company are 
the wholesale distributing agents for Canada. 

THE JAMUN COMPANY 
343-344 Loeb Arcade, - - Minneapolis, Minn. 



Wlien writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Dec, 191G 



THE HOSPITAL \V()1?LI) 



XV 




ARTIFICIAL EYE AID 

If it were not for tfie Eyeglass, the Spectacle 
and the combination of lenses. Scientists and the 
world would be laboring in darkness. 

TORONTO OPTICIANS, Limited 

(PERCY THE OPTICIAN) 
6 BLOOR STREET EAST - Corner of Yonge Street 

PHONE NORTH 2824 TORONTO 

Oculists' Prescriptions Filled 

LENSES GROUND ON THE PREMISES 



SANITARY WASHING APPLIANCES 

Manufactured by 

CANADA WIRE AND IRON GOODS CO., HAMILTON 




Illustrating our HOLDER AND BASKETS for Sterilizing Glasses and Silverware 

This type of equioment is in use at llie Guelph Asricultura! College. IXQUIRIES SCLICITFl) 

We Manufacture METAL LOCKERS and HOSPITAL TABLES 



Physicians With 
Autos— Attention! 

HOSPITAL FOR 
AUTO TOPS 

Your auto top is as essential in bad 
weather as your top coat. 

If it is leaky or shabby, we repair it — 
WATERPROOF it and guarantee it not 
to leak, rot or mildew ; you can put it 
down directly after a shower. If it is 
new we PRESERVE it indefinitely. 

We replace broken celluloid, repair 
envelopes, side curtains, etc. 

Old tops made good and serviceable. 

The T. Hopkins Auto Top 
Renew Company 

200 Gerrard Street East 
(Cor. Sherbourne) 

M.^4426 TORONTO n!*3T62 



For Hospital Sun Rooms 



A.r S M A L i:S,;y^^:f[^, f- 
IM PROVED 'i/i :c—^-W<^^j > 



l^N AQUARIA 




114 O'HARA AVE. TORONTO." 



SAL HEPATICA 

The Ideal 

Saline 

Eliminant 

In 

Rheuiniatic 

Conditions 

Bristol' Myers Co. 
New York 




XVI 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec. 1916 



WHEN ORDERING 



Hospital Sheeting 
Hot Water Bottles 
Rubber Tubing 
Surgeon's 

Bandages 
Umbilical Belts 



Ice Bags 
Atomizers 
Breast Pumps 
Invalid Cushions 
Operating 

Cushions 
Vaginal Douches 



Ice Caps 
Syringes 
Catheters 
Colon 

Tubes 
Pessaries 
Urinals 




SPECIFY OUR BRANDS 

We are the only Makers of these Goods in Canada 



CANADIAN CONSOLIDATED RUBBER CO. 

LIMITED 

MONTREAL - - P.Q. 

28 " Service " Branches Throughout Canada 



TIT? A ^ A T Granular 
^ XVrVkjrVl^ Effervescent 

Urotropin, Piperazine, Benzo-CitrateHof Lithia 

The contmual mcreasmg demand demonstrates the 
results Physicians derive from the use of this Salt in 
Rheumatism, or where the medicants are indicated. 

Free Sample on Request. 



Frank W. Horner, Limited 

Manufacturing .Chemists 

142 St. Urbain Street -:- Montreal 



When writing advertisers, please mention Tlie Hospital World. 



®1|^ If pa^ittal Wvitih 

(Incorporating The Journal of Preventive Medicine and Sociology) 

A Journal published in the interests of Hospitals, Sanatoria. Asylums, and 
Public Charitable Institutions throughout the British Empire. 



lEbttorH 



" Ifaopital Haintf naitrf antt 
Jffiuanrp " 



C.J. CO. HASTINGS. Medical Healtt 
Officer. City of Toronto: HELEN MAC- 
MURCHY. B.A.. M.D.. Assistant Inspector 
of Hospitals, Province of Ontario ; and MR. 
CONRAD THIES. late Secy., Royal Free 
Hospital. London. England. 

" IJ^OBpttal iEqutpmpttt anJ» 
Appltanrpa " 

N. A. POWELL. M.D.. CM., Senior 
Assistant Surgeon in charge Shields' Emerg- 
ency Hospital, Professor Medical Jurisprudence, 
Medical Department. University of Toronto. 

" l^napitalfl aitJi Prpuptttiuf 
iKcbirine " 

J. W. S. McCULLOUGH. M.D.. Chief 

Officer of Health for the Province of Ontario. 
J. H. ELLIOTT. M.D., Asst. Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Toronto. 

P. H. BRYCE. M.D., Chief Medical Officer, 
Dept. of The Interior, Ottawa. 



" Nuratitg Hpparlmrnt " 
MISS MARGARET CONROY. Boston 

Mass. 

" Ifospttal Qlnnalrurtion " 

CHRISTIAN R. HOLMES. M.D.. Cincin- 
nati. Ohio ; DONALD J. MACKINTOSH. 
M.D.. M.V O., Medical Superintendent, 
Western Infirmary, Glasgow. 

" fMrbtral ©rgantEaltnn " 

HERBERT A. Bi.UCE. M.D., F.R.S.C. 

Surgeon. Toronto General Hospital. Toronto ; 
H. A. BOYCE. M.D.. Kingston. Ont. ; H. 
E. WEBSTER. Esq.. Superintendent the 
Royal Victoria Hospital. Montreal. P.Q. ; 
W. A. YOUNG. M.D.. L.R.C.P.. London. 
Consultant. Toronto Hospital for Incurables. 
Toronto. 

" ^urtalogi} " 

J. T. GILMOUR. M.D., Warden, Central 
Prison, Guelph, Ont. 

" Subrrruloata Sanatoria " 

GEORGE D. PORTER, M.D., Toronto : 
J, H. HOLBROOK. M.B.. Physician-in- 
Chief, Mountain Sanatorium. Hamilton, Ont. 



All Communications, Correspondence, and Matter regarding Subscriptions and 

Advertisements TO BE ADDRESSED TO "THE HOSPITAL 

WORLD." 145 COLLEGE ST.. TORONTO. ONT. 

Reprints, including Half-tones, etc.. Supplied Authors at Net Cost. 



Vol. X. 



TORONTO, DECEMBER, 1916 



No. 



Editorials 



THE CANADIAN HOSPITAL SITUATION 

OVERSEAS 



Judging from Colonel Herbert Bruce's report, 
recently filed with the Minister of Militia, a resume 
of which will be found in this issue, there are many 



178 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Dec, 1916 

reasons why the different Hospital Units sent from 
Canada and now stationed in England, France, 
Egypt and Greece are in immediate need of re-organi- 
zation. It is quite evident that there has been gross 
mismanagement in many quarters, and our Depart- 
ment of Militia and Defence did well in sending so 
representative a member of the profession in Canada 
to look into hospital affairs in the Old Country and, 
in conjunction with a duly appointed Board, make 
recommendations that would result in such matters 
being put on a proper basis. 

The report is exceedingly thorough and compre- 
hensive and will have a most beneficial effect, provid- 
ing meddling politicians be told that it is a case of 
" Hands off." 

Artists tell us of the great importance of true per- 
spective, so in discussing any absorbing question of 
the day, everything depends on the viewpoint, the 
correctness of which can only be judged by having, 
for its pivotal point, incontestable fact. Unfortu- 
nately, hastily formed opinions and rushing into the 
lay press, and commands flying across the cable wires 
by partially informed ladies, have caused comment 
and discussion of the report, which to the minutest 
detail is based on verified fact. 

Women have taken a beautiful helpful place in 
this world's war — all hats off to them ! — but we im- 
plore them to stay on that pedestal where they 
have so worthily climbed, revered by all, and not come 
down to meddle in what is not their business. Knowl- 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 179 

edge is power; but a little (executive) knowledge is 
a dangerous thing. 

Who is there who does not proudly claim alle- 
giance to Great Britain, and who dares not to honor 
the Grand Old Flag that has so long and so nobly 
" braved the battle and the breeze "? We know of 
none. Then why even refer to Imperialism, or hint 
at the lack of that spirit in those whose views slightly 
differ and prefer that their boys convalesce in a Cana- 
dian hospital, under a Canadian surgeon, with a 
Canadian nurse to hasten them back to health. Is 
it not the most natural thing in the world for those 
who have given their all to prefer that their hus- 
bands, sons or sweethearts occupy a bed alongside of 
a pal from the same regiment or a feilow townsman 
from the same city to cheer him on. By all means, 
we say, have Canadians sent, as soon as practicable, 
from the Field Hospital nearest where they were 
wounded, to a Base Hospital sent and equipped by 
Canada, " Daughter she may be in her mother's 
house, but (let us not forget) mistress in her own." 
Unless this is done the Canadian Army Medical Ser- 
vice is not fulfilling the purposes for which it was 
originally designed, viz., the attendance on Canadian 
sick and wounded. 

As the report says, there should be proper and 
careful use of the money sent by Canadians, often at, 
a sacrifice undreamed of by the English people, v/ho 
seem to think always of Canada as a land " flowing 
with milk and honey " — '' Please send on the combs; 



180 THE HOSPITAL WOI^LD Dec, 1916 

England will graciously accept them and enjoy the 
honey." 

The heart of young Canada is not in her gifts, but 
as the days go by even greater sacrifice may be neces- 
sary, so every care should be used in expending even 
the pennies. 

There are many points in the report to which we 
would like to refer at length, but space does not per- 
mit. We fear that it is all too true that many officers 
have been given commissions who have been worse 
than failures in private practice, and here is where 
politics is the curse of any nation. We are sorry to 
learn that there are medical officers who have been 
drug addicts and alcoholics. Why such appoint- 
ments? Such men are useless as officers and most 
detrimental to their unit. The subject of promotion 
has also caused a great deal of trouble during the 
past two years and must be put to rights. In many 
cases there has been no relationship whatever 
between the length of service and the ability of the 
officer, on the one hand, and his rank on the other. 
We could name many instances of medical officers 
who have been promoted, and who on arriving Over- 
seas compare most unfavorably with their juniors. 
Why, we ask, is it a well-known fact that our younger 
men, who do the nerye-racking work at our Field 
Dressing Stations, seldom or never receive promo- 
tion, and those who remain at the Base are immedi- 
ately promoted to the rank of major or lieutenant- 
tolonel? What excuse could there be for the employ- 
ment of our best known specialists on routine work ; 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 181 

our surgeons, for example, employed in the treatment 
of dysentery in the Balkans ? It would also appear as 
if there is no doubt whatever that the physical exam- 
ination of our recruits at the time of enlistment has 
been exceedingly bad, and that the Government has 
been put in for the outlay of many thousands of 
dollars through a regular army of men having to be 
returned to Canada as physically unfit, the records 
showing that the Canadian Government expends at 
least $3,000 on every enlisted soldier by the time he 
completes his training. Dealing with the subject of 
operations. Colonel Bruce denounces as utterly use- 
less many operations done, apparently by a lot of 
younger surgeons, and which produce no increased 
military efficiency. " War," he states, '' is not a post- 
graduate school, where surgery or any other private 
hobby may be cultivated by individuals at the expense 
of the country." What is the reason for all this? It 
is all the result of Governmental incompetence, fear 
and favoritism. 

The wretched state of affairs as shown must be 
handled at once without fear, but with courage and 
determination. Will this be done, or are those incom- 
petents and moral weaklings to continue in office? 
Promotion must be by merit and merit alone. The 
mess must be cleared up forthwith. 

The medical profession throughout Canada is 
proud of the ability of our confrere in making such 
a report, of his courage in telling the unvarnished 
truth (knowing it might cause personal criticism). 



182 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

and for his patriotism in standing to his guns, like 
the true Canadian he is. 

The war has called some to honor, many to sacri- 
fice, and more to service. It is easy to be an arm- 
chair critic in relation to the management of the war, 
the care of its wounded, and many subjects allied to 
the world's saddest hour. The temptation for riding 
roughshod with a " hobby " for a mount seems very 
alluring, especially to a certain type of woman. The 
great Kitchener left a new commandment, ere he 
slipped off into the Great Unknown Adventure: 
" Silence." Was that his legacy? We wonder? 

W. A. T. 

November tlie second. 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 183 

Original Contributions 



LITTLE JOURNEYS 



BY DR. J. N. E, BROWN. 
Superintendent, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. 



THE CINCINi^"ATI GEA^ERAL HOSPITAL. 

This hospital is located some three miles from the centre of 
the city of Cincinnati. It occupies a commanding positon, 
there being fine vistas every way one looks. 

The Cincinnati General Hospital is a city-owned institution, 
managed by a board of five commissioners, one of them being 
the mayor. The leading spirit of the institution is Dr. C. R. 
Holmes. Dr. Holmes is dean of the medical college which is 
aifiliated with the hospital, and provision is made in all the 
departments for the teaching of students. A large amphitheatre 
is provided in both the surgical and pathological units for 
didactic work. The laboratories in the pathological building 
are well provided with working space for the students. A sep- 
arate gowning room is provided for them in the operating- 
building. Mrs. Holmes is undertaking to provide a buffet for 
them. 

During the fifteen years of arduous campaigning by Dr. 
Holmes, he has had inuch opposition — the indifference of the 
public and the opposition of certain politicians. His policy 
has been to educate the common people — the laboring class, 
which he has won over almost to a man. He has addressed 
representative labor organizations and fraternal organizations, 
and even addressed meetings on the street corners. He pointed 
out to the poorer and middle class of people wlio looked to the 
old hospital for care — tumble down, ramsliackk', infested with 
rats and vermin — what they had a right to expect as citizens 
and taxpayers. 

The hospital is open to visitors daily — not to the general 
wards alone, but also to the contagious wards. The relatives 



J 84 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 11)16 

and other visitors wear gowus, wash and take the same pre- 
caution as the doctors and nurses take. 

The educative value of this procedure was well illustrated 
by a story Dr. Holmes tells: A certain Mrs. Flannigan, whose 
child had recovered and gone home, called at a neighbor's 
house where a child lay sick wdth the scarlet fever. Observing 
that the family doctor in visiting the child did not put on a 
gown, remarked to the mother of the sick child, " Shure, Mrs. 
O'Flaherty that doctor nades educatin'." 

The institution is built on the corridor pavilion plan. The 
pavilions, as a rule, run north and south and are seventy-five 
feet apart. The head house is at the north end. At the end of 
the headhouse is the corridor which consists of open arches, 
beneath this corridor are the connecting tunnels, and the top 
of the tunnel is available for getting patients out of doors. The 
pavilions are arranged in two rows ; and between these two 
rows are situated the receiving department, the kitchen and the 
operating building. These service buildings are sufficient to 
meet the needs of at least 1,400 patients. The administration 
building is in a line with the central pavilions and faces the 
entrance to the hospital. The pavilions are three stories in 
height w4th a basement and a flat roof. 

These roof wards are open to the sky, and are quite unique. 
They are surrounded by a wall about ten feet high with a coping. 
This surrounding wall is well supplied with windows wdiich 
are covered with glass and have protective bars. 

It is proposed to stretch a canvas from the top of the coping 
on one side to the coping on the other side, thus giving shelter 
from the sun and rain. This open ward is supplied with the 
usual accessory rooms, kit<:'hen, toilet, and utility rooms, etc. 
A water pipe conveniently located permits the flushing of the 
roof in summer, which not only cleanses the surface but also 
cools it. A steam outlet is also provided which enables them 
to melt the snow which collects on the roof in winter, thus 
keeping the floor available for the use of the patients. 

As the hospital proper has only been occupied for a short 
time, the roof wards have not come into general use as yet. 

Dr. Holmes has spent some fifteen years in the careful study 
of hospitals, not only in America, but also in Europe. He has 



Dec, I<Ji6 THE HOSPITAL W'OKLD J8o 

taken particular pains to work out the ward unit— in fact he 
had given more attention to this point than any one whom the 
writer has known. 

The Cincinnati ward unit, as before stated, runs north and 
south. It consists of the ward proper and the sul)sidiarv rooms 
located on each side of the corridor. The corridor is 07 feet 
long and 8 feet wide. The ward is 90 feet long and 30 feet 
wide and 13 feet high. Upon one side of the corridor, com- 
mencing at the entrance is a treatment room, in which blood and 
urine are examined, four small wards (one with two beds and the 
others with one bed each) a closet for warming blankets, a linen 
supply room with a drying room off it, a nurses' toilet room, and 
a housekeeper's sink room. On the other side of the corridor 
are a kitchen, dining room for convalescent patients (opening 
into the kitchen as well as into the corridor), a bathroom and 
sink room. 

Between the kitchen and the general corridor connecting 
the pavilions are an elevator and a stairway, and between these 
two latter and the corridor of the unit is a fresh air cutoff — 
being a space about 7 x 19 feet. The food trucks from the 
main kitchen are wheeled from the elevator into this fresh air 
cutoff, and the food containers with the food are set in an 
opening in the wall which connects with the kitchen. This 
cutoff opens by a door (on the grount floor) into the connecting 
corridor, by a door into the ward corridor and by a window 
into a ventilating shaft which runs to the top of the building. 

This arrangement precludes the air from getting from one 
ward unit to another. 

The ward itself contains twenty-four beds which arc set 
well away from the walls and windows. There is a nurse's 
table directly in the centre of the ward. The head nurse's 
station is at the head of the ward, and is separated fi-om the 
corridor by a glass partition, which enables her to have comninud 
of the corridor as well as the ward. Different colored lights 
at her signal box enable her to tell whether a patient is calling 
from one of the small wards or the large ward. There is a 
third signal which comes from the bathrooui. It enables the 
bath nurse to signal if she is having any trouble with a patient. 

The headhouse extends out several feet on each side of 



186 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 191 fi 

the ward. Just at the junction, on either side, are two small 
rooms. The room on one side is called the nurse's room — here 
she makes poultices, etc., this room opens into the sinkroom 
as well as into the ward. It has two windows, one looks south- 
ward and the other westward. These two windows afford an 
air cutoff. The corresponding corner on the opposite side is 
a physicians' lavatory, not enclosed ; and from it a door leads 
into the jDatients' toilet. The patients' bathroom Avhich lies next, 
has two baths. Each sinkroom off each ward has a separate 
clothes chute. The chutes adjoin one another and terminate in 
a common receiving room in the basement. In each sinkroom 
is an enemata stack in which specimens of urine and fecal 
matter may be placed until taken to the laboratory. An 
upward draft is provided to prevent any odor from getting 
into the sinkroom. The whole south end is occupied by a 
solarium which is fourteen feet nine inches in width. In one 
corner next the ward, is a sinkroom, and in the corresponding 
room opposite is a toilet. The partition between the solarium 
and the ward is largely of glass, so that the ward is not dark- 
ened by the solarium. All the floors are of tile. The windows 
extend to the ceiling and to within about thirty inches of the 
floor. The transoms open outward and are provided with 
aprons on each side to prevent side drafts. 

The Receiving Department. 

The receiving department is immediately behind the admin- 
istration building. In front of it is a spacious ambulance en- 
trance, with double doors on each side, which in inclement 
weather may be closed. The front of the ambulance entrance is 
connected by a corridor with the receiving unit proper. Here 
is a capacious waiting room with seats to accommodate twenty 
or thirty people of each sex. In the centre of the large, common 
room is an office with desks on three sides where data regarding 
patients is noted down. 

It may be said, in parenthesis, that to this department 
patients who have been discharged from the hospital come for 
subsequent advice and treatment. Each half of this floor is 
like the other. Each side of these waiting halls where patients 
are seated is a suite of three rooms connected with one another 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 187 

by sub-corridors, two of these rooms are examination rooms, 
and the third a capacious bathroom. 

Here the patients are cleaned thoroughly after which they 
are given hospital clothing — their own clothing being sent to 
the basement of this unit where it is fumigated, mended, 
pressed, and placed on hangers. Each suit is placed in a large 
paper bag, on the outside of which is a list of the contents. 
When the patient is ready to be d"scharged, he is brought to 
this same receiving unit back of which are numerous cubicles 
where the patients take off their hospital clothing and lialiilitate 
themselves in their street costumes. 

In the receiving department are two wards, one for males 
and one for females, each of which contains five patients, for 
the accommodation of all patients who come to the hospital for 
admission after 9 p.m. This prevents disturbing the patients 
in the general pavilions after they have gone asleep. 

In the basement of this department are large rooms for the 
special treatment of heat stroke, and for patients who have 
been poisoned. We noted a cabinet with antidotes for the 
latter sort of case. 

The following bottles are kept in the poison cabinet in the 
receiving ward: Lime water, magnesium sulphate, 50^^ solu- 
tion; ammonia water; potassium permanganate in solution 
each drachm containing 1.25 grains; oxalic acid; an arsenic 
antidote consisting of two bottles, No. 1 containing 32 ounces 
of magnesium oxide, and the second containing IG ounces of 
the solution of iron sulphate. The directions for adminis- 
tering are that the magnesium oxide is to be well shaken and 
gradually added to the iron sulphate, the entire 48 ounces 
being administered as an antidote. There are also bottles 
containing oil of turpentine; camphorated oil in 20% solution; 
alcohol, 95%; sweet oil; glycerine; castor oil; aromatic spirits 
of ammonia ; whiskey ; sherry wine. 

There are also some small bottles filled with ])reeiiutated 
chalk; tannic acid; ground mustard; sodium bicarbonate. 
About one dozen fresh eggs are always kept on hand in this 

cabinet. 

Between these two wards mentioned above are four rooms, 
two on each side of the short corridor, connecting with the 



188 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

back entrance. The two on the right side are devote(.l to 
sterilization and operating. The two on the left side are an 
attendant's room and a store room. This suite constitutes a 
surgical casualty dej)artment. 

The stay of patients here is only for a few hours at night ; 
therefore, no kitchen equipment has" been provided. Milk and 
liquid nourishment are, however, available. 

Social service is conducted in this receiving department. 

Contagious Department. 

One part of the grounds is set aside for a group of con- 
tagious buildings, somewhat remote from the other buildings. 
One unit is set aside for each of the chief contagious diseases. 
In another building there are four units for the four minor 
contagious diseases. Each unit being a" small hospital within 
itself. A separate building is used for the detention of small- 
pox cases before their removal to the smallpox hospital. It 
contains four rooms, a room for the nurse, a kitchen, toilet and 
bath and a sink rooin. 

PatlioJogical Building. 

In the pathological building, on the basement floor, there 
are refrigerators for the care of bodies ; four rooms, one for the 
coroner, one for the Aindertaker, one for autopsies, and a 
chapel where funeral services and religious services on Sundays 
are held. On the first floor is the Director's oflice, reading- 
room and library. The second, third and fourth floors are 
taken up by laboratories : Physiological chemistry, bacteriology, 
serology; photograp^hic rooms and rooms for -experimental 
research. There is a large amphitheatre at the north end of 
the building ; also a museum which is well stocked with speci- 
mens. The fifth floor is devoted to the care of animals for 
experimental work. The infected ones are kept away from 
the non-infected. A sterilizing and animal operating room 
are also provided. 

The Laundry and Power Plant. 

The laundry is an ample place fitted up with the latest 
machinery. Rest rooms are provided. The power plant is an 
enormous one, being large enough for the addition of future 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOELD 180 

installations. Gas is used as fuel instead of coal ; the wages of 
many employees is thus saved, and gas is much cleaner than 
coal. The general refrigerating machinery with a capacity of 
twenty-five tons per day, is housed in the service building. 
The small refrigerators of the wards are filled with ice which 
is carried to them. We noted in another Iniikling a small 
separate refrigerating plant, the refrigerative agent being 
sulphur dioxide. 

The Nurses' Home. 

The jSTurses' Home is a fine building, located at the right 
of the front of the lot. It is near the street, but is not fenced 
in. In the basement are rooms for the servants who work in 
the home; kitchens, and a laundry. On the main floor are the 
dining rooms, jiarlor and reading-rooms. Remembering the 
penchant of nurses for sweets, a small candy kitchen is provided 
for them. There are demonstration rooms and laboratory 
rooms where simple chemistry and analysis of body fluids are 
taught. The upper floors are occupied by sleeping rooms. 
There are ample bath and toilet rooms, also an infirmary where 
nurses are taken who are too ill to work, and not ill enough 
to be taken into the liospital. There is also a roof garden which 
is covered over in part by a roof and part by canvas, where 
nurses may go about in their kimonas and enjoy themselves 
in a free and easy way. This may also be used as a sleeping 
porch. 



190 . THE HOSPITAL WOELD Dec, 1916 

War Hospitals 



THE CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE 
UNDER THE SEARCHLIGHT 



A EEPOET on the Canadian Army Medical Service, presented a 
few weeks ago to the Minister of Militia by Col. Herbert A. 
Bruce, of Toronto, whose official title is Special Inspector- 
General Medical Services, Canadian Expeditionary Force, is, it 
is safe to say, one of the frankest indictments of a Government 
service ever received by the responsible Minister. The report is 
dated September 20th, 1916, and is the resnlt of investigations 
carried on subsequent to July 31st, 1916"", so that it is distinctly 
up to date. 

The report is divided under twenty-three headings. Each 
one of them is an indictment, and judging from the headings, 
as printed at end of this article, is intended to be such. 

In introducing his report, Dr. Bruce announces that all of 
its criticisms and recommendations are not merely his alone, 
but have been endorsed by each member of the committee 
appointed by the Minister, at Dr. Bruce's request, to assist in 
the work. 

The committee consisted of Col. F. A. Reid, Director of 
Recruiting and Organization; Col. Wallace Scott, Lieut.-Col. 
Walter McKeown, ^Lieut.-Col. F. W. E. Wilson, Capt. Chas. 
Hunter. 

Dr. Bruce absolved the medical and nursing staffs from 
blame, as he found doctors and nurses discharging their duties 
in a most self-sacrificing and exemplary manner. Many of the 
medical staff are, however, placed in positions where their spe- 
cial training is not being used to the best advantage. The 
responsibility for this waste must be laid at the door of the 
D.M.S., who, says Dr. Bruce, in many cases appears to have 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 191 

ignored special qualifications altogether and distributed the per- 
sonnel in a most haphazard way. 

The question of segregation of Canadian wounded whic-h 
has recently been receiving notoriety, largely through the activity 
of Canadian ladies in England in writing to the papers there, is 
very fully dealt with by Dr. Bruce. Dr. Bruce is emphatically 
in favor of segregation. How the Canadian wounded and ill 
are at present scattered about is evident from the following 
statement of facts : 

" On August 18th of this year we had in England 12,018 
cases, of whom 6,747 were overseas sick and wounded, requiring 
active treatment. Of these, 5,135 were being taken care of in 
British hospitals, and only 1,G12 in Canadian hospitals. The 
balance of these cases had arisen locally or vere convalescents. 
The 5,135 Canadian patients were located in 100 British hos- 
pitals, widely scattered over England, Scotland, Wales and 
Ireland." 

Dr. Bruce sees no difficulty in segregating Canadians. The 
British service is able to send casualties from the Royal Flying 
Corps to a Royal Flying Corps Hospital, and evert go so far as 
to send wounded Somersetshires to Bristol, so as to be near their 
friends. There should, therefore, be no difficulty in keeping 
Canadians together. 

He reports that ihe found, both in England and France, Cana- 
dian soldiers begging to be taken to Canadian hospitals. He 
found also Canadian medical officers constantly complaining that 
although they had sacrificed their practices at home with the 
object of helping to take care of our soldiers overseas, yet they 
rarely had an opportunity of treating a Canadian patient. A 
map accompanying the report shows how the 100 hospitals in 
which Canadians are located, are scattered all over the British 
Isles. The cost of transport in itself is considerable. If the 
5,135 Canadian patients in hospital on August 16th had been 
taken care of by a concentration of hospitals in the Sihorncliffe 
area there would have been a saving in transport alone of 
$11,348.35. 

In addition Dr. Bruce found some instances when the treat- 
ment received by Canadians in British hospitals has not always 



192 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

been as satisfactory as it might be, and further that nobody in 
those hospitals seems interested in the discharge of patients 
when they are fit to be sent to a convalescent home. 

Special reports are given to show how this works out. In 
seven British hospitals in the London area and in Aberdeen, 
Scotland, special inspectors found 248 Canadian patients. It 
was found that 116 of these should have been sent to convales- 
cent hosintals, 52 others should have been discharged as per- 
manently unfit for further service, and 13 suffering from 
contagious diseases should have been elsewhere, that is to say, 
out of 248 Canadian patients, 171 should not have been in these 
hospitals at all. This illustration is thought to be typical. 

Dr. Bruce says that his experience wnth sick people leads 
him to the conclusion that when they are ill they prefer to be 
among relatives and friends. Further he says, " I take the 
position very strongly that as it is our duty to see that our boys 
who go to the front are cared for in the best possible manner 
when they are wounaed and sick, and as we shall ultimately be 
responsible for their pensions, it is imperative that we should 
ensure that they are under the immediate supervision of our 
own medical service." 

As to how the present policy of distributing Canadian sol- 
diers arose. Dr. Bruce gives the following particulars : 

On June 16th, 1915, Colonel Hodgetts wrote to Surgeon- 
General Carlton Jones, suggesting that as special arrangements 
had been made for sending w^ounded Canadians to the Queen's 
Canadian Hospital, Beechborough, could not similar arrange- 
ments be made in regard to the Duchess of Connaught's Hos- 
pital at Cliveden. Accordingly on June 18th the D.M.S. wrote 
to the War Office requesting that the Cliveden Hospital should 
" as far as possible be reserved for sick and wounded Canadians 
from overseas." The War Office acceded to this request, and 
gave instructions that Canadian soldiers (other than officers) 
should be sent to one or other of the two hospitals mentioned 
above. Later representations appear to have been made to the 
D.M.S. that for Imperial considerations it was advisable to 
spread the Canadians throughout the British Isles. On Decem- 
ber iTth the D.M.S. replied, expressing the opinion that "it is 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD VXi 

conducive to the patients' well-being and comfort to be under 
our own administrative control." 

" As a consequence of this arrangement many more Cana- 
dians found their way to these two hospitals, yet in spite of this 
we find that the D.M.S. on February 2nd, ioiG, wrote to the 
War Office to ask that these instructions be amended, and in a 
further communication dated March 25th, 1916, stated ' that 
it is not now considered necessary from a Canadian point of 
view^ to make any special arrangements at Southampton for the 
collection of Canadian patients.' No reason is assigned for this 
complete change of attitude." 

In this connection Dr. Bruce points out that Canada has 
maintained at Saloniki, where there is not a single Canadian 
soldier, three hospital units wdth a total bed capacity of 320 
patients. And in France we have on an average 2,000 beds 
in excess of the number of Canadian patients. 

Dr. Bruce also strongly complains abort the lack of policy 
which has allowed even the Canadian hospi*:als to be scattered 
all over the country, instead of being concentrated in special 
localities. As a result, efficient control and inspection have been 
rendered exceedingly difficult and needless expense has been 
involved. He recalls that when the Ontario Government started 
to provide its splendid hospital, with a capacity of 1,040 beds, 
it offered to locate it at any place desired, thus affording a 
splendid opportunity to secure the concentration of hospitals i-u 
a definite area, with this most valuable primary hospital as a 
nucleus. The opportunity was let slip. 

A map illustrates how Canadian hospitals have been scat- 
tered over England. Buxton is no less than 236 miles from 
Folkestone. Dr. Bruce recommends a concentration scheme and 
illustrates it also by a map. He says, however, it is impossible 
to make this ideal now because of the fear that present con- 
ditions do not justify the abolition of certain hospitals upon 
which large sums of money have been spent. 

That there 'has been woeful laxity in weeding out medically 
unfits during the process of enlistment and training in Canada 
is demonstrated by ample evidence in Dr. Bruce's report. A 
Canadian pioneer draft arriving in England on Juno 29th. 



194 THE HOSPITAL WOKLD Dec, 1916 

1916, was found to have 57 unfits out of 254 of all ranks. Of 
2,670 soldiers coming before medical 'boards from June 2nd to 
August 2nd, 1916, as only fit for permanent base duty, 1,340 
ought never to have been at the front. Out of 1,452 discharges 
from the army during the same period, 816 had never got be- 
yond England, that is 56 per cent, of the discharges had never 
been at the front. 

Unfits in England are a great bother. They take the places 
on base dwtj of men who have been at the front and have a 
prior claim on any soft jobs available. Others clog up the 
hospitals, increasing the strain on the already overtaxed medical 
services. And further, Dr. Bruce points out, the question of 
pension arises. " Men who are discharged for a disability 
present on enlistment are not entitled to pension for that dis- 
ability, but where pre-existing disability has been increased at 
least temporarily by active service, corresponding pension or 
gratuity must be allowed. 

" In the last four months we have ihad over 1,000 recom- 
mended for permanent base duty from over age, with an aver- 
age age of 49 to 50 years for each man. It is a common occur- 
rence for the men, when questioned as to their given age when 
enlisted, to make a statement that they gave their true age as 
54 or 55 years, as the case may be, and the medical officer said 
they would call him 41 or 42 years. In one case he was in- 
formed by the soldier that, on enlistment, the recruit on giving 
his proper age was told to run around the block, think over his 
age, and come back again. 

" And again, during the last month alone (this from a 
report dated August 22nd) 120 boys were found in the ranks 
and put on permanent base duty. Their ages run as low as 
fourteen years." 

Several pages are devoted to special cases of men who should 
never have enlisted. Among others, four cases from the 92nd 
Battalion are mentioned by name, two of them being discharged 
as permanently unfit and two to be put on base duty. " We 
have been informed, says the report, that these four men were 
paraded before a standing Medical Board in Canada by Capt. 
Maynard, and that they were recommended for discharge, but 
no action was taken, and they were brought to England." 



Dec, 191G THE HOSPITAL WOKLD 195 

One man was found with valvulai- disease of the heart, left 
hand partly cut off. He was enlisted at Edmonton. 

Another Toronto man could not carry pack, suffers from 
vertigo, weight 105 pounds, chest when fully expanded 30l^ 
inches ; medical examiner, Capt. , Toronto. 

Another case, discharged, congenital amblyopia, right eye 
vision defective, left eye vision lost. Medical examiner, Capt. 
, Toronto. 

A photograph shows a boy enlisted at Pembroke, Ont., 
stripped, standing opposite a normal man. This boy was six- 
teen years of age, weight eighty pounds, had infantile paralysis, 
which left his legs in bad shape. He says he passed two medical 
boards in Canada, having been stripped on both occasions. He 
has never done any military duty, and has been in the hospital 
most of the four and one-half months he has been in England. 

Another man was found to have been taken out of a tuber- 
culosis sanitarium previous to embarkation. 

Another man was blind in the right eye. His vision in the 
left is just about one-eighth what it should be. In other words, 
this man is fifteen-sixteenths blind. 

Some units had as many as 25 per cent, unfits on arriving 
in England. 

One of the over-age men was found to be 72 years old. 

These are samples. The report contains fifteen pages of 
particulars of this kind, giving the names of the men, names of 
the medical examiners and full details. 

Dr. Bruce recommends stringent changes in the methods of 
medical examination, in order that the great loss consequent 
upon the present system may be avoided. 

Here is the wording of the headings of the twenty-three 
parts into which Dr. Bruce's report is divided: 

1. Many soldiers are arriving in England from Canada 
medically unfit who should never have been enlisted. 

2. The system of disposing of casualties from the front to 
Imperial hospitals in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland is 
extremely unsatisfactory. 

3. The present method of having Canadian hospitals scat- 
tered over such a large area is very dbjectionable. 



196 • THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 191G 

4. There is unnecessary detention in hospitals. There has 
been no medical inspection by the Canadian Medical Service of 
Canadian soldiers in Imperial hospitals, and there has been no 
efficient medical inspection of Canadian hospitals, in conse- 
quence of which Canadian soldiers are retained in hospitals in 
Great Britain, many of whom should have been returned to duty, 
and others should have been returned to Canada, wdiere they 
could have been more economically and efficiently treated. The 
lack of system permits of the aimless moving of patients from 
hospital to hospital. 

5. The use by the Canadian Service of Voluntary Aid Hos- 
pitals is very undesirable, as they are inefficient, expensive and 
unsatisfactory. 

6. The administration of the group of fifty-seven Voluntary 
Aid Hospitals under Shorncliffe Military Hospital by the Cana- 
dian Medical Service is unsatisfactory and expensive. 

7. The present method of operating, jointly with the Eed 
Cross, certain hospitals built and equipped by them is unsatis- 
factory. Such dual control is undesirable. 

8. Impropriety of detailing Canadian Army Medical Corps 
personnel to Imperial hospitals and still retaining them on a 
Canadian pay-roll. 

9. Unsatisfactory situation at_ Shorncliffe owing to our 
Canadian A.D.M.S. acting in a' similar capacity over a large 
area for the Imperial authorities. 

10. No attempt has been made to restrict surgical operations 
which produce no increased military efficienc3\ 

11. The installation of an expensive plant at Ramsgate w^as 
inadvisable, as a large number of the cases treated there should 
be sent to Canada for treatment. 

12. The establishment at Buxton of a special hospital for 
the treatment of rheumatics was ill-advised, as the majority of 
rheumatics will not be fit again for active service and could be 
better and more cheaply treated in Canada. 

13. The present system of handling Canadian venereal 
patients is very strongly condemned. 

14. The method of handling infectious diseases is most 
unsatisfactory. 



Dec, 11)16 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 197 

15. Medical boards which regulate the classification of 
casualties are not available. 

17. The exceedingly important question of pensions, which 
will involve the expenditure of large sums of money by Canada 
annually, has been neglected by the Canadian Medical Service. 

18. Lack of co-ordination in the Canadian Medical Service 
between Canada, England and the front. 

19. The medical personnel is .lot being used to the best 
advantage. 

20. The policy of the department has been opposed to the 
use of experienced medical and surgical consulting specialists. 

21. Discontent concerning promotions, especially in regard 
to regimental medical officers serving at the front. 

22. The Canadian Army Medical Corps Training School in 
England has never been properly organized, although of the 
greatest importance to the Canadian Medical Service. 

23. In the operation of the Medical Service sufficient regard 
has not been paid to economy in management. 



WESTERN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL UNIT 



Though the Western University of London, Ont., has had no 
organized body of men representing it in this war, till the form- 
ation of the Hospital L^nit, already over fifty of their medical 
graduates are at the front. But this spring a committee of the 
faculty sent out a circular letter to all the remaining medical 
graduates asking them if they were desirous of going with the 
unit if it were formed. Twelve medical officers were needed" 
to fill the positions. Seventy offered tliemselves. 

Dr. Braithwaite, the president, and Dr. Edwin Seaborn were- 
delegated at a meeting of the faculty to wait upon the Hon. 
Mr. Kemp (then acting Minister of Militia) to ask if there was; 
a need of medical officers and hospital units. If the reply was 
in the affirmative, they were to offer a unit on behalf of tho 
university. 



198 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Doc, liJJG 

This was done, and the offer was heartily accepted by the 
Government, with the request that the preparations for de- 
parture should be made as soon as possible. 

The command of the unit was given Lieut.-Col. Edwin Sea- 
born, M.D. He was born in Quebec, and his mother was a 
. French-Canadian. But his connection with the university is a 
long one, for his father was professor of natural science there, 
and a member of the Senate, and he himself took his medical 
course at the Western, graduating in 1895, and beginning to 
teach in the Medical School that same year. He has been in 
practice in London for 21 years. His wife is the charming daugh- 
ter of the late Dr. Bucke. 

Lieut.-Col. Seaborn is fortunate in having three brothers 
who are also doing their share for king and country. Lieut-Col. 
Walter Seaborn is in command of the 210th (Moose Jaw) Bat- 
talion. Capt. George Seaborn is at present in France with the 
A.M.C., while Lieut. Vivian Seaborn is in the paymaster's 
office. 

The establishment of the unit (w^hich is a four hundred-bed 
hospital) is fourteen officers (twelve qualified medical men) one 
hundred and twenty N.C.O.'s and men, and twenty-seven nurs- 
ing sisters. 

Recruiting was brisk from the moment the office was opened, 
and the establishment might have been filled twice over. The 
men accepted are an exceedingly fine lot. There are a great 
many London men among them, but also a large proportion of 
men from the western Ontario district. They represent many 
phases of civil life. 

The men were billeted and trained on the college campus or 
in the college buildings. 

Their training consisted (as does that of all medical units), 
of squad, stretcher and company drill, and they were given lec- 
tures by the officers on anatomy, asepsis, fractures, hemor- 
rhages, treatment of wounds, bandaging, infections, antiseptics, 
treatment of poisons, emergencies, as well as the care of the 
feet, and personal hygiene. 

The citizens of London feel particularly interested in the 
Western LTniversity Hospital Unit, as being especially represen- 
tative of both the town and the district. The local Red Cross 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 199 

supplied them with all the medical, surgical and hospital sup- 
plies that they_ required over and above the Government supply. 
This gift cost about ten thousand dollars, and filled five hundred 
boxes. 

A motor ambulance has also been given by the London Ked 
Cross branch, the' money having been raised by the tea-room 
committee. 

Mrs. W. G. Nott, through the Eed Cross, gave a cheque for 
one hundred dollars, to be used for special surgical instruments 
and supplies. Miss Balch, on behalf of the A.Y.P.A., of St. 
John the Evangelist Church, gave fifty dollars towards the pur- 
chase of band instruments. 

The Meredith Dramatic Company gave a donation of two 
hundred dollars towards a motor car for the use of the unit. 
A good many donations were also made towards the special 
emergency fund of the unit. 

This unit also took up the matter of insurance rates with 
the various companies that have agencies in London. This was 
to allow the men who enlisted to continue their insurance at 
pre-war rates, instead of paying an extra premium. The com- 
panies have responded very generously. 

The unit left London on the 18th of August, and at present 
is in Shorncliffe for special training. 

Everybody- — in the prehistoric times before August, 1911 — 
has watched the sham battles of the militia units during their 
twelve days' yearly training under canvas. ]\Iost of us have 
enjoyed the story of the captain who was marching his mounted 
men over a bridge when an irate lieutenant (belonging to the 
opposing forces) rose up from the shadows of the river bank in 
front and shouted : 

" Hi, there ! Stop ! Don't you know we've just blown up 
the bridge ?" 

" You silly ass," says the captain, calmly continuing on his 
way, " can't you see we're swimming ?" 

But to-day there is less of pretence in the game. Even out 
here in the sunshine those imaginary wounded at the other end 
of the field suggest only too strongly those real wounded who 
have really waited for the stretcher-bearers in farther fields, 
when the stretchers have had a longer road to travel. ^Vllen the 



200 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

men, who are marching in close formation, change quickly to 
extended order, it takes very little eftort of the imagination to 
realize that it is because they are under shell fire. 

London peoj^le feel assured that the men of the Western 
LTniversity Hospital Unit will take their share of the Red Cross 
work satisfactorily. 

Kathleen K. Bowkee. 



MINNEWASKA SANITARIUM, GRAVENHURST 



One of the problems which the Hospitals Commission has had 
to solve is that of providing for the care of the man in whom 
German gas, exposure in the trenches or training camps has 
developed tuberculosis. These men, no less than the man who 
has fallen, have offered their lives for their country, and their 
country's duty is to see that every means is used to give them 
back the health they have sacrificed for it. Their condition 
demands special treatment and isolation from other Military 
patients. In the absence of Military Hospitals for tubercular 
men, the Commission has arranged for their treatment in estab- 
lished institutions. One of these is the ]\Iinnewaska Sanitarium 
at Gravenhurst. There some sixty men have been placed dur- 
ing 1916 for treatment. Minnewaska Sanitarium is situated in 
a finely wooded ten-acre plot overlooking Gravenhurst Bay and 
lacks nothing in beauty of site or climatic condition. The 
Institution has been in successful operation for several years 
as a Private Hospital under the Superintendency of Mrs. Four- 
nier, who is still in charge and whose experience has produced 
excellent results in the patient. The Institution is at present 
occupied almost entirely by soldiers, who began to be sent up in 
March last. Capt. Procter, M.D., and Lieut. Gillis, M.D., are 
in charge, both in a military and medical sense. It is hoped 
that the Hospitals Commission will ere long be able to erect a 
wing to the Sanitarium where vocational training may be given 
the patients. 



Dec, lyiG THE HOSPITAL WOULD 201 

THE BRAMSHOTT MILITARY HOSPITAL 



The Bramshott Military Hospital, erected in the summer of 
1915 by the Imperial authorities, was officially taken over by 
the Canadian Army Medical Corps on October 2nd. The hos- 
pital, which is one of the most complete of the military hos- 
pitals in England, has accommodation for TOO patients. Dur- 
ing the summer months some 350 extra beds were added in 
adjacent buildings for overseas wounded. The hospital has two 
operating theatres, an up-to-date X-ray room, a good pathologi- 
cal department and a well-stocked dispensary. 

No. y Stationary Hospital, from Nova Scotia, with several 
attached officers under Lieut.X'ol. E. C. McLeod, has staffed 
the hospital. The staff consists of Lieut.-Col. R. C. McLeod, of 
North Sydney, officer commanding; Major H. E. Kendall, 
Registrar of the Nova Scotia Medical Council, is senior 
physician; assistant physicians are Captains A. H. McKin- 
non, T. A. Lebbetter, J. F. Ellis and L. I). Densmore. all from 
Nova Scotia. The Surgical Division is in charge of Lieut.-Col. 
C. H. Gilmour, of Toronto, late of No. 2 General Hospital, 
France ; assistant surgeons are Captains K. A. McCuish and 
J. A. MeCourt, of Nova Sco'tia, and Captain Webb, of Scran- 
ton, Pa. The X-ray Department is in charge of Capt. J. I. 
O'Connell, of Newfoundland, and the pathologist is Captain 
A, R. Campbell, of Yarmouth. 



BASE HOSPITAL TAKES FIRE PRECAUTIONS 



Special precautions are to be taken to safeguard jiatients at the 
Base Hospital, Gerrard Street East, Toronto, against the danger 
of fire, and efforts are now being made to provide more than 
adequate fire protection in the form of additional fire escapes 
and gongs. 

The buildings were, of course, inspected and jnissed before 
occupied by the military, and at present a fire piccpiet is on duty 
night and day, but it was felt while the existing arrangements 
might be adequate more could be done to ensure complete safetv 
to all the patients. It is understood that steel fire escapes may 



202 . THE HOSPITAL VVOELD Dec, 191G 

be placed on the front of the building in addition to the ones 
already erected in the rear. The building in the group known 
as the Burnside Building is at present without a fire escape. 
General Logie has received an intimation from Mayor Church 
that the city will co-operate in every way possible with this 
precautionary work. 

It is understood that similar steps will be taken by the 
Soldiers' Aid Commission in regard to the Spadina Military 
Hospital and the College Street Convalescent Home. 



ANOTHER CANADIAN CONVALESCENT HOME 
FOR OFFICERS AT DIEPPE, FRANCE 



ISToT long ago another Canadian Convalescent Home for Officers 
was ojDened at Dieppe, France, and is doing splendid w^ork 
under the supervision of a nuniber of Toronto women. The 
Superintendent is Mrs. Christopher Robinson, and the Assistant 
Superintendent Mrs. Foster. The Sisters include the Misses 
Chadwick, Gault, Burnham, ]\Iurphy and others of Toronto. 
Mrs. (Dr.) J. F. W. Ross is Chairman of the Toronto Com- 
mittee. The Hospital is certainly filling a most urgent want and 
is very popular. 



THE DUCHESS OF CONNAUGHT CANADIAN 
HOSPITAL AT CLIVEDEN 



LiEUT.-CoL. (Dr.) Goerell definitely resigned in October the 
Superintendence of the Duchess of Connaught Canadian Hos- 
pital at Cliveden. It is understood that Lieut.-Col. Stewart, 
C.A.M.C., of Halifax, has been offered Dr. Gorrell's position, 
though we have not as yet learned whether he will accept. 



A FIFTY thousand dollar building, to take care of soldiers in- 
valided home with tuberculosis, is to be erected shortly by the 
London Health Association at Byron Sanatorium. This is at 
the request of the Military Hospitals Commission. 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 203 

WAR HOSPITAL RUN ENTIRELY BY WOMEN 



" They are even more than wonderful doctors and nurses ; they 
are kind and gentle ladies." I do not think that the staff of the 
Military Hospital at Endell Street, from the doctor in charge 
or the chief surgeon down to the portress of the gate, have ever 
ihad a prettier or more deserved compliment than this, paid by 
a soldier grievously wounded in the Great Push, says a writer 
in The London Daily Mail. 

Set in the very centre of London and surrounded by a maze 
of grey buildings witih no green thing nearer than the vegetables 
at Covent Garden, and with the buzz and whirl of London 
traffic all around, the Endell Street Hospital has become one of 
the brightest havens in England. It has also proved the justifica- 
tion of women's long and insistent demands for high place in 
surgery and medicine, and has ])roved without doubt to all 
men engaged in the Medical Profession— and to the world out- 
side that profession — that women doctors are equally successful 
with themselves in all branches of their calling, and not only 
with those ailments generally peculiar to women and children. 

The only Military Hospital entirely staffed by women under 
the War Office, this Hospital is the outcome of the foresighted 
patriotism of the Women's Hospital Coi-ps, founded during the 
first two weeks of the war by two of the leading women doctors 
in England. B'oth young women, they formed a little band of 
workers and appealed to their friends for funds. With a fine 
equipment of drugs, instruments and medical appliances, and 
all real necessaries for a Hospital of about 130 beds, they ar- 
rived in Paris just at the time when the Germans were digging 
themselves in on the Aisne and when the wounded were ]ioiir- 
ing into Paris in appalling numbers. 

For four months they remained in Paris and then, as the 
British moved farther north, the Women's Hosfiiital Corps also 
moved their Hospital, this time to Boulogne. Placing their 
voluntary services at the disposal of the ^^'ar Office they were 
finally quartered at the Endell Street Hospital, equii>ped by and 
run under the military authorities. 



204 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

The Hospital consists of IT wards with 573 beds in all, and 
the staff counts 15 doctors, including oculist, dental surgeon, and 
anesthetist ; quartermaster, 84 women orderlies, 4 of sergeant 
rank; kitchen helpers, and a few men of the " R.A.M.C." 

It is no secret that since July 1 the wounded have been 
comino- in in greater numbers than before and that " mended " 
soldiers have to be evacuated at the rate of more than 100 a 
week. ^Vhile several of the men who came in slightly wounded- 
at the beginning of the month have already been discharged, 
there has been a sad proportion of seriously wounded who have 
needed all the fruits of the experience the doctors have gained 
durino- their two years' work. On several occasions durino' these 
last weeks the chief surgeon has been in the operating theatre 
for twelve hours on end, only ceasing her labors for a few 
minutes for necessary food. 

The Hospital has no garden, but it has a great square court- 
yard into which the beds of the men are wheeled at the earliest 
possible moment. Part of the courtyard is covered in with a 
glass roof, and those soldiers requiring constant open-air treat- 
ment have a hut and a Japanese summer-house, and the PIos- 
pital would like another hut, too, if some sympathizers w^ould 
give it. The courtyard is made as gay as possible by plants and 
flowers which women gardeners come every day to tend and 
also to arrange the flowers in the wards. 

The men have gay sunshades over their beds and red and 
blue quilts left over from the Paris days. The idea is to get 
as much color in the wards as possible, and it is wonderful how 
the patients appreciate such relief. The laboratory and dispen- 
sary open on to the courtyard, also the men's dining room, and 
of course the offices. The recreation hall is ruled over by Miss 
Beatrice Harraden as librarian and Miss Bessie Hatton as 
organizing secretary for entertainments. It has a good supply 
of books, a fine grand piano with a tone quite' equal to the orna- 
mentation on the case, and that says a good deal ! A stage at 
the end of the hall is hung with a Gobelin blue curtain bearing 
the monogram " W. H. C." and khaki grey back curtains; over 
all is the motto '' Deeds, not words." 

The quartermaster has all her departments organized with 
the experience that two years have given her. She serves 140 



Dec, 19 J 6 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 205 

men in tilie dining room with meat, vegetables and milk pud- 
ding with amazing rapidity, twenty-five minutes seeing them 
all fed, out again, and ready for any amount of entertainment 
and noise which may be provided for them or that they can 
make for themselves. 

Every day brings grateful visitors to the Hospital, officers 
who were tended in Paris as well as the men, and it is a rare case 
when a man on leave from the front does not spare a few min- 
utes to the Hospital where he has been so " jolly well mended," 
as one man said. 

'No wonder that they recommend the Women's Hospital 
Corps when they get " out there." Said a very badly wounded 
man as his stretcher was carried into the courtyard from an 
ambulance the other day : " I asked to co^ne here ; they told 
me on the other side I'd be well looked to here." 



QUEEN'S HOSPITAL TO MOVE FROM TREPORT 



WoED has been received from Lieut.-Col. Etherington that 
Queen's Hospital will move from Treport to Staples as soon as 
the weather becomes too cold to stay in tents. The quarters, 
consisting of huts, are ready for their immediate occupation. 
The Hospital has treated over four thousand patients since 
going to France. , 



tD 



Sir William Osler recently cabled his resignation frcmi the 
Canadian Army Medical Service to Sir Ixobert ]'>orden at 
Ottawa, as a mark of his sympathy with Surgeon-Greneral -Kmes. 
Sir William was appointed soon after the war began Honorary 
Consulting Physician at Queen's Hospital, ShornclitlV'. Since 
then he has been Honorary Adviser in connection with all Cann 
dian Hospitals throughout the Old Country. 



206 THE HOSPITAL WOELD Dec, 1916 

Canadian Hospitals 



ST. ELIZABETH'S HOSPITAL AT FARNHAM, 
QUEBEC, BURNED 



Six adults and five children, at least, lost their lives in a fire 
which destroyed St. Elizabeth Hospital on October 25th. 

The hospital was managed by the Grey Knns and comprised 
two buildings, one devoted to accommodating sick and another 
to a school for children. About three hundred persons were in 
the two buildings when the fire broke out, the majority of 
w^hom were in the slee]nng quarters on the third floor of the 
hospital building when the fire was discovered. The blaze had 
its origin in a defective chimney. 

About 7.30 o'clock smoke was observed stealing through the 
building. Almost before the alarm could be given, and before 
assistance could reach the inmates, fierv tons'ues of flames were 
licking the coverings of the beds in the third storey. With 
almost incredible rapidity the fire spread, dense clouds of smoke 
rolling through the corridors. Fighting for breath, the terrified 
inmates, seeing a chance of escape, dashed for the fire escapes, 
many sufferers literally having to drag themselves along the 
floor. With admirable heroism officials and attendants of the 
institution worked frantically to aid their <charges. Then came 
the horrifying revelation that the fire escapes would not work. 
Shrieks of terror rang out as, driven to desperation by the ad- 
vancing glare, young and old jumped from the windows to fall 
crushed and maimed on t'he hard pavement beneath. 

Keeping their heads amid the confusion, attendants guided 
their charges to every exit not yet cut off by the flames. Half 
unconscious, the victims were carried out into the grounds to be 
taken immediately in hand by the hundreds of helpers who had 
huri-ied to the spot. 

It was at once realized that the fire-fighting equipment of 
the hospital and of Farnham was inadequate to combat the 
flames which were then licking every part of the doomed build- 
ing and had already reached the adjoining buildings. 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WOHI.I) 307 

A Lurry-up call was sent to St. Johns, Que., and imme- 
diately on receipt of the news the fire chief there loaded appa- 
ratus on a special train which rushed through the nig-ht at top 
speed. Arriving in Farnham about 9,30 o'clock the brigade 
went to work with a will, and after strenuous efforts succeeded 
in placing the fire under control. 

St. Elizabeth Hospital was built about twenty years ago. 
It was originally of three stories and of brick. Recently a new 
four-storey wing was added. A church and college connected 
with the institution were burned down in lUll. 

The hospital was entirely destroyed by the fire, only the 
ruins of the edifice being standing next morning. The loss is 
estimated at $135,000, only $3.5,000 insurance being carried 
on the premises. 



NEEDS NEW WING 



The need for a new wing in which to accommodate the large 
number of cancer cases was emphasized at the. forty-second 
annual meeting of the Toronto Hospital for Incurables, 130 
Dunn Avenue. Sir Mortimer Clark presided, and among those 
invited were His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John 
Hendrie, Lady and Miss Hendrie, Rev. J. W. Aikens, Dr. 
Edmund E. King, J. O, McCarthy, John Firstbrook and John 
MacDonald. 

President Ambrose Kent gave a brief outline of the work of 
the hospital and showed how it had grown from the first house 
on Bathurst Street, at the instigation of Sir jMortimer Chirk 
and the late Mr. Michie, until now over 234 cases were being- 
cared for, seventy of whom were bedridden and twenty-two 
were cancer cases. 

During the year the accommodation for this class of patients 
had been insufficient, for at one time thirty cases were being- 
treated and there was only accommodation for twenty-four. It 
will cost about $30,000 to erect a suitable wing in which to 
house fifty beds, or $600 a bed. Dr. Edmund King stated that 
the daily upkeep was eighty-three and a half cents, which was 
comparatively low. During the year seventy-three deaths 
occurred, a number from old age and twenty-two through can- 



208 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

cer. Last year the hospital had a balance of $2,106.11, but this 
year it has decreased to $1,143.41. 

Rev. J. W. Aikiiis lauded the untiring efforts of the staff, 
and laid emphasis on the fact that Toronto's citizens were never 
in a better position to support charitable works in the giving of 
money. " Since Toronto has given up her sons to fight for the 
Empire, the giving of money has become but a small item," he 
declared. 



DOUBLE ONTARIO HOSPITAL 



ActEnt-GejNteral Reii> cabled Premier Hearst on October 24th 
regarding a proposal to add five hundred to a thousand beds to 
the Ontario Llospital at Orpington. He thought possibly that 
if Ontario was only willing to supply five hundred, the balance 
could be supplied from the Dominion, but he hoped Ontario 
would give one thousand beds. 

The total expense, as the cost of building has advanced 
fifteen per cent., is estimated at $320,000. 

The British authorities ask provision for four thousand addi- 
tional beds in Canadian Hospitals in England. 



$51,000 RAISED BY THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SUPPLY ASSOCIATION 



The statements recently issued by the University Hospital 
Supply Association are indeed encouraging. The Association 
was formed hastily on St. Patrick's Day, 1915, to equip No. 4 
Canadian General Hospital, its membership being made up of 
the womenfolk belonging to the various faculties in the L^ni- 
versity. Each and every member worked tirelessly till Sej^tem- 
ber of last year, at which time it began to work for the Canadian 
Red Cross. The Treasurer, Mrs. F. IST, G. Starr, has handed 
in subscriptions, etc., a little over fifty thousand dollars, with 
disbursements totalling $45,510. The Convener of the Packing 
Committee reported that the packing between April, 1915, and 
October of this year, included 1,328 large cases of Hospital 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 209 

Supplies, of which 667 went to No. 4 General Hospital ; 654 to 
the Canadian Red Cross, with seven cases of socks to the Secours 
l^ationaL Mrs. Samuel Johnson, Convener of the Surgical 
Supply Committee, reported that a total of 1,146,575 pieces of 
surgical supplies, including pads, compresses and sponges, were 
made up to November 15th, 1915, and since that date a further 
number of 743,750, We heartily congratulate the Association 
ujion theiv work. 



RHEUMATIC PATIENTS TO BE TRANSFERRED 
FROM ENGLISH TO CANADIAN HOSPITALS 



Areakgements were recently made by the Military Hospitals 
Cojnmission to treat in the Hospitals in Canada from 1,000 to 
1,500 Canadian soldiers now under treatment in England for 
rheumatic trouble, and they will be brought to Canada as soon 
as the necessary accommodation and hospital equipment can be 
furnished. There are at present nearly 2,000 Canadian soldiers 
throughout England suffering from rheumatic and similar com- 
plaints, due to exposure in the trenches. A large percentage of 
these patients, after treatment in England in the British and 
Canadian Hospitals, are pronounced fit to return to the firing 
line, but experience has shown that renewed exposure in the 
trenches generally brings about a recurrence of the disease, and 
the military authorities have come to the conclusion that this 
method of looking after Canadian rheumatic cases has been 
unsatisfactory. Consequently after a careful investigation by 
a Medical Board, headed by Col. Herbert Bruce, of Toronto, it 
has been decided to bring these patients to Canada as soon as 
they are well enough to travel. 



The annual meeting of the supporters of the Kitchener Orphan- 
age was held on October 30th, at which it was reported by the 
Matron, Miss Snyder, that 39 boys and 42 girls had been ad- 
mitted to the institution during the year and that 114 orphans 
had been cared for. There was very little sickkness and no 
deaths. The financial statement showed a substantial balance 
On hand. 



210 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

DR. CLARKE WITHDRAWS FROM HOSPITAL 

WORK 



That lie may devote Lis time to his profession alone and to the 
social uplift organizations in which he had been interested for 
a number of years, Dr. Charles Kirk Clarke is about to retire 
as 'Superintendent of the Toronto General Hospital, a position 
which he has held for the past five years. 

For over forty years Dean Clarke has been associated with 
hospitals, principally institutions for the treatment of the 
insane. In 1874, when he was seventeen years of age, he became 
Assistant Clinical Superintendent of the Toronto Lunatic 
Asylum, and a year after his graduation from the University 
of Toronto as a doctor of medicine he received the appointment 
of Assistant Medical Superintendent of the Hamilton Insane 
Asylum. From 1885 to 1905 he was Medical Superintendent 
of Rockwood Asylum. In 1905 he was appointed Medical Sup- 
erintendent of Toronto Asylum, where he remained until he 
was asked to succeed Dr. J. IST. E. Brown as Superintendent of 
the Toronto General Hospital. 

In 1901 he was Royal Commissioner investigating the ^ew 
Westminster Asylum, and in 1907 Royal Commissioner study- 
ing the methods of the treatment of the insane in Europe. In 
1904 he was co-editor of the American Journal of Insanity. 

Also he is considering Jiis home. All of his family have 
enlisted and are overseas. The last to leave was his son, Ser- 
geant-Major Clarke, of the 169th Battalion, who was a graduate 
of the Royal Military College, and a civil engineer by profes- 
sion. Preferring to rise from the ranks and earn any promotion 
on his merits, Sergeant-Major Clarke enlisted as a private. A 
daughter enlisted in the University of Toronto Base Hospital 
as a nursing sister. 

One of the departments which has been developed by Dean 
Clarke since he became Superintendent of the Hospital is the 
social service. By interesting public-spirited citizens he has 
been able to obtain funds to employ nurses to go into the homes 
of the poor who come into the hospital, to clothe them, their 
families^ and aid them in other ways. By persistently pleading 
the needs of the feeble-minded he has placed many children and 
adults who were a menace to the community in different insti- 
tutions and hospitals. 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITA-L WORLD 211 

SPLENDID WORK OF THE BRITISH RED CROSS 

SOCIETY 



It is the greatest source of satisfaction to all right-thinking 
Canadians to learn what the magnificent British Red Cross 
Society has been doing and is still doing in behalf of the sick 
and wounded throughout Europe. 

The care of the wounded and sick of the British forces serv- 
ing in France and Flanders falls under two main heads — their 
transport by motor ambulance and hospital train and the pro- 
vision of hospitals. 

Since September, 1914, the Joint Committee of the British 
Eed Cross Society and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem have 
provided 1,100 motor ambulances serving the British army in 
France and Belgium, 60 with the French army, and 25 with the 
Belgmns. The Committee have also established large repair 
shops at Boulog-ne, and between four and fi'^e hundred other 
vehicles, including lorries, repair wagons, touring cars and 
cycles. A personnel of over 1,500 persons is employed, of whom 
several have been mentioned in despatches, one having been 
awarded his D.C.M. A large number of women drivers 
employed at the Bases are members of the Red Cross Voluntary 
Aid Detachments and of the First Aid Kursing Yeomanrv. 

The following is a list of the Hospitals and Convalescent 
Homes at present established under the auspices of the Red 
Cross for sick and wounded soldiers in France: 

St. John Brigade Hospital, 520 beds, Etaples; jSTo. 1 Red 
Cross (Duchess of Westminster's), 150 beds, Le Touquet ; No. 
2 Red Cross, 250 beds, Rouen; No. 5 Red Cross (Lady Had- 
field's), 100 beds, Wimereux; No. 6 Red Cross (Liverpool Mer- 
chants' Mobile), 252 beds, Etaples; No. 8 Red Cross (Baltic 
and Corn Exchange), 250 beds, Paris-Plage; No. 9 Red Cross 
(Millicent Sutherland Ambulance), 100 beds, Calais; No. 10 
Red Cross (Lady Murray), 50 beds, Le Treport; Canadian 
Convalescent Home, 30 beds, Dieppe ; Hospital Queen Alexan- 
dra (Friends' Ambulance Unit), 120 beds, Malo les Bains; 
No. 2 Anglo-Belgian (British Farmers'), 166 beds, Calais; 
Astoria Hospital (Lady Mitchelham), 200 beds, Paris; Barge 
Secours (F.A.U.), 26 beds, Bergues. 



212 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1!) L6 

Tthe following comprise the Hospitals now maintained 
under the Red Gross in Egypt : 

]^o. 1 Red Cross 'Convalescent (Syrian), 35 Leds, Alexan- 
dria; No. 3 Red Oross Convalescent (Lady Douglas, 42nd 
Division), 50 beds, Alexandria; ISTo. 4 Red Cross Convalescent 
(Ross), 23 beds, Alexandria; ISFo. 6 Red Cross Convalescent 
(Lady Howard De Walden), 150 beds, Alexandria; No. 7 Red 
Cross Convalescent (Sultan's Montazah Palace), 1,000 beds, 
Alexandria; No. 10 Red Cross Convalescent (Lindemanu), 36 
beds, Ibrahimieh ; No. 11 Red Cross Convalescent (Old Re,.i- 
dency, Mustapha), 17 beds, Alexandria; No. 12 Red Cross 
Convalescent (Officer's), 40 beds, Cairo; Red Cross Hospital, 
Saidieh (Giza), 520 beds, Cairo; Red Cross Convalescent Hos- 
pital, Walda Palace, Helouan, 100 beds, Cairo. 

Two Hospitals, Nos. 8 and 9, were opened for nurses ; No. 8 
(Zizinia) is now closed, but No. 9 (Bulkley), containing 23 
beds, at Alexandria, is doing admirable work. 

Altogether four hospital trains have been placed at the dis- 
posal of the army through the Red Cross. Each train is designed 
to carry 450 men, but can carry 500 in times of pressure. They 
bring back the wounded swiftly and smoothly from behind the 
firing line to the coast. Removable beds are supported on 
brackets on either side of the carriages and are as comfortable 
as they can be made. Each train has an operating table, dis- 
pensary, kitchens, etc., and an expert staff. On occasion a 
train has been run into a siding and an urgent operation per- 
formed during the journey home. So far many thousands of 
men have travelled homewards in these trains from the battle- 
fields of France and Flanders, among them His Majesty him- 
self, after his severe accident while reviewing the troops. For 
instance, train known as No. 11 has carried in less than twelve 
months over twenty-six thousand patients and travelled as many 
miles. 

Once again we take this opportunity of congratulating in 
the heartiest possible manner this splendid Society, which has 
done so much since the opening of this terrible war — the 
greatest crime of all centuries. 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 213 

Hospital Items 

We take this opportunity of congratulating the Committee who 
had charge of the Queen Mary Hospital White Rose Day, which 
took place on -September 7th last, on the result of their work. 
The net amount credited to the Queen Mary Hospital for Con^- 
sumptive Children at Weston was $12,470.06. 

It is understood that the following compose the Board recently 
appointed to reorganize the matter of Canadian Hospitals now 
on Active Service: Col. H. A. Bruce, Toronto, Director; Capt. 
(Dr.) W. F. E. Wilson, St. Catharines, Second in Command; 
Col. Wallace Scott, Toronto, and Lieut.-Col. Walter McKeown. 
Toronto. 



Personals 



It was recently announced that Col. Murray MacLaren, of St. 
John, ]^.B., (has been asked to take charge of Cliveden Hospital. 

Mrs Isabella Holmes Iveech, of St. Louis, Mo., made a dona- 
tion of fifty thousand dollars to the Western Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital of Pittsburgh, Pa., in commemoration of her late husband,, 
William H. Keech, a former prominent Pittsburgh business--. 
man, who during his life was very much interested in charity. . 

Col. Geo. IsTasmith, C.M.G., Toronto, and Col. Adami, of 
Montreal, have resigned from the Canadian Medical Service- 
and returned to Canada. Both gentlemen have resumed their- 
work, Col. Nasmith in the Toronto Health Laboratories, and 
Col. Adami at McGill University. 

We extend hearty congratulations to our esteemed confrere, 
Capt. (Dr.) Harley Smith, of Toronto, now " doing his bit " at 
the Ontario Base Hospital, Orpington, on his recent promotion 
to the rank of major. 



214 THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

Book Reviews 



Clinical Studies for Nurses for Second and Third Year Pupil 
Nurses. By Chaelotte A. Aikens^ formerly Superinten- 
dent of Columbia Hospital, Pittsburgh. Third edition. 
W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London. 

In this book on Clinical Studies for Nurses Miss Aikens 
has in mind the securing of grading instruction for nurses — 
these studies being a sequel to her Primary Studies and designed 
to meet the needs of second and third-year pupil-nurses. This 
edition has been thoroughly revised. Additions have been 
made to various chapters and new illustrations introduced. 

The author desires to emphasize the fact that this book is a 
compilation. But what has hitherto been scattered in various 
books and taught in lectures is here given in a systematic and 
concise form. Standard medical works and practising phy- 
sicians who are teachers of medical students have been freely 
consulted. The comprehensiveness of the subjects treated, the 
practicability of suggestions offered, make the book a valuable 
adjunct to a nurse's or teacher's library. 



T^e Expectant Mother. By iSamuel Wyllis Bandler, M.D., 
Professor of Gynecology in the New York Post-Graduate 
Medical Sohool and Hospital. Illustrated. Philadelphia 
and London: W. B. Saunders Company. 1916. 

This book is full of useful information especially for the 
trained nurse. The author has endeavored to use simple lan- 
guage, but of necessity has employed many terms foreign to 
any but a medical vocabulary, and consequently the expectant 
mother would in many instances have difficulty in understand- 
ing them. But were she able to fully appreciate the many 
dangers of pregnancy and parturition, so well depicted by the 
author, she would be a brave woman who faced them, especially 



Dec, 1916 THE HOSPITAL WORLD 215 

for the first time, with the cheerful and hopeful inind so essen- 
tial for her coming trial. The postpartum stage and care of the 
mother until the uterus has fully recovered and the directions 
for nursing and care of the child are good, and sihould be known 
to all expectant mothers. Twilight sleep has been well ex- 
l^lained and reasons given for not using it. This is a vcrv 
interesting little book. w. .1. w. 



Ca7'e and Feeding of Infants and Children. A text-book for 
Trained Nurses. By Waltek Recur Ra:msay, M.D., Asso- 
ciate Professor Diseases of Children, University of ]\linne- 
sota, etc. 

This little work shows a vast amount of work and consider- 
able experience. It is not perfect, going too deeply into some 
subjects, and very sketchy in others. Some of the plates are 
excellent. The book is well printed, as arc all J. B. Lippincott's, 
and may be found helpful in cases of emergency to the trained 
nurse. 



The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. By x\xtox 
Julius Carlson. Pp. 319. Illustrated wilih 3S plates. 
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. SejHember. 
1916. Price, $2.00 net,' postage extra. 

Those who were privileged to hear the address of the Pro- 
fessor of Physiology of the University of Chicago at the 
Academy of Medicine, Toronto, in October, upon hunger, appe- 
tite and gastric secretion, heard enough to create a desire to 
know more about the work he has done on the stomach. 

The book contains a summary of the work carried out along 
these special lines in the Hull Physiological Laboratory of the 
university during the past four years. In the various chapters 
most of the biological and clinical literature of the subject is 
presented iii condensed form, giving an excellent sununary of 
our present knowledge. 

There are some seventeen chapters with subnlieadings in 
each. His method of study and deduction leads him to ]>rese]it 



216 THE HOSPITAL AVORLI) Dec, 191G 

his conclusions at tlie end of each, a most admirable plan. One 
chapter is devoted to the action of bitter tonics (a) on the hunger 
mechanism, (&) on the secretion of gastric juice, (c) on food 
consumption, (d) on appetite in clinical cachexia. His results 
are interesting and should elicit further contributions on the 
subject from clinicians. j. ir. e. 



The American Hospital Development. By Edward F. Stevens. 
Published by The Architectural Record Co., IN'ew York, 119 
West Fortieth Street. 

This beautiful brochure on calendered paper with lovely 
pictures of hospitals — American and European — is a reprint of 
two articles of Mr. Stevens which appeared a year ago in TJie 
Architectural Record. 

The text describes the influence of European hospitals on 
American ; and emphasizes the need of the special preparation 
of our American architects who attempt hospital designing in 
this sort of work — something insisted upon in German hospitals 
in particular. 

The author shows some plans of the more recently con- 
structed European hospitals and also plans of the newer Amer- 
ican, particular emphasis being placed upon a number he 
himself designed. 

The essayist, after a considerable apprenticeship with the 
veteran, Taylor, of Boston, boldly entered the special field of 
hospital architecture, and to specially equip himself for his 
chosen field has several times visited Europe and made careful 
and conscientious studies of the hospitals there. 

Interesting studies of ward units are made, and some beau- 
tiful interiors are shown. 



Dec, 1916 



THK IlOSPITAi. WOHLD 



xvii 




DESCRIPTION OF DOLL.— Over 5 feet tall, made of finely woven 
stockinet. Is durable, waterproof and sanitary. Has copper Reservoir 
which has three tubes leading into it, correspcn-Jine in location and 
"^ize to the urethra, yaginal and recta! passages. 



The Chase Hospital Doll 

For Use in Training Schools 

Adult size, also infant models, 2, 4 
and 12 months, and 4-year-old sizes. 

Chase dolls are well made of cloth, 
jointed, and painted with waterproof 
paint, with internal reservoirs. 

The Value 

of this substitute of a living model is 
found in the many practical lessons 
which can be taught in the class room, 
such as handling of patients, admin- 
istering enema, douching, probing in 
the ear and nose cavities — in short, 
the complete care of the patient. 



We make dolls with- 
out reservoir if desired. 
Send for illustrated 
booklet giving full 
particulars. 



M. J. CHASE 

22 Park Place, Pawtucket, R.I. 




Q ■(>'^^(>-«^<)4H»<>'«a»()-^^<)-^i»0-^H»(>-^^(f^^(l«H»(>4 




To make a good cup of cocoa 

Begin Right 
Choose "BAKER'S 



yy \ 



Prepare it carefully, following the direc- 
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thoroughly enjoy this delicious and w liole- 
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by its purity and liigh tjuality. 

Made only by 

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When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



i 



xviii THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 

NEW HOSPITAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 



Artificial Limbs for Soldiers 

The Military Hospitals Commission has appointed a Commit- 
tee on Orthopedics to consider the matter of artificial limhs for 
members of the Canadian Expeditionary Forces who need such 
appliances. The Committee is composed of the following: Dr. 
Clarence Starr, Toronto, President ; Dr. W. E. Gallic, Toronto, 
and Lieut.-Col. McKenzie Forbes, M.D., Montreal. Dr. F. J. 
Shej^herd, Montreal, one of tlie Medical members of the Com- 
mission, and Lieut.-Col. Thompson, M.D., the Medical Superin- 
tendent of the Commission, will be ex-o'fficio members. As our 
readers are doubtless aware, the Commission some little time 
ago opened its own factory close to the Central Convalescent 
Hospital in Toronto. 



For Use in Institutions 

It must be most gratifying to the manufacturers of the Radia- 
tor Humidifying Pans that they have recently secured orders 
for the instalment of these Pans in such buildings as the Cana- 
dian Bank of Commerce, Imperial Bank of Canada, Dominion 
Bank of Canada, Bank of Montreal, Standard Bank of Can- 
ada, Bank of Toronto and many of its branches, the office of 
Dr. C. J. C. O. Hastings, Medical Officer of Health for the 
city of Toronto, Dr. John L. Davison, Dr. E. A. E, Howard, 
Sir Lyman Melvin- Jones, Imperial Life Insurance Co., Excel- 
sior Life Insurance Co., University of Toronto and other 
buildings in Toronto and elsewhere. 

There is no doubt that the use of Humidifying Pans properly 
moistens the air for breathing and can be the means of prevent- 
ing a number of the common winter ailments, such as sore throat, 
headache, general malaise, etc. These Pans are installed on 
the radiator at the back, between the radiator and the wall, and 
are, therefore, out of sight. They vastly improve the atmosphere 
in any room, whether it be a private bedroom, a hospital ward 
or living room. They result in the air becoming infinitely more 
comfortable and also prevent the warping and cracking of 
woodwork, fine furniture, etc. 



Dec, 19 IG 



THE HOSPITAL WOIHJ) 



XIX 



f 



Pneumonia, Pleurisy, 
Bronchitis, Quinsy, 
Laryngitis, Etc. 

increase with the coming of WinteP 
and suggest, to the Physician of wide 
experience and success, the important 
role played in these diseases, of 




iMHiniinHn"""* 

Tr.n, iiv TKL iJi;:vi::: ' ' 

KR THE Fccl) A ■ 
■J98. H.KIAI. No- -' 
L_r. tEP THE LID_P''." 




^•^^ DENVER CHrMlCALMra^l 

A fir" 3A|.e OvVuV ""i" ^'- 



PBICE. 50 CENTS 

niiiinnniiiiiiMiMiH 



Directions: — Always heat 
i n the orieinal container by 
placing in hot water. 
Needless exposure to the 
air, impairs its osmotic 
properties — on which its 
therapeutic action largely 
depends. 




" Antiphlogistine does not inter- 
fere with, or antagonize in any 
way, the internal medication in 
vogue by the several schools ol 
medical practice. Its applica- 
tion is external and its Chemical 
composition being known to the 



practitioner, * he is proceeding 
along scientific lines when he 
uses this sale, non-irntating, 
hygroscopic, depleting, blood- 
saving expedient, in the treat- 
ment ol pneumonia and allied 
diseases." 



SEND FOR COPY OF "PNEUMONIA" BOOKLET 



By ordering Arjtiphlogistine in full and original packages : Small, ^tedium. 
Large, or Hospital Size, "a perfect poultice" is assured. 



Ph\}sicians should IVRITE "Antiphlogistine" to AVOID "substitutes. " 



"There's Only One Antiphlogistine. " 



THE DENVER CHEMICAL MFG. COMP.^NY. MONTREAL 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



XX THE HOSPITAL WORLD Dec, 1916 



The attention .of Hospitals and Sanatoria throngliont Can- 
ada is called to these Radiator Pans, particnlarly at this season 
of the year, and- it is suggested that Medical Superintendents of 
such institutions communicate with the manufacturers, Wilson 
Specialties, 33-Melinda Street, Toronto, who will gladly supply 
all necessary information. 



Correction of Defective Eyesight 

The possibility of conserving human energy by correcting eye 
defects is very great because of the sensitiveness and vast areas 
of sight centres in the brain. A large amount of motive force 
is ntilized in the function of vision, even when performed under 
the easiest possible circumstances, but where there are defects 
in the eye there is a still greater tax on nerve force to achieve 
good vision. Fortunately in the present day there has been per- 
fected such a wide combination of lenses for the correction of 
defective eyesight that no one need suffer from this cause. On 
page XV of this number Toronto Opticians, Limited, call 
attention to their facilities for filling accurately oculists' pre- 
scriptions and grinding every kind of lens. 



Sal Hepatica 

Tins preparation is an agreeable effervescent saline laxative 
and uric acid solvent, and has rapidly gained the favor of phy- 
sicians generally. It is a combination of lithia and sodium 
])hosphate with the laxative salts similar to those found in the 
most famous European bitter or purgative waters. The action 
of 'the salts held in solution in the " bitter waters " is too well 
known to demand specific elucidation, but their remedial value 
is considerably enhanced by the addition .of lithia and sodium 
phosphate. Sal Hepatica can be employed as a laxative and 
eliminant of irritating toxins with safety and satisfaction in 
inflammatory conditions of the bowels, and is worthy of a pro- 
minent place in the diarrheas of infancy and childhood, and in 
"summer complaints," which arise from fermentative and 
putrefactive causes. 



Dec, 1916 



THE HOSPITAL WOIIIJ) 



XXI 



The Largest Hospitals 



have proved 



Made 

in 
Canada 



PU^LL NET WEIGHT 

«.i FLOOR 

^f WAX . 

^SgKE*BOULT0N.-g^ 



Full 

Net 

Weight 



Saves money and labor, giving best 
satisfaction. 

Especially adapted for cork 
linoleum, composition and hard- 
wood floors. 

Write for prices and one pound 
tin free for trial. 

Manufactured by 

COOKE & BOULTON, ^^Io'^rI^j^nto ^ 



The Thorough Harmony 

of all paits of the product demonstrates 
that science and accumulated knowledge 
were factors in delermininK the compo- 
sition of 




A preparation specifically designedfor 
the prevention of. and as a co-operative 
home treatment for pyorrhea must com- 
bine the properties of both a cleansing 
and a healing medium. PYORRHOCIDE 
cleans and polishes the teeth. Its 
Denlinol medication contributes to the 
science of the product and to its efficiency 
as a healinK agent in soft, bleeding, 

•-[ spongy, receding gum conditions — 

jTl usually a forerunner of 

§ PYORRHEA 

FRE't UPON REQUEST — Our latest 
booklet on Pyorrhea and Oral Hygiene. 

The 
Dentinol & Pyorrhocide Co. 

Incorporated 
110-112 West 40th Street NEW YORK 



nrgjSJ^rajrEJBJBJHJ'SJ^JB-rBJIBJBJJ 



QUALITY FIRST 



In Infant Feeding, when it becomes 
necessary to resort to artificial feeding, 
the first questions that a physician 
asks himself, as regards the food to 
be used, are : 

What is it made of ? How is it made ? 
and Who makes it ? 



^c 



ct<£ 



^^O-r-^^o^u 



liRAM) 



Condensed 

MILK 







'=•"•6.1 will b,«r '"' * ///»' 
-lONTBEAL.CANAP* 



THE ORIGINAL 

for sixty years has been specified almost invariably 
by physicians when prescribing Condensed Milk, 
fhe name " BORDE.N'S " guarantees carefully 
selected raw material that is manufactured by the 

most improved and sanitary methods, insurinq a finished pro- 
dtct that is consistently uniform in composition and quality. 
Samples, Feeding Charts in any language, and our 52-pagc 
hook- ^'Bahyi's H'cllarc, " moiled upon request. 

BORDEN MILK COMPANY, Ltd. - iviontreal 

■ LEADERS OK QUALITY" I'st. Iv-; 

Branch Office: 2 Arcade Bldj., Vancouver, B.C. 



When writing; ;ul\ertisrrs, i)loaso iiiciuioii Tlio no.-ipital Worlil. 



xxii THE HOSPITAL WOELD Dec, 1916 

Chronic Intestinal Indigestion 

This chronic disorder frequently follows tlie acute form of indi- 
gestion, especially in children who are below par in general 
health and vitality. As in the acute variety, the condition is 
not one of positive bacterial invasion, but rather a negative 
state, in which there is a general inadequacy on the part of the 
normal intestinal flora to fulfil its function. 

The child lapses into a state of chronic malnutrition ; diar- 
rhea alternates with constipation, the stools being white or gray- 
ish in color, lumpy in consistency, acid in reaction, rancid in 
odor, and containing curds and particles of undigested food. 

The patient should, if possible, be removed to the country, 
preferably to the seaside or the mountains, and given the advan- 
tages of a rigorous hygiene. The diet needs the most careful 
individual selection and adjustment in each case; but the gen- 
eral principle is that it should consist of concentrated, pre-di- 
gested food, such as beef peptonoids, egg albumen, whey, malted 
foods, etc. The bowel should be frequently irrigated, clear up 
to the colon, with tepid water, to which listerine has been added 
in the proportion of two ounces to the pint, but no astringents. 
Injections of olive oil and cacao butter are also useful to assist 
nutrition. 



Hospital Supplies 

Hospital, and sick-room supplies of all kinds, it should be borne 
in mind, can be secured on a moment's notice from The J. F. 
Hartz Co., Ltd., Toronto. This firm specializes in everything 
needed by the sick — urinals, bed pans, rubber sheeting, clinical 
thermometers, bed rests, invalid furniture of every kind, oper- 
ating tables, nurses' bags, instrument cabinets, ether for 
anesthesia (specially purified by a new process invented by 
Prof. G. Michaclis), standard medical books, blood pressure 
instruments, nurses' pocket instrument cases, surgeons' and 
nurses' gowns, in fact everything that may be required by the 
surgeon, physician or nurse, and the prices are right. Xuf sed. 



Dec, 193 6 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



XXI 11 • 




Highest 
Grade 
Only 




GERHARD HEINTZMAN 

GRAND ) 

SELF-PLAYER PIANOS 
UPRIGHT J 

Edison Diamond Disc 
Phonographs 



Columbia Grafonolas 



There is nothing like music for the home — which all can 
enjoy. What better than music for the convalescent? 

Write for our complete catalogue of Pianos and Phono- 
graphs. Easy terms of payment on any instrument. 

Gerhard Heintzman Limited 



(Opp. City Hall) 



41 West Queen St.. Toronto 



"When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital WorM. 



XXIV 



THE HOSPITAL WORLD 



Dec, 1916 



92% OF THE HOSPITALS 

WHO FAVOR US WITH THEIR PATRONAGE, BUY 

"ABSORBON" 

The Low-Priced Absorbent Cotton of Quality 

in preference to other brands, because it is better value at the price 
than any other brand on this market. 

Guaranteed pure, sterile — passes through the same 50 different 
operations as our higher grades — sells ior 
less because made from short staple cotton 
which costs less than long fibre cotton 
though quality is identical. 

Investigate — A postcard brings samples and 
prices to your desk. 

Maplewood Mills 




Largest Manufacturers in the World 
FALL RIVER, MASS. 



The Thomson Monument Co., Limited 



862 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO 



PHONE HILL. 3039 




Individual 

Designs 

Cheerfully 

Submitted 



When writing advertisers, please mention The Hospital World. 



Hospital 

Superintendents 

Know 

that nothing is so detrimental to the 
health of patients as the lack of the 
normal percentage of moisture in the 
air they breathe. How often it has been 
demonstrated beyond question that the 
moment the air of the sleeping room 
becomes too dry, just so soon will the 
inmate of that room sufTer from sore 
throat, headache, sleeplessness and gen- 
eral malaise, a condition that is at once 
changed on returning to normal con- 
ditions. The attention of Hospitals, therefore, is 
particularly called to 

The Radiator Humidifying Pan 




(ORMSBY PATENT) 




This is a strongly made metal device so 
shaped that it snugly fits any standard 
steam or hot water radiator, out of sight, 
between the radiator and the wall. This 
pan is filled with water, which evaporates 
very rapidly , converting the air of the 
room or corridor into moist, \\holesome, 
iiealthful atmosphere that Nature's good 
health demands. This is the very thing 
needed in all Institutions, not only Hos- 
}Mtals, but Asylums, Sanatoria, and 
Public Charitable Institutions as well. 
One Radiator Humidifying Pan to each 
steam or hot water Radiator gives ample 
humidity to any room. 
The first cost is the only cost, and they 
will last a lifetime. 

$1.50 each. 

Superintenilents shoulil at once look into 
the merits of this device. Full particulars 
can be obtained from 

Wilson Specialties 

33 Melinda Street, Toronto 

Manchester BuiUltnK 
Phone Adelaide 3089 

Many Insurance Companies. Itanks. 

anil other ln>titutious hiivo installed 

these Radiator MumidifyinK Tans. 



Why Hide Your Light 
Under a Bushel ? 



In your X-Ray work, get the best 

your machine is capable of. Unless you 
do, you are not getting credit for all the 
skill you have. 

The little outfit, properly; handled, 
will do as fine work as 
the large one, and tpeed in 
exposure can be gained by 
using Paragon X-Ray Plates — 
because they are so remark- 
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Paragon X-Ray plates produce 

maximum efficiency, from any apparatus 
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Our interest does not end with 

getting your order — that 
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your successmeans oursuccess. 



Good X-Ray work always pays — 

and pays well — in money and in reputa- 
tion. 



Try Paragon Milli - ampere - 
second Technique. It puts mathematical 
accuracy into X-Ray work — in exposure and 
development. If you haven't it, send for 
"Paragon Pointers" — our free book on Radio- 
graphy — and refresh your memory. 



There are no better plates than the Paragon 
Geo. W. Brady & Co., 773 S. western Ave., Chicago 



/ 



PHILLIPS* MILK OF MAGNESIA 

" The Perfect Antacid'' 

For Correctin|2 Hyperacid Conditions — Local or Systemic. Vehicle for Salicylate!, 

Iodides, Balsams, Etc. 
Of Advantage in Neutralizing tke Acid of Cows' Milk for Infant and Invalid Feeding. 



Phillips' Phospho-Muriate 
of Quinine compound 

N on- Alcoholic Tonic and Reconstructive 

^Vitlt Marked Beneficial Action upon the Nervous System. To be relied upon where 

a deficiency of the Phosphates is evident. 

THE CHAS. H. PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO, 

LONDON • NEW YORK 

Canadian Representatives : The Wingate Chemical Co., Ltd., 545 Notre Dame W., 
Montreal, •w\io will be pleased to send samples upon request. 



Med 

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Gi2RSTS 



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Hospital uorld 



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